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Massachusetts s A Guide to Its Places and People is one of the 
volumes in the American Guide Series, written by members of the 
Federal Writers' Project of the Works Progress Administration. 
Designed primarily to give useful employment to needy unemployed 
writers and research workers, this project has gradually 
developed the ambitious objective of presenting to the American 
people a portrait of America, its history, folklore, scenery, 
cultural backgrounds, social and economic trends, and racial 
factors. In one respect, at any rate, this undertaking is unique; 
it represents a far-flung effort at cooperative research and 
writing, drawing upon all the varied abilities of its personnel. 
All the workers contribute according to their talents; the field 
worker collects data in the field, the research worker burrows 
in libraries, the art and literary critics cover material relevant 
to their own specialties, architects describe notable historical 
buildings and monuments; and the final editing of copy as it flows 
in from all corners of a state is done by the more experienced 
authors in the central offices. The ultimate product, whatever 
its faults or merits, represents a blend of the work of the entire 
personnel, aided by consultants, members of university faculties, 
specialists, officers of learned societies, oldest residents, who 
have volunteered their services everywhere most generously. 

A great many books and brochures are being written for this series. 
As they appear in increasing numbers we hope the American public 
will come to appreciate more fully not only the unusual scope of 
thi* undertaking, but also the devotion shown by the workers, from 
the humblest field worker to the most accomplished editors engaged 
in the final rewrite. The Federal Writers' Project, directed by 
Henry G. Alsberg, is in the Division of Women's and Professional 
Projects under Ellen S. Woodward, Assistant Administrator. 

Harry L. Hopkins 


Massachusetts; A Guide to Its Places and People 
is the first major accomplishment of the Federal 
Writers 1 Project for Massachusetts. More than 
the conventional guide book, this volume attempts 
to present the history and heritage of Massachu- 
setts as well as Its numerous points of Interest 
and the contemporary scene. Though designed to 
portray Massachusetts to visitors. It Is also In- 
tended, as It were, to present Massachusetts to 

As Governor of the Commonwealth I am happy that 
this valuable work Is being made available to the 
citizens of Massachusetts and the nation. 

Secretary of the Commonwealth 


WHEN the Federal Writers' Project was set up in Massachusetts, and 
the staff received its first instructions from the central office in Washing- 
ton, the editors blithely embarked on a task of whose magnitude they 
had little conception: the job of adequately describing the 316 towns and 
39 cities of the Commonwealth, and of presenting, as concisely, accurately, 
and simply as possible, the facts about the State, from its Architecture 
to its Zoology, from the year ?oo,ooo,ooo B.C., when its geological history 
began, to A.D., 1937 when its social history has by no means ended. 

All over the Commonwealth, field workers began to interview local 
historians, consult town records, talk with oldest inhabitants, tramp miles 
of country roads. In district offices, research workers checked and re- 
checked data against all available sources. Officials of State and local 
governmental agencies were pressed into service ; volunteer consultants 
geologists, architects, historians, anthropologists, travel experts, critics 
read, criticized, and corrected copy. Photographers clicked cameras, 
cartographers wrought maps, tour checkers clocked mileage. 

In the State office, bulky parcels began to arrive. The mailman stag- 
gered upstairs with piled envelopes of field copy, heavier each day. 
Readers struggled desperately to keep up with incoming copy; typists 
and copyreaders trod water in pools of manuscript. Batteries of steel 
files became crammed; a hundred wooden file boxes hungered and were 
fed. Meanwhile, a small administrative staff labored at the vital job of 
keeping accounts straight and records accurate, and of seeing that each 
worker received many of them for the first time in months his or 
her weekly pay check. 

Out of several millions of words there slowly grew a book nay, a 
BOOK, some 650,000 words long. The editors, abandoning a momentarily 
considered idea of publishing a volume of 2000 pages mounted on wheels 
with a trailer attachment, sharpened a gross of blue pencils and attacked 
the typescript to condense it to a portable size. Chapters became pages, 
pages became paragraphs, paragraphs became sentences. Tempers wore 
thin as cherished passages were cruelly blue-penciled, and editorial con- 
ferences developed into pitched battles. But out of it all, writers of 

One Moment, Please! 

varied ability and training and of widely differing temperament, thrown 
together on the common basis of need, shared a new experience an 
adventure in co-operation. 

Although comprehensive, this book is not an encyclopedia. Its purpose 
is not to catalogue all the facts, but to present and preserve significant 
facts. Designed to serve the needs of the tourist, this guide will be, it is 
hoped, more than a manual for the casual traveler. Tours there are in 
plenty, and thousands of points of interest are located and described. 
But the adventurous-minded will discover herein other excursions, less 
precisely marked, along highways of letters, history, art, and archi- 

In the midst of editing this book, the Federal Writers' Project of 
Massachusetts compiled and edited other guides, brochures, bibliogra- 
phies, etc., some of which have already been published, others of which 
are still in preparation. 

The editors are deeply obligated to many governmental agencies, Fed- 
eral, State, and local, to commercial associations and travel agencies, to 
historical societies, and to hundreds of individuals, for information and 
assistance. They must content themselves, however, with brief and totally 
inadequate acknowledgment to the State Planning Board, the State 
Departments of Conservation and of Labor and Industries, to many local 
planning boards, the New England Council, the New England Hotel 
Association, the Boston and Albany, Boston and Maine-Central Ver- 
mont, and New York, New Haven, and Hartford Railroads, the Boston 
Elevated Company, other transportation companies. Professor B. A. 
Hooten, of the Department of Anthropology of Harvard University, 
criticized the article ' First Americans'; Professor A. M. Schlesinger, of 
the Department of History, Harvard, read 'Enough of Its History 
to Explain Its People ' ; Professor Lawrence LaForge, of the Department 
of Geology, Harvard, assisted in the preparation of 'Natural Setting,' 
of which Professor David Potter, of the Department of Biology, Clark 
University, reviewed the sections of flora and fauna. Professor Walter 
Piston, of the Department of Music, Harvard, made suggestions for the 
first section of the essay ' Music and the Theater'; and Mr. Leverett 
Saltonstall contributed the major portion of the article 'Government.' 
Miss Dorothy Adlow contributed the essay 'Art.' In addition, all the 
above, as well as many others not named, were frequently consulted for 
information and advice on matter lying within their several fields. The 
American Antiquarian Society, the Massachusetts Historical Society, the 

One Moment, Please! xi 

State Library, the Bostonian Society, the Boston Athenaeum, and numer- 
ous local historical societies and libraries generously made their collec- 
tions available to research workers. Selectmen, town clerks, librarians, 
and others freely lent their aid. 

The four-line stanza by Emily Dickinson in the article 'Literature' 
is quoted by special permission from 'Poems of Emily Dickinson,' 1937, 
edited by Martha Dickinson Bianchi and Alfred Leote Hampson: Little, 
Brown and Company, Boston. 

This volume was prepared under the editorial direction of Joseph 
Gaer, Editor-in-Chief of the New England Guides and Chief Field 
Supervisor of the Federal Writers' Project. 



> Assistant state Directors 


FOREWORD Photostat 

By Harry L. Hopkins, Federal Administrator, Works Pro- 
gress Administration 

FOREWORD Photostat 

By Charles F. Hurley, Governor of Massachusetts, and 
Frederic W. Cook, Secretary of the Commonwealth 



Railroads Accommodations 

Highways Climate and Equipment 

Bus Lines Information Bureaus 

Airlines Recreation 

Waterways Transportation 

Traffic Regulations 












ART 117 

xiv Contents 


(City and Town Descriptions and City Tours) 

Amherst: An Adventure in Quietude 127 

Arlington : History and Homes 130 

Boston: The Hub of the Universe 135 

Brockton: City of Shoes 176 

Brookline: Opulent Comfort 179 

Cambridge: University City 183 

Chelsea: City of Transformations 205 

Chicopee: The Future-Minded 208 

Concord: Golden-Age Haven 210 

Dedham: The Sober-Minded 217 

Deerfield: A Beautiful Ghost 223 

Everett: Industrial Half-Sister 227 

Fall River: City of Falling Water 229 

Fitchburg: The Farmer Goes to Town 232 
Gloucester-Rockport (Cape Ann) : Mother Ann's Children 235 

Haverhill: From Hardscrabble to Hats and Shoes 244 

Holyoke: The Power of Water 248 

Lawrence : Warp and Woof 250 

Lexington: A Town of Heroic Past 255 

Lowell: Company Founders and City Fathers 260 

Lynn: Machine City 266 

Maiden: Neighbor of Boston 270 

Marblehead: Where Tradition Lingers 273 

Medford: Rum, Ships, and Homes 279 

New Bedford: Thar She Blows! 284 

Newburyport: City of Captains' Houses 291 

Newton: Commuter's Haven 295 

Northampton: From Jonathan Edwards to Sophia Smith 301 

Northfield : A Prophet with Honor 306 

Norton: Typical New England 308 

Contents xv 

Pittsfield: Power-Source and Playground 310 

Plymouth: The Colony's First 'Main Street' 319 

Provincetown : Way Up Along 326 

Quincy: Iron Ships and Great Men 335 

Revere : A Beach Beside a City 341 

Salem: New England's Treasure-House 343 

Somerville: Traditions of Trade 353 

South Hadley: Milk, Butter, and Ideas 356 

Springfield: The Metropolis of Western Massachusetts 359 

Taunton: Largest City for Its Size 367 

Waltham: City of Five-Score Industries 370 

Watertown: Cradle of the Town Meeting 374 

Wellesley: Town of Schools and a College 379 

Weymouth: Aggregate of Villages 382 

Williamstown : Buckwheat, Barley, and Gentlemen 386 

Woburn: Home of a Yankee Count 389 

Worcester: Heart of the Commonwealth 392 


(Mile-by-Mile Description of the State's Highways) 

TOUR i From New Hampshire (Portsmouth) to Rhode 

Island (Providence). US 1 407 

1 A From Newburyport to Everett. State 1A 415 
iB From Dedham to North Attleborough. State 1A 426 
iC From Beverly to Uxbridge. State 62 and 126 430 
iD From Boston to Milford. State 109 439 

2 From Boston to New York (Troy). State 2 (Mo- 
hawk Trail) 442 

2A From New Hampshire (Peterboro) to Littleton. 

State 119 460 

2B From Orange to New Hampshire (Keene) . State 78 463 

3 From Boston to New Hampshire (Concord) . US 3 464 

4 From Boston to New York (Albany). US 20 468 

xvi Contents 

TOUR 4 A From Woronoco to Great Barrington. State 17 483 

46 From Huntington to Hinsdale. Sky Line Trail 487 

5 From Boston to New Hampshire (Salem). State 28 488 

6 From Orleans to Rhode Island (Providence) . US 6 494 

6 A From Orleans to Province town. US 6 502 

7 From New Hampshire (Seabrook) to Worcester. 
State 110 and State 70 507 

7 A From Newburyport to Haverhill. State 125 516 

8 From Boston to Pittsfield. State 9 518 
8A From Williamsburg to Hinsdale. State 143 532 

9 From Vermont (Stamford) to Connecticut (Salis- 
bury). (Appalachian Foot Trail) 534 

10 From Plymouth to Rhode Island (E. Provi- 
dence). US 44 535 

11 From New Hampshire (Fitzwilliam) to Connec- 
ticut (Thompson). State 12 540 

nA From Westminster to Worcester. State64,31,122A 545 

1 2 From Provincetown to Williamstown (Capes to the 
Berkshires Bridle Trail) 546 

13 From New Hampshire (Rindge) to Connecticut 
(Granby). US 202 547 

14 From New Bedford-Martha's Vineyard-Nan - 
tucket 554 

15 From Vermont (Guilford) to Connecticut (Thomp- 
son ville). US 5 563 

i5A From New Hampshire (Hinsdale) to Bernardston. 

State 10 567 

156 From Adams to Springfield. State 116 568 

i5C From Northampton to Westfield. State 10 571 

i5D From West Springfield to Connecticut (Suffield). 

State 5A 573 

17 From Vermont (Pownal) to Connecticut (North 
I Canaan). US 7 574 

iyA From Pittsfield to Connecticut (Salibury). State 

41 580 

Contents xvii 

176 From Lanesborough to Summit of Mt. Greylock 

(Rockwell Rd.) 584 

19 From Boston to Bourne. State 28 586 

igA From Orleans to Bourne. State 28 591 

21 From Vermont (Stamford) to Connecticut (Win- 

sted). State 8 595 

23 FromAthol to Rhode Island (Providence). State 

32 and 122 600 

23 A From Barre to Connecticut (Willimantic) . State 

32 606 

236 From Grafton to New Bedford. State 140 609 

25 From Boston to Rhode Island (Tiverton). State 

138 614 

27 From Boston to Bourne. State 3 618 

2yA From Quincy to Kingston. State 3A 621 

276 From Weymouth to East Bridgewater. State 18 626 



INDEX 639 


The'Arbella,' Salem* 
John Alden House, Duxbury 
Paul Revere House, Boston 
Commodore's Quarters, U.S. Frigate 

Historic American Buildings Survey 
Minuteman Statue, Concord* 


Fore River Shipyard, Quincy* 
Shipyard, Essex 

New England Council 
Hoisting Sail 

Commonwealth of Massachusetts 
Chains, Woods Hole Buoy Yard* 
Old Mill, Sudbury* 
' Charles W. Morgan,' New Bedford* 
Seeding Clams 

Commonwealth of Massachusetts 


Whipple House, Ipswich 
Kitchen of John Ward House, 

Essex Institute 

Hartshorne House, Wakefield* 
Hill of Churches, Truro* 
Chestnut Street, Salem* 
Assembly House, Salem* 
Fierce-Nichols House, Salem 

Essex Institute 
Lee Mansion* 

between 26 and 27 

Old South Meeting House, Boston* 
Leyden Street, Plymouth (first street 

in Massachusetts*) 
Old State House, Boston 
John Quincy Adams House, Quincy 

between 56 and 57 
Cranberry Bog 

Courtesy of George Gardner Barker 
Sandwich Glass* 
Nets Drying, Gloucester 

Courtesy of F. J. Robinson 
Herring Run, Wareham* 

Associated Industries of Massachusetts 

between 86 and 87 
Old State House (interior)* 
House of the Seven Gables, Salem* 
State House, Boston* 
Holden Chapel, Harvard 

Harvard Film Service 
1 Connecticut Valley ' Doorway, Mis- 
sion House, Stockbridge 

Courtesy of Fletcher Steele 
Public Library, Boston 
Trinity Church, Boston 


between 148 and 149 

North Bridge, Concord, 1775! 
Boston Common in 1768, showing 

the Hancock House and the Old 

The Old State House and the 

'Bloody Massacre'f 
The Old State House in 1801 
The Old State House Fire, 1832! 

The Old State House in 1876 with 

Mansard Roof 

Boston in 1743 from the Harborf 
The City in 1848 from East Bostonf 
Bird's-Eye View of Boston at about 

Faneuil Hall and the Old Shorelinef 
New State House and Bulfinch Bea- 




Elm wood (James Russell Lowell 
House), Cambridge 

Craigie-Longfellow House, Cam- 

Custom House, Salem* 

Emerson Room, Antiquarian House, 
Concord Antiquarian Society 

Wayside Inn, Sudbury* 


The Splash of a Drop of Milk 

Associated Press 

The Massachusetts Institute of 

New England Council 
Harvard College from the Air 

Institute of Geographical Exploration 
Bulfinch Hall, Andover Academy 
Smith College Quadrangles, North- 

Cur tiss-W right Flying Service 

between 210 and 211 
Fruitlands, Harvard 
Orchard House, Concord 
House of the Seven Gables, Salem* 
Arrowhead (Bush-Melville House), 

Historic American Buildings Survey 
Thoreau's House, Concord 
Emily Dickinson House, Amherst 


between 304 and 305 
Japanese Garden, Museum of Fine 

Boston Museum of Fine Arts 
The Court of the Isabella Stewart 
Gardner Museum, Boston 

Powers Studios 

The Court, Fogg Art Museum, Cam- 

The Esplanade Symphony Orchestra 
under Fiedler 

Boston Chamber of Commerce 
The Little Red Schoolhouse, Sudbury* 


between 462 and 463 

Benjamin Abbot House, Andover 

Historic American Buildings Survey 
Parson Capen House, Topsfield 
Old Ship Church, Hingham* 
Cape Cod Cottage: John Ken- 
rick House, Orleans* 

Wooden Quoins, Winslow House, 


Munroe Tavern, Lexington* 
Fairbanks House, Dedham 
Old Church in Concord* 
Sparrow House, Plymouth* 
Governor Gore House, Waltham 


Street in Marblehead 
Boston from the Air 
Harvard Buildings on the Charles, 

Boston Chamber of Commerce 
Windmill, Cape Cod* 
Marblehead Harbor 

Commonwealth of Massachusetts 

CHANNEL between 524 and 525 


Highland Light, North Truro* 
Connecticut Valley, near Northampton 

Commonwealth of Massachusetts 
Lexington Green* 

Memorial Tower, top of Mount Grey- 
Courtesy of Arthur Palme 

Illustrations marked * are by W. Lincoln High ton of the Works Progress 
Administration; those marked f by courtesy of Goodspeed's BDok Shop, 
Boston; all uncredited photographs are by the staff photographer of the 
Federal Writers' Project of Massachusetts. 


Reverse side: Large Map of Boston Winter Recreations Map 

Summer Recreations Map 


Railroads: Boston & Maine (B. & M.), Boston & Albany (B. & A.), New 
York, New Haven & Hartford (N.Y., N.H. & H.), Central Vermont 

Highways: 101 State highways. 6 Federal highways, as follows: i, Fort 
Kent, Maine, to Miami, Fla.; 3, Canada via Colebrook, N.H.; 5, Quebec 
via Newport, Vt.; 6, Greely, Colo.; 7, Quebec via St. Albans, Vt.; 20, 
Yellowstone Park. (For routes throughout State see folding map.) 

Highway patrol to safeguard traffic and enforce traffic regulations. 

Bus Lines: Intrastate: 155 lines connecting principal towns and cities. 
Interstate: Boston & Maine Transportation Co. (Boston to Portland, 
Me., Boston to White River Junction, Vt., Boston to Keene and Con- 
cord, N.H.); New England Transportation Co. (Boston to Hartford, 
Conn., Boston to Poughkeepsie, N.Y.); Berkshire Motor Coach Lines 
(Boston to Poughkeepsie, N.Y., via Worcester, New Haven, and New 
York City); Blue Line (Worcester to New York, via Springfield); Blue 
Way Lines (Portland, Me., and Boston to New York, via Springfield and 
Worcester); Eastern Greyhound Lines, Inc., of New England (Boston 
and Portland, Boston and New York) ; Frontier Coach Lines (Boston and 
Montreal) ; Greyhound Lines (national coverage) ; Interstate Busses Cor- 
poration (Providence, R.I., to Schenectady, N.Y., via Springfield and 
Pittsfield); I.R.T. Co., Inc. (Boston to Providence, R.I.); P.H.N. Lines, 
Inc. (Boston and Norwich, Conn., via Worcester); Old Colony Coach 
Lines, Inc. (Boston to Concord, N.H., Boston to Bar Harbor, Boston to 
Montreal and Quebec) ; Short Line System (Springfield to Portland, New 
York, Waterbury, Worcester, and Boston). 

Airlines: Intrastate: Boston to Cape Cod and Nan tucket (summer serv- 
ice). Interstate: American Airlines (Boston, Providence, Hartford, New 
Haven and New York; Boston-Buffalo and all points west). Boston- 
Maine-Central Vermont Airways (Portland, Augusta, Waterville, Ban- 
gor, Bar Harbor during summer, Manchester, Concord, White River 
Junction, Barre-Montpelier, Burlington). 

Waterways: Regular service by steamship to New York and ports south 
via Cape Cod Canal from Boston or Fall River. Many trans-Atlantic 
liners call at Boston. Regular trips to Canada and the West Indies. 

New England Steamship Co. (operated by N.Y., N.H. & H. R.R.), New 
Bedford to Martha's Vineyard [Dukes] and Nantucket. Cape Cod 
Steamship Co. (Boston to Provincetown). (Summer service only by 

xxii General Information 

Traffic Regulations: Non-residents may operate motor-cars within the 
State for 30 days without permit. Penalty for violation thereafter. 

Speed: For State highways, regulations prescribe speed that is 
' reasonable and proper ' : not to exceed 30 m. p. h. outside of a thickly 
settled or business district. Within a thickly settled district or at any 
place where operator's view of the road is obstructed, not in excess 
of 20 m. p. h. Curves not to be negotiated in excess of 15 m. p. h. 

Lights: ' Every automobile operated during the period from one 
half an hour after sunset to one half an hour before sunrise shall dis- 
play at least two white lights, or lights of yellow or amber tint, or if 
parked within the limits of a way one white light nearer the center 
of the way. And every motor vehicle shall display at least one red 
light in the reverse direction. No spotlights to be used unless ap- 
proved by the registrar of motor vehicles.' 

Brakes: Brakes must be adequate to control the movement of 
such vehicles, must conform to rules and regulations, and must be 
in good working order. 

Accommodations: State is well provided with hotel accommodations. 
Accommodations in private houses are also available in nearly all towns:' 
Tourist camps are located in all parts of the State. Municipal ordinances 
require rigid enforcement of rules on sanitation and hygiene. Most of 
these establishments are privately owned, but there is every evidence 
of their being orderly and well regulated. As most of the camps are within 
easy reach of trading centers, food supplies as well as emergency clothing 
are quickly obtainable. 

Climate and Equipment: State has variable climate with temperatures 
ranging from the nineties in summer to sub-zero in winter. Visitors 
should carry clothing such as sweater and topcoat for sudden changes in 
summer, and in winter special heavy clothing for coasting, skiing, skating, 
and other outdoor sports. In winter snow trains leave Boston regularly 
for New Hampshire, Vermont, and Maine, destinations depending some- 
what on the conditions of ice and snow. 

Fires: ' No person shall set, maintain or increase a fire in the open air at 
any time unless the ground is substantially covered with snow, except by 
written permission . . . granted by the forest warden or chief of the fire 
department in cities and towns ... or the fire commissioner. Persons 
above the age of eighteen may set or maintain a fire for a reasonable pur- 
pose upon sandy land, or upon salt marshes or sandy or rocky beaches 
bordering on tide-water, if the fire is enclosed within rocks, metal or other 
non-inflammable material.' Consult local fire warden. 

Poisonous Plants and Reptiles: Poison ivy grows somewhat profusely in 
certain sections, generally along stone walls and fences in pasture and 
woodland, and occasionally along the seashore. Antidotes obtainable at 
any drugstore. Rattlesnakes at times are seen in certain sections of the 
Blue Hills in the eastern part of the State and in the Berkshires in the West. 

General Information xxiii 

Information Bureaus: The New England Council, Statler Building, 
20 Providence Street, Boston; the various chambers of commerce, hotels, 
and railroads are equipped to give information on travel, resorts, recrea- 
tional opportunities, and road conditions. 


Golf: Massachusetts had the first golf course in America, the Country Club 
of Brookline, founded in 1882, and courses are well distributed through- 
out the State. On Cape Cod, on the adjacent islands of Nantucket and 
Martha's Vineyard, and in many other ocean-front cities and towns, 
courses overlook the sea. The eastern and central portions of the State 
provide numerous 'sporty' courses on rolling and varied terrain. The 
courses of western Massachusetts in the Berkshire Hills are set in the 
midst of rugged hills and valleys. Distributed throughout the State are 
approximately 215 courses, varying in size from six to thirty-six holes, 
the majority of which are open to the general public. Tournaments and 
special matches, both amateur and professional, are held during the 
season on representative courses. 

Tennis: Tennis courts are provided as part of the recreational develop- 
ment of the Myles Standish State Forest in Plymouth, and on certain 
Metropolitan District Commission reservations. Many courts, available 
for public use for a fee, at specified times, are under the administration of 
colleges, private schools, and private organizations. 

Yachting: The ^State's hundreds of miles of coastline offer splendid oppor- 
tunities for yachting. Large fleets of yachts and boats annually dot 
Massachusetts waters, engaging in races, regattas, and general cruising. 
There are approximately 130 yacht and boat clubs, including motor-boat 
and dory clubs distributed among the nine eastern and southern counties 
of the State. In the central and western portion there are four such clubs, 
the primary interest of which is motor or speed boating. Most yacht and 
boat clubs are, of course, in Essex County on the North Shore, in Suffolk 
County on the Central Shore, and in Barnstable County on the South 
Shore. Essex and Barnstable County clubs serve primarily the non- 
resident yachtsman; Suffolk County clubs serve the resident. 

Beaches: The Commonwealth has more than one thousand miles of ocean 
front. Many towns which have acquired and developed ocean beaches 
have restricted the use to their own residents. There are now eight State- 
owned ocean beaches, one administered by the Department of Conserva- 
tion, one in charge of the Department of Public Works, and six controlled 
by the Metropolitan District Commission. 

Picnicking: The State forests, which have been expanded both in -size and 
in facilities, offer convenient provisions for picnicking. Of the sixty-nine 
State forests, approximately thirty-nine have one or more developed pic- 

xxiv General Information 

nic areas equipped with tables, benches, fireplaces, and sanitary facilities, 
and often have additional facilities for camping, such as tent sites, trailer 
sites, and cabins, as well as swimming facilities. In the remaining thirty 
State forests, picnicking is allowed, but there are few facilities, and fires 
are prohibited. 

There are numerous other opportunities for picnicking in the two State 
parks, eleven State reservations, eight semi-public reservations, and 
fourteen reservations controlled by the Metropolitan District Commis- 
sion, all of which permit picnicking in some form and provide some of the 
necessary facilities, such as tables and benches. Opportunity for picnick- 
ing is not limited to the State-provided facilities. Many cities and towns 
have large parks or lakeside reservations where non-residents may picnic. 
There are also many commercial picnic grounds, camp-grounds, and 

Fairs: In 1935, approximately twenty outstanding fairs were held through- 
out the State, attracting some 750,000 people. More than fifty per cent 
of the attendance was at the two major fairs the Brockton Fair and 
the Eastern States Exposition. 

Horse and Dog Races: Horse and dog racing, under the pari-mutuel system 
of betting, has become increasingly popular. In 1935, the first year of 
operation of horse and dog racing under the pari-mutuel system, four flat 
running-horse tracks, four harness-horse tracks, and three dog tracks 
were licensed. 

Auto Races: Auto racing is engaged in primarily as amateur competition 
and as a feature event at certain of the major fairs. For amateur competi- 
tion for midget cars, two dirt tracks have been built, one at Wayland and 
one at Marstons Mills on Cape Cod. On these tracks several races are 
scheduled during the summer and early fall. All types of cars are used, 
and the usual length is fifty miles. Professional and semi-professional 
auto racing is limited to the major fairs. 

Winter Sports: The State Department of Conservation, in co-operation 
with the National Park Service and the Civilian Conservation Corps, has 
extended the winter-sports facilities in the State forests and reservations, 
and is still developing them. Climatic conditions and natural topography 
make certain sections of the State ideal for extensive winter-sports devel- 
opments. The Berkshire Hills area is the best-developed section, but new 
trails have been constructed in the Wachusett region, more favorably 
located in relation to principal centers of population than the Berkshires. 
There are approximately seventy-five areas devoted to skiing, with many 
miles of trails and acres of open slopes. Jumps are few in number, only 
thirteen being available. Probably more than 75 per cent of the skiing 
facilities are concentrated in the four western counties, the major portion 
of these being in Berkshire County. On the Mount Wachusett State 
Reservation, two new downhill trails have been developed or improved. 
In the eastern part of the State are a few facilities: Mount Hood Memorial 
Park, Melrose, the two trails on the Metropolitan District Commission's 

General Information xxv 

Blue Hills Reservation, and a few small municipal or private open slopes 
and jumps. Many golf clubs allow the use of open slopes on the courses 
for skiing. ' Snow trains ' leave Boston regularly in winter. 

There are seventeen ski and outing clubs, most of which are in central and 
western Massachusetts. The Western Massachusetts Winter Sports 
Council is the largest combined organization actively promoting winter 
sports in the State. The Berkshire Hills Conference also encourages 
winter sports. 

Practically every city and town in Massachusetts has sufficient water area 
for skating. Several ponds or lakes on State reservations and forests are 
kept cleared during the season. 

Tobogganing has a few facilities, widely scattered over the State. On 
most State reservation lands, no constructed chutes are necessary because 
natural conditions, dependent on suitable snow cover, are sufficient. The 
same is true for most municipal parks. 

Snowshoeing is dependent on the quality and condition of snow. Since it 
requires no special areas or trails, there are adequate opportunities for it 
in every section of the State when there is snow. Existing foot trails or 
minor back roads may be used. 

Hiking: Perhaps the best-known hiking route is the Appalachian Trail 
(see Tour 9), extending from the Connecticut boundary to the Vermont 
line and forming a link in the route from Georgia to Maine. There is also 
the Wachusett-Watatic Trail (see Tour nA), covering a distance of more 
than twenty miles from the Mount Wachusett Reservation to a point 
near the New Hampshire line, where it connects with the Wapack Trail. 
The State forests and reservations provide a total of 225 miles of local 
trails, constructed by the Department of Conservation in co-operation 
with the National Park Service and the Civilian Conservation Corps dur- 
ing the past four years. The Metropolitan District Commission has de- 
veloped a number of trails on its reservations, particularly the Blue Hills 
(see Tour 25) and Middlesex Fells (see Tour 5). 

Several organizations are actively engaged in the promotion and con- 
struction of foot trails, preparation of guide books, and the establishment 
of trail shelters. Prominent among these are the Berkshire Chapter of 
the Appalachian Mountain Club, the Connecticut Valley Trails Confer- 
ence, the Massachusetts Forest and Park Association, the outing clubs 
of colleges and preparatory schools, the American Youth Hostel, Inc., the 
New England Trails Conference, and the Massachusetts Department of 

Riding: Bridle trails in Massachusetts consist of several local municipal 
units, some few miles developed on the State forests and reservations, a 
few miles developed by the Metropolitan District Commission on their 
reservations and parkways, and the Capes-to-the-Berkshires Trail (see 
Tour 12), a through trail 450 miles in length. Throughout the State there 
are many miles of old wood roads and minor back roads which serve as 

xxvi General Information 

bridle paths. Excluding these roads, there are more than 500 miles of 
existing bridle trails in Massachusetts. Eighty-six riding academies and 
many local outing clubs are distributed throughout the State. Many of 
these are on or near the Capes-to-the-Berkshires Trail, and offer shelter to 
horse and rider. 

Bicycling: There are no bicycle trails as such in Massachusetts. The 
American Youth Hostel, Inc., has laid out a bicycle loop trip through 
New England, utilizing back roads and portions of the Capes-to-the- 
Berkshires Trail. 

Hunting: Hunting is permitted in 64 State forests, comprising more than 
1 50,000 acres. In thirty of these forests, hunting is strictly regulated by 
permit; and portions- of ten forests, comprising approximately 3200 acres, 
are set aside for game preserves, on which no hunting is allowed. Public 
lands available for public hunting (State forest lands) are widely dis- 
tributed throughout the State, with the largest percentage, both in num- 
ber and acreage, in the central and western portions. The Division of 
Fisheries and Game carries on extensive stocking of covers, particularly 
with quail, pheasants, hares, and rabbits. Game preserves, under a vari- 
ety of classifications and organizations, are numerous. The State con- 
tains 33 or more preserves, varying in size from 12 to 8600 acres, and 
representing a total of approximately 21,300 acres. Included in the total 
are the various State reservations, under the control of County and 
Special Commissioners, which unless otherwise specified are closed to 
hunting. There are four game farms, varying in size from 23 to 132 acres, 
and comprising a total of 364 acres. All are under the direct control of 
the Division of Fisheries and Game of the Department of Conservation, 
20 Somerset St., Boston. For hunting license consult the Division, or the 
local game warden. 

Fishing: While a large part of the brook fishing is still in private unposted 
land, more and more streams seem destined to be closed to the public 
by individuals and private clubs. However, opportunity for public fishing 
is fairly extensive. Under the General Laws of Massachusetts, the Di- 
rector of the Division of Fisheries and Game is permitted to acquire, by 
gift or lease, fishing rights and privileges in any brook or stream in the 
Commonwealth, with rights of ingress and egress, unless it is a source of 
or tributary to a public water supply. There are eleven such areas in the 
State, comprising some eighty miles of stream. In addition to these 
streams, the ponds of the State, with the exception of those used for water 
supply, are public for the purpose of fishing, hunting, and boating. There 
are 1302 such ponds, of which approximately two hundred are used for 
water-supply purposes. Certain others are controlled either by the Divi- 
sion of Fisheries and Game for breeding purposes, or by cities and towns. 
For fishing license, consult the Division, 20 Somerset St., Boston, or the 
local game warden. 

For salt-water fishing no license is required. At most harbors, boats 
and equipment are available to parties for deep-sea fishing. During the 

General Information xxvii 

summer deep-sea fishing excursion boats leave T Wharf, Boston (foot of 
State Street) daily. Surf-casting is increasing in popularity, and equip- 
ment and instruction are available at many resorts. 


JOSIAH QUINCY in his Journal thus describes a trip from Boston to 
New York in 1773: 'I set out from Boston in the line of stages of an en- 
terprising Yankee, Pease by name, considered a method of transportation 
of wonderful expedition. The journey to New York took up a week. . . . 
We reached our resting place for the night, if no accident intervened, 
at 10 o'clock, and after a frugal supper, went to bed with a notice that 
we should be called at three, which generally proved to be half past two, 
and then, whether it snowed or rained, the traveler must rise and make 
ready . . . and proceed on his way over bad roads, sometimes getting out 
to help the coachman lift the coach out of a quagmire or rut, and arriving 
in New York after a week's hard traveling, wondering at the ease, as well 
as the expedition with which our journey was effected.' 

At the time that Josiah made his memorable journey, little progress in 
transportation methods had been made since the founding of the Plym- 
outh Colony. Though primitive forms of wheeled vehicles were used as 
early as 1650, the colonists usually traveled on horseback, and few at- 
tempts were made by them to improve the condition of the roads. Action 
taken at early town meetings to compel able-bodied men to work on the 
roads or pay tax money to hire substitutes did not suffice to keep the 
roads in good condition. Road-building in the early days was simply 
not considered an important undertaking. The first settlements were 
made on the coast, and the colonists maintained communication largely 
by water because it was more convenient for them. 

In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries more traveling by land 
was done in the winter than during any other season of the year. Sleighs 
drawn by oxen or horses were used on small streams and frozen rivers. 

By the year 1683 a few private coaches began to appear in the larger 
towns, like Boston and New York. The earliest were of three types: one 
was patterned after the heavy two-horse family carriage used in England; 
the others were better adapted to conditions in America, and drawn by 
one horse. Road conditions did not permit their use outside the limits of 
the towns. 

Some of the wealthier inhabitants in the larger towns began to use 
sedan chairs, but public opinion in the Colony decidedly frowned on the 
use of such vehicles. Governor Winthrop had received a sedan chair as a 
gift, but he did not dare to use it. 

During the second half of the eighteenth century, stagecoach service 
was established between a few of the larger communities along the New 
England coasts, such as Boston and Providence. 

xxviii General Information 

The first stagecoaches were crude in form. They usually had four 
wooden benches without any backs, seating a maximum of nine pas- 
sengers. Baggage was placed either on the passengers' knees or under 
their legs. The coach had a top usually made of some heavy woven 
material, with leather curtains at the sides and rear. It had no springs, 
and the traveler who had not to hobble when he arrived at his destination 
was very fortunate and very rare. 

The end of the Revolutionary War marked the opening of a new era. 
People began at last to recognize the need of adequate transportation 
facilities. New industries established in different sections of the State, 
and expanding municipalities demanded better facilities for moving 
people and freight overland. 

The question was, however, who was to build the roads? The War had 
impoverished the local communities and the State. Neither was finan- 
cially able to undertake the construction of roads which demanded an 
outlay of millions of dollars. Out of these difficulties grew a new method 
of private financing and control, whereby the roads were built by private 
companies incorporated under acts passed by the State Legislature. 
These roads, called turnpikes, were constructed by private capital, pri- 
vately owned, and operated for the revenue derived from the collection 
of tolls. 

Both the rates of toll and the number of gates that could be erected 
were fixed in the charters granted to the various corporations. The gates 
were erected at intervals of about ten miles, and rates had to be displayed 
on large signs. Certain persons were exempt from paying toll: Any person 
going to or from his usual place of public worship; any person passing 
with his horses, team, or cattle to or from his farm, in connection with 
work to be performed there; any person passing on military duty. If the 
toll-gatherer were not present to receive the toll, the gate had to be left 
open and everybody was permitted to pass without paying. 

The opening of the turnpikes was followed by the establishment of 
regular stagecoach lines between all sections of Massachusetts. In 1801, 
one hundred and sixteen coaches arrived and departed from Boston each 
week. There were twenty-six lines to as many different places. The run- 
ning time to New York was then about forty hours, and some lines re- 
duced the time between cities by traveling all night instead of stopping 
at a tavern. 

The improved type of stagecoach used between 1800 and 1840 was 
built of wood and sole leather, and was shaped somewhat like a football. 
It had no springs, but was swung on several thick strips of leather riveted 
together and called thoroughbraces; the average coach seated nine pas- 
sengers and was usually drawn by four horses. In these new coaches 
strips of leather were nailed lengthwise to provide backs for the benches. 
Meanwhile the top of the coach had assumed a flat shape, and, with the 
installation of railings, baggage could be carried on the roof. The ' Con- 
cord Coach,' first built in Concord, New Hampshire, about 1828, was 
considered the acme of luxury. So highly were these coaches regarded by 
the traveling public that the railroads used them mounted on railway 
trucks, as their first passenger coaches. 

General Information xxix 

In the winter time, the stagecoach lines often placed their vehicles on 
sled bodies instead of on wheels, and thus maintained their service with 
but a small decrease in speed. On occasions when the coach was too 
heavy to be drawn through the snow, its use was temporarily abandoned 
in favor of small, open, boxlike conveyances, with the travelers exposed to 
every inclemency of the weather. 

Distances were commonly reckoned in miles intervening between 
taverns, and not, as one would expect, between towns. Taverns were 
the important landmarks of any journey. There the weary passengers 
alighted to seek refreshment and stretch their cramped limbs while 
assembled townsfolk pressed about them and questioned them eagerly 
about the news from the outside world. 

About 1800 a new and radically different method of transportation 
was devised. This was the canal. The stagecoach was not adapted to 
freight traffic. A number of surveys were made, but nothing was done. 
Despite popular enthusiasm, only one large canal, the Middlesex, com- 
pleted in 1808 and extending from the Merrimack River near Lowell to 
the Charles River in Boston, was built in Massachusetts, and its period 
of usefulness was very short. The rapid railroad development all over 
the State from 1835 to 1850 solved the problem. 

In spite of advantages which were obvious to the fo resign ted, Massa- 
chusetts was slower than some other sections of the country in accepting 
the new method of transportation. Just as the first coaches to appear on 
the streets were severely censured, so were the first railroads. Puritanism 
was always suspicious of anything that made for physical comfort. 
Many people were sincerely convinced that the use of these iron highways 
would lower the prevailing standards of morality. 

During the building of the Western Railroad from Worcester to 
Springfield in 1837, so much adverse criticism was directed against this 
project that the owners of the road sent a letter to all the churches of the 
State asking that sermons be preached on the beneficial moral effect of 

The first three important New England railroads were all completed 
in 1835 in this State. They were the Boston and Lowell, the Boston and 
Providence, and the Boston and Worcester. 

The reaction of the people to the new method of transportation is 
found in the newspapers of the day. In the issue of the Maine Farmer of 
July 1 8, 1835, a newspaper published in Worcester, there is the following 
comment concerning the trip between Boston and Worcester: 'The usual 
passage is performed in two and a half or three hours, including stops 
A few years ago, 14 miles an hour would have been considered rapid 

traveling So great are the advantages gained, that already one of the 

principal dealers here has offered to lay a side track from the road to his 
own storehouse ... A person in business here informed me that he left 
Worcester one day at 12 o'clock, arrived in Boston, had one and a quarter 
hours to transact his business, returned by the four o'clock car, and ar- 
rived here at seven o'clock in the evening thus traveling 88 miles in 
eight and three quarter hours Some of the passenger cars on this 

xxx General Information 

road are very elegant, and will hold from twenty to thirty persons. The 
motion of the cars upon the road is so easy that I saw a little child walking 
from seat to seat, as if in a parlor.' 

Parallel to the development of steam railroads was that of a similar 
type of intercity transportation. The first street railway in Massachusetts 
was built in Boston in 1836. Horse-car systems were replaced about 1890 
by the use of electricity as a motive power. Then came the automobile, 
and an entirely new and revolutionary method of transportation slowly 
began to undermine both the street railways and the railroads, culminat- 
ing in the employment of busses both for local and long-distance passenger 
and freight service. 

An integral part of the success of the new method was the development 
of an improved highway system throughout the State. After the failure 
in 1850 of most of the turnpikes, the roads had reverted to the control 
of the cities and towns in which they were located. In 1893 the Legisla- 
ture established the Massachusetts Highway Commission as the result 
of an investigation which disclosed that the roads of the State were in a 
deplorable condition. The Commission was authorized to take over, lay 
out, and maintain roads, and to unite the more important cities by 
trunk lines of large traffic capacity. The first State appropriation, 
amounting to $300,000, was made in 1894. By 1916 a total of $11,767,000 
had been spent. Obviously some portion of this gathering cost had to 
be turned back in some way to those who benefited. The old turnpike 
toll in a different form is paid by motorists of today. In 1925 the State 
Legislature established the Highway Fund, whereby the proceeds of 
motor- vehicle fees and fines and of the tax on gasoline are pledged to the 
construction and maintenance of both State and local highways. During 
the past twenty-five years the cost of new road construction in Massa- 
chusetts has been approximately $105,000,000. 

Today five types of transportation, all highly developed, are open to 
the traveler in Massachusetts. The most expeditious is by air. Josiah 
Quincy, who thought a week was a remarkably short time for the journey 
from Boston to New York, would hardly have believed that a century 
and a half later the traveler would board a plane at Boston and make a 
happy landing at Newark Airport on the edge of New York City in 
eighty-four minutes. 

Besides Boston, thirty-six cities of Massachusetts have airplane landing 
facilities, and seaplane landings can be made at Boston, Gloucester, 
Squantum, and New Bedford. In 1937 recognized commercial air service 
was provided by two large airlines, one of which connects Boston, via 
New York and via Albany, with all the other important air routes of the 
country, and the other of which reaches the cities of upper New England. 
During the summer seaplanes fly between Boston, Provincetown, Hyan- 
nis, Nantucket, and Martha's Vineyard. 

Next in speed, but with certain superior elements of practicability, 
come the railroads. At present three major lines serve Massachusetts 
and link it with the south and southwest, the west, and the north; and 
five others operate within the State. 

General Information xxxi 

Next in speed to the railroad but with more flexibility and usually at 
less cost, passenger and freight service are given by bus and truck lines, 
which cover the State with a fine network. Three main operators, con- 
trolled by three railroads, and several lesser lines handle the long-distance 
traffic, while about one hundred and sixty bus lines are engaged in intra- 
state traffic. 

The development of motor transportation has seriously curtailed the 
operation of street railways, especially interurban and suburban lines. 
The street railway mileage has been steadily decreasing since 1920. 
Although the Boston Elevated Railway, the largest line in the State, 
which serves the thickly settled Greater Boston district, has been able 
to retain much of its suburban traffic through its tunnel lines, it also 
operates an increasingly large number of motor coaches. 

The private automobile began to be a factor in transportation following 
the World War. In 1920, 223,112 automobiles were registered in Massa- 
chusetts; the number has steadily increased, and the average during the 
past few years has been near the 900,000 mark. For the automobile 
traveler, as well as for bus and trucking companies, the interior road- 
way system offers easy access to all important points. Four United 
States highways (20, 3, i to the north, and i to the south) radiate from 
Boston, besides a large number of other main roads. Routes i, 3, 202, 5, 
and 7 are the major north and south arteries of the State; number 20 is the 
main western line. The total highway mileage in 1935 was 18,802, in- 
cluding 2400 miles of State highways. Inland water transportation is 
negligible except that through the Cape Cod Canal, which considerably 
reduces the time and increases the safety of the passage between Boston 
and New York. Forty-one steamship lines give foreign service out of the 
port of Boston, and twenty lines give domestic or coastwise service. A 
steamship line operates daily between Fall River and New York ; another 
plies between New Bedford, Martha's Vineyard, and Nantucket via 
Woods Hole, and summer steamers run from New Bedford to New York 
and from Boston to Province town. Passenger service by steamship be- 
tween Boston and Portland was discontinued about 1935. The Common- 
wealth has several smaller ports besides Boston, the most important in 
volume of traffic being Fall River, followed by New Bedford, Beverly, 
Salem, and Lynn, in this order. Boston has the largest drydock on the 
continent, constructed by the Commonwealth and later sold to the 
United States Government. 


Events are arranged first by frequency of occurrence (A nnual, 
Seasonal, Bi-Annual), and next by date within cities, which 
are grouped together. 


(nfd = no fixed date) 

Jan. last Sat. Boston 

Jan. 20 to Feb. Boston 

19 (i day) 

Jan. nfd Springfield 

Jan. i Stoughton 

Feb. ist wk Boston 

Feb. ist Sat. Boston 

Feb. nfd Boston 

Feb. last 2 wks Boston 

Feb. 21-22 Boston 

Feb. 22 Boston 

Feb. 22 Boston 

Feb. ist & last Melrose 


March last wk Boston 

March 17 South Boston 

March ist 2 wks Worcester 

April 19 
April last wk 


Knights of Columbus Track Meet, Boston 

Garden, North Station. 
Chinese New Year. 

Springfield Art League, exhibit at Museum 
of Fine Arts. 

Old Stoughton Musical Society Concert, 
Town Hall. 

N.E. Sportsmen's and Boat Show, Me- 
chanics Bldg., Huntington Ave. 

Boston Athletic Association Games, Bos- 
ton Garden, North Station. 

Boston Society of Independent Artists, 
no-jury exhibit, Boston Art Club, 150 
Newbury St. 

Boston Society of Water Color Painters, 
exhibit, Vose Galleries, 559 Boylston St. 

Eastern Dog Club Show, Mechanics Bldg., 
Huntington Ave. 

International Music Festival, Symphony 
Hall, Huntington Ave. 

'Handshake ceremony/ State House. 

Winter Carnivals on Mt. Hood Reserva- 
tion sponsored by National Ski Assn. 

Spring Flower Show, Massachusetts 
Horticultural Society, Mechanics Build- 
ing, Huntington Ave. 

Evacuation Day. Ceremonies and Parade. 

Spring Flower Show, Worcester Horti- 
cultural Society, Horticultural Hall, 30 
Elm St. 

Patriots' Day. Celebration and Mara- 

Pension Fund Concert of Boston Sym- 
phony Orchestra, Symphony Hall, 
Huntington Ave. 

Calendar of Events 








ist wk 



ist Sun. 



ist wk 



May Day 



last 3 wks 






ist wk 



ist Sat. 



3 Sundays 






3d wk 



6th Sun. 
after Easter 

New Bedford 


(2 days) 
ist Mon. 






nfd i wk 





June 16-26 Cambridge 

June 2d Tues. Cambridge 

Revolutionary Pageant on Common. 

Portuguese festival in honor of Santo 

Opening of Boston Symphony ' Pops' 
concerts continuing to July 3, at Sym- 
phony Hall, Huntington Ave. 

National Music Week celebrated by Bos- 
ton Public Schools. 

Annual Concert of Boston Music School 
Settlement, Jordan Hall, Huntington 

Ford Hall Forum Banquet, Ford Hall, 
Ashburton Place. 

Labor groups and others celebrate with 
music and speeches on Common. 

'Paradise of Blossoms/ Arnold Arbore- 

American Unitarian Associations' Con- 
vention, 'May Meetings.' 

Tournament sponsored by National Guild 
of Piano Teachers, Steinert Hall, 
Boylston St. 

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 
Open House. 

Portuguese Festival of Penticost at 
Church of Our Lady of Good Voyage. 

Rights for 'Alewife run' sold to highest 

Three Day Carnival sponsored by Inter- 
national Institute. Fourteen or more 
national groups appear in folk costumes 
to re-enact native pageantry. 

Portuguese religious celebration. 

Wellesley College celebrates ' Float Night' 

on Lake Waban. 
Nashoba Apple Blossom Festival. 

Installation of Officers and Drum Parade 
of Ancient and Honorable Artillery 
Company, on Common. 

Peony and Rose Show, Horticultural 
Hall, Massachusetts Ave. 

Boston National Home Show, Mechanics 
Building, Huntington Ave. 

Opening of State Singles Tennis Champ- 
ionship Tournament, Longwood Cricket 

Harvard Commencement exercises, Har- 
vard Yard, Cambridge; Class Day at 
Harvard Stadium, Brighton. 

Alumni Reunion at the Massachusetts 
Institute of Technology. 



ir or Events 




Bunker Hill Banquet, Armory, Bunker 

Hill St. 


J 7 


Bunker Hill Day Celebration and Parade. 


28 to July 


Choral Programs by students of Concord 

2 3 

Summer School of Music, usually in 

Unitarian Church. 


near 15 


Gaily decorated floats on Paradise Pond, 

stage for Smith College Glee Club Con- 

cert, Class Day. 


ist Sat. 

Bridge water 

Portuguese celebrate Holy Ghost Festival. 

and Sun. 


near ist 


Opening of two-month season of summer 

stock company at Cape Playhouse. 


Near ist 


Esplanade concerts by members of Boston 

to end of 

Symphony Orchestra. 





Wellesley College Summer Institute for 

Social Progress, Wellesley College. 




Italian religious festival, Old Fort section. 


nfd to 


North Shore Art Association, exhibits, 

middle of 

East Gloucester Sq. 



nfd to 


Gloucester Society of Artists, exhibit of 

middle of 

members' work, near Hawthorne Inn. 



4 wks 


Conference of Ministers and Missionaries, 

Northfield Seminary. 




Beachcombers' Ball, costume affair, by 

artists, writers and others. 


4 to Labor 


Art exhibits at galleries of Provincetown 


Art Association. 




North Shore Art Association opens three 

months' exhibitions concurrent with 

two months' showings of Rockport Art 




Sessions at Marine Biological Laboratory, 

Woods Hole. 



Sessions at Oceanographic Institute, 

Woods Hole. 



Sessions at United States Bureau of 

Fisheries, Woods Hole. 




Sam-Sam Carnival, midway, flower show 

and fireworks. 




Mid-summer exhibition of Massachusetts 

* **& 

Horticultural Society, Horticultural 

Hall, Massachusetts Ave. 




Products of Children's Gardens Exhibi- 


tion, Horticultural Hall, Massachusetts 





Beginning National Championship 

* *-*o 

Doubles and Mixed Doubles Tennis 

Tournament, Longwood Cricket Club. 

Calendar of Events 





Gloucester Fishermen's Memorial Day 

Services at the site of the Gloucester 

Fisherman's Memorial. 


2d wk 


Annual Cruise, Eastern Yacht Club. 


near 15 


Marblehead Race Week, yachting. 




Marshfield Fair. 




Special events in connection with cruise 

of New York and Eastern Yacht Clubs 

in harbor. 




Art Association Ball, costume affair, 

Town Hall. 


near 15 


Cape Ann-North Shore Music Festival, 

(2 evgs) 

Fort Park. 


3d wk 


Artists' Ball, Rockport Art Association. 


near 15 


Berkshire Symphonic Festival, three con- 

certs by Boston Symphony Orchestra. 


2d wk 


Late summer exhibition of Massachusetts 

Horticultural Society, Horticultural 

Hall, Massachusetts Ave. 


3d wk 


Brockton Fair, held annually since 1784. 


Fri. & Sat. 


Middlefield Fair. 


Labor Day 


3d wk 


Eastern States Exposition. 


Labor Day 


Topsfield Fair, Tread well Farm. 



ist wk 


Worcester Music Festival, four concerts 

including one oratorio. 


ist wk 


Worcester Horticultural Society, Chrys- 



24 Boston 

near 24 Boston 
or Jan. Boston 

last wk 


Christmas Worcester 

anthemum Show, Horticultural Hall, 
30 Elm St. 

Christmas Eve Carol Singing on Beacon 
Hill (principally in Louisburg Sq.). 
'Open House' in many homes. 

Handel's ' Messiah ' by Handel and Haydn 
Society, Symphony Hall, Huntington 

National Winter Sports Exposition, in- 
door skiing, skating, reproductions of 
famous winter resorts, Boston Garden, 
North Station. 

Forefathers' Day, observance of landing 
of Pilgrim Fathers. 

Portuguese celebrate with open house, 
oldtime parties and dances. 

Handel's 'Messiah' by Worcester Ora- 
torio Society, Memorial Auditorium. 


Calendar of Events 


May June 
June Sept. 


July 6 Aug. 10 Cambridge 
Sept. i June Boston 

Oct. Nov. 
Oct. Nov. 

Oct. May 
Oct. April 



College Crew Races, Saturday afternoons, 
Charles River. 

Federal Music Project concerts, Tuesday 
and Thursday evenings, Brookline 
Shell, Dean Rd. 

Free concerts, Tuesdays at 8.15 P.M., 
Longy School, 44 Church St. 

Fenway Court Concerts, Sundays, 1-4 
P.M., Isabella Stewart-Gardner Mu- 
seum, Fenway. 

Professional football games. 

College football games. 

Free concerts, Tuesdays at 8.15 P.M., 
Longy School, 44 Church St. 

Boston Public Library Lectures and Con- 
certs, Sundays at 3 P.M. and 8 P.M., and 
Thursdays at 8 P.M., Lecture Hall, 
Boston Public Library. 

Community Church of Boston, Sundays 
at 10.30 A.M., Symphony Hall, Hunting- 
ton Ave. 

Ford Hall Forum, Sundays at 8 P.M., Ash- 
burton PL 

Ford Hall Youth Forum, Mondays at 
8 P.M., Ashburton PL 

Old South Forum, Sundays at 3 P.M., Old 
South Meeting House, Washington St. 

Symphony Concerts, Saturday and Mon- 
day evenings and Tuesday and Friday 
afternoons, Symphony Hall, Hunting- 
ton Ave. 


Jan. i 




nfd (even years) 

nfd (even years) 

Inauguration of Governor, State House. 

Democratic Convention. 
Republican Convention. 




TO THE seeker of a clue to the character of Massachusetts people, the 
rubric of the east wind may be useful. Time and again a salty breeze has 
blown through this most conservative of commonwealths. It wafted the 
first rebels to Cape Cod, dying down soon after. It burst forth again to 
blow steadily through most of the eighteenth century, when victories 
were won not only for political freedom but for education and religious 
toleration. During the period of Federalism it abated, but by the i84o's 
the faint whisper which had fanned the cheeks of mill girls in Lowell, 
mechanics in Boston, and scholars in Cambridge and Concord was roaring 
in a gale that shook the rafters of the nation. It blew fitfully throughout 
the later nineteenth century, dying to a flat calm at the beginning of the 
twentieth. From about 1909 to 1927 it let loose a window-rattling blast 
or two before subsiding again. 

Many symbols have been devised to explain the Bay Stater. He has 
been pictured as a kind of dormant volcano, the red-hot lava from one 
eruption hardening into a crater which impedes the next; as a river, with 
two main currents of transcendental metaphysics and catchpenny op- 
portunism running side by side; as an asocial discord consisting mainly 
of overtones and undertones; as a petrified backbone, 'that unblossom- 
ing stalk.' To these may be added the cartoonist's Bluenose, the de- 
bunker's Puritan, the Gentleman with a Green Bag, Aunt Harriet with 
her Boston Transcript, and the late unlamented Little Waldo of the 
spectacles and painfully corrugated brow. 

That so many symbols have been created for the State hints at the 
complexity of its people. Any almanac or book of facts can inform the 
clue-seeker that the population is roughly three-fifths native, one-eighth 
from other states, and a quarter foreign-born or of mixed foreign-born 
and native parentage; that half the land area consists of farms, yet only a 
tiny proportion of the four and one- third million inhabitants are farmers; 
that about half the residents are church members, of whom three-fifths 
are Catholics; that an Indian boldly figures on the State seal, but only 
874 residents today report themselves as descended from Massachusetts' 
first families. Stumbling on the fact that the State has more public 
libraries than any other save New York, and more volumes per capita 

Massachusetts: The General Background 

than any other, the seeker cries Aha! only to learn a few moments 
later that Ohio, with one-third fewer library books, has at least as many 
library readers. Told that no non-native resident ever feels at home for 
his first twenty-five years, the seeker is surprised to discover that more 
than a third of the State's residents were born outside its borders. At 
long last he is likely to emerge from the almanac with the information 
that citizens of the State live a little longer than the dromedary, rather 
less than the ostrich, and for a much shorter span than the fresh- water 
mussel; or that from the State came three Presidents, seven Secretaries 
of the Navy, a host of cabinet officers, and the man who first went over 
Horseshoe Falls in a rubber ball. 

Clearly a symbol is necessary. Let it be, then, the east wind, and let 
the east wind blow to these shores in the early i6oo's, not companies of 
large-minded and open-handed gentlemen-adventurers, but small, close- 
knit, compactly organized groups. 'God sifted a whole nation that he 
might send choice grain over into this wilderness,' wrote William Stough- 
ton in 1668, and this 'sober and judicial statement,' as Calvin Coolidge 
called it, indicates how the first-comers viewed the rest of the world in 
terms of themselves. The peculiar combination of individualism and 
conformity which still marks the State was given divine sanction by the 
theology brought by the first inhabitants. Calvinism, which had deposed 
heaven's hierarchy of saints, increased the prestige of the individual; but 
the doctrine of Providence, which taught that God's gifts must not be 
used for selfish ends, permitted the individual to act only as the group 
decreed. Individuals outside the group were feared and combated. Since 
conformity breeds non-conformists, rebels appeared and split off from 
the main group they in turn to conform and to breed rebellion. 

With the expulsion of Anne Hutchinson, Roger Williams, and their 
followers, the inhabitants of the Bay Colony proved, at least to them- 
selves, their right to be winnowed grain. Succeeding Roger Williams at 
Salem in 1636, however, came an even more radical minister, Hugh Peter. 
Master Hugh, a member of the first Harvard Board of Overseers, while 
still in London had advocated State employment relief, slum clearance, 
and prison reform. In the New World he proposed the wholesale abolition 
of English law and the substitution therefor of a new concise legal code 
understandable by the common people. Perhaps it was as well for the 
peace of mind of the colonists that he returned to England, where un- 
fortunately he got himself beheaded for his plain speaking. But the east 
wind blew; the Church of England was granted toleration, and a wider 
freedom of worship slowly followed. Yet worshipers still sat in their 

Clues to Its Character 

pews strictly according to rank; democracy was highly limited; and a 
large section of the people, including indentured servants, women, and 
the propertyless, remained disenfranchised for more than a century. 

The gale of pamphleteering, musketeering, committee organizing, 
speech-making, and political scribbling which blew throughout the 
eighteenth century ceased abruptly late in the lygo's. A lone voice rose 
but was unheard, that of William Manning, Billerica farmer. 'I see,' 
wrote this Jeffersonian radical, painfully forming his letters, ' almost the 
first blood that was shed in Concord fite and scores of men dead, dying 

and wounded in the Cause of Libberty I believed then and still be- 

liev it is a good cause which we aught to defend to the very last.' The 
editor of the Independent Chronicle of Boston, to whom Manning sent his 
appeal, was jailed on the Federalist charge of 'seditious libel.' Meanwhile 
Daniel Shays and his lieutenant Luke Day had armed their cohorts of 
impoverished farmers near Worcester, and had been dispersed by a 
militia subsidized by Boston merchants. A new cloud big with wind, the 
rising of which farmers such as Manning and Shays could not foresee, 
was bulking in the sky: the young 'mechanick' class of the industrial 

Against the background of the demands of the skilled mechanics and 
factory operatives for popular education, legislative reform, and political 
representation which characterized the 1840*8, rose transcendentalism, a 
kind of neo-puritanism which symbolized, on the plane of ideas, the 
conflict going on in the real world between the Colonial system of small 
self-sufficient industry and the new mode of factory production. On the 
social field transcendentalism had a single watchword: harmony. Not 
through hatred, collision, the war of class against class, transcendentalists 
insisted, could come social adjustment, but only through the reconciling 
of interests. In this belief the Unitarians founded Brook Farm and the 
Universalists Hopedale. Josiah Warren was holding his 'parlor conver- 
sations' and opening his 'time stores,' in which goods were paid for in 
scrip representing labor-time. Brisbane, aided by Horace Greeley, was 
moving his paper The Phalanx to Brook Farm and renaming it The 
Harbinger. It was a time of optimism, of revolt against tradition and 
convention, of faith in the infinite perfectibility of the human race 
and the particular perfectibility of the Yankee. It was the glorious 
adolescence of the most precocious of the states. 

Throughout the three hundred years of the State's history the east 
wind blew steadily among its women, producing such champions of 
women's rights as Mary Lyon, Mary Livermore, Lucy Stone, Susan 

Massachusetts: The General Background 

Anthony, Lydia Maria Child, and Margaret Fuller. The first attempt 
of women to exercise the right of free assembly was made by Anne 
Hutchinson, who after being tried on a joint charge of sedition and 
heresy was banished from Boston in 1638. Mary Dyer, twice banished, 
returned to Boston in 1660 to test the legality of the law which sentenced 
to death Quakers who visited the colony after being expelled, and was 
publicly hanged. An early rebel against the discrimination suffered by 
women in industry was Louisa Morton Green, who refused to do man's 
work at a spindle in a Dedham woolen mill unless she was paid man's 
wages. Working fourteen hours a day for two dollars a week and board, 
she found time to study to be a school teacher, and later became active 
in the anti-slavery cause, industrial reform, and woman suffrage. An 
early organizer of the Red Cross, and its first president, was Clara 
Barton. In medicine, religion, astronomy, physics, education, and the 
arts, scores of Massachusetts women battled for their sex. Phillis Wheat- 
ley was one of a long line of Negro women of Massachusetts who con- 
tributed to the State's literature, art, and social movements. 

Nowhere has the east wind blown so vigorously in the State as through 
the schools. The spirit of the famous Act of 1647, which required each 
township of fifty families to have a primary school and each township 
of one hundred families to establish a grammar school, remained in force 
for two hundred years. An early governor of the State, James Sullivan, 
urged its citizens to throw off ' the trammels they had forged for us ' - 
they, of course, being the English and called for an American system of 
general public education, remarking, 'Where the mass of people are 
ignorant, poor and miserable, there is no public opinion excepting what 
is the offspring of fear.' As late as 1834 the Association of Farmers, 
Mechanics, and Other Workingmen demanded at its convention a better 
quality of instruction in the public schools. Not until Horace Mann 
fought his bitter battle as Secretary of the Board of Education did the 
State acquire a decent system of graded schools, with properly qualified, 
trained, and compensated teachers. 

For more than two centuries the State has been predominantly in- 
dustrial and commercial. As early as 1699 Edward Ward complained: 
* The Inhabitants seem very Religious, showing many outward and visible 
signs of an inward and Spiritual Grace: But tho' they wear in their Faces 
the Innocence of Doves, you will find them in their Dealings as Subtile 
as Serpents. Interest is their Faith, Money their God, and Large Pos- 
sessions the only Heaven they covet.' Although the nineteenth century, 
with its wind of liberalism, proved these strictures one-sided, it is worth 

Clues to Its Character 

recalling that the Massachusetts Bay Company was a joint stock com- 
pany organized solely for profit, that the State early became a centre 
for the accumulation of capital employed in the South and West, and 
that the first corporation as the term is understood today arose in the 

The essentially urban character of the people is emphasized by the 
fact that every citizen literally lives 'in town,' as the 316 towns and 39 
cities comprise the total area of the State. At the town meetings, still 
held in ninety- three per cent of corporate communities in New England, 
qualified voters elect their selectmen, the chairman or moderator, and 
administrative officers. Under pressure from large and mixed popula- 
tions, certain towns still unwilling to adopt representative city govern- 
ment have devised the ' limited town meeting/ attended by elected 
delegates chosen by vote according to precinct. Although the town 
meeting is supposed to favor the perpetuation of what has been 
called 'a sort of untitled squirarchy,' its champions maintain that this 
method of government at least keeps public officials under constant 
public scrutiny. 

In spite of the 'town' character of its political life, there are farmers 
in the State 163,219 of them. Regardless of their low birth rate and 
in the face of no growth of the farming population in the United States 
as a whole, they are increasing. The value of their holdings is slowly 
going up, and most of them own their farms. Here the Massachusetts 
tendency to smallness is manifest, as the farms are of few acres and well 
distributed, just as the State Forests are more numerous and smaller 
than in any other state. 

When Boston was Tory, rural Massachusetts was Whig. When Boston 
was Federalist, rural Massachusetts was Republican and radical. Even 
today a rural resident of the State when not a Republican is a different 
breed of Democrat. The hinterland's distrust of the political power of 
the metropolis is apparent in the fact that the Boston police force is under 
the control not of the mayor but of a commissioner appointed by the 
Governor who, although he no longer need be certified as 'a Christian 
worth 1000,' receives a lower salary than the Mayor of Boston. But 
the farmer, with all his political difference, partakes of the racial ad- 
mixture and the turn of mind of other residents of the State. He, too, is 
very likely to be a trader, though he may do most of his trading with 
'summer people' visiting the Berkshires or. the Cape. 

Making a campaign speech for Lincoln at Philadelphia in 1860, Charles 
Francis Adams of Massachusetts, facing what he termed ' the most con- 

8 Massachusetts: The General Background 

servative city in America/ half apologized for coming from 'a more 
excitable community.' The State has always been full of stimulating 
cross-winds. Life within its borders has never been conditioned by the 
slow swing of the seasons, the easy tilling of an abundant earth. Ma- 
rooned on a rocky soil, Massachusetts men had to be ingenious to survive, 
and they early became skilled at devising shrewd 'notions,' commercial 
and intellectual. Used to dealing with people, they learned to think in 
small and individual terms rather than in broad geographical concepts. 
The ideal supposed in Europe to be the tenet of all Americans, that be- 
cause a thing is bigger it is somehow better, was never adopted by 

Skillful of hand, sharp at a bargain, stubborn of mind, the Bay Stater 
possesses a character which with its mixture of shrewdness and idealism 
is often labeled hypocrisy. He exhibits a strong tendency to conform 
provided he thinks conformity is his own idea. But let conformity be 
thrust upon him, and the east wind again begins to thrum ! The blowing 
of that wind brought to the State much early social legislation: the child 
labor law in 1836, a law legalizing trade unions in 1842, the first State 
board of health, the first minimum wage law for women and children, 
and the first State tuberculosis sanatorium. Against general opposition, 
first use was made of inoculation and of ether as an anesthetic within the 

Massachusetts is parochial, yet it is never long out of the main cur- 
rents of American life. It is a State of tradition, but part of its tradition 
is its history of revolt. Its people are fiercely individualistic, yet they 
have fierce group loyalties. It is noted for conservatism, yet it exports 
not only shoes and textiles but rebels to all corners of the earth. Its 
sons and daughters live in small houses, worship in small churches, 
work in small factories, produce small things, and vote in small political 
units, yet time and again their largeness of spirit has burst beyond State 


THE land of Massachusetts is a product of millions of years of wearing 
down and building up; erosion by water, wind, and ice; lifting of plains 
and seashore; filling in of valleys and troughs; eruption of volcanoes; 
intrusions of lava; and the invasion of continental glaciers. Rocks that 
must have had their origin thousands of feet below the surface may be 
found cropping out all over the State. Formations that once were simple 
and deposited on level planes are now complex and metamorphic rocks, 
warped, truncated, and steeply dipped the results of physical and 
chemical changes that could have taken place only under extreme heat 
and at times of terrestrial cataclysms. Everywhere is the evidence that 
once-lofty mountains have been worn down to plain-level, and that one- 
time deep valleys have been filled in and raised to great heights. 

At the beginning of known geologic time, three mountain masses of 
granitic rock, alternating with sea channels, extended northeast across 
the State. Strata were deposited on the shore of the Champlain Channel 
west of the Hoosac Mountain, in the narrow gulf which ran from Gaspe 
Point to Worcester, and in the trough from Rhode Island to the Bay of 
Fundy. Then came the period of the making of the Appalachian Moun- 
tains, of which the Hoosac Mountain and its continuation in the Green 
Mountains represented the axis. As a result of this cataclysm, the older 
Paleozoic elastics were metamorphized limestone into marble, muds 
and gravels into slate and schist, and some of the sandstone into quart- 

This raising of surface was followed by a renewed activity of the streams 
in wearing down the land masses. By the carboniferous era, the whole 
State had been reduced to a peneplain, and coal measures had been 
deposited in the Rhode Island-Nova Scotia basin, and in the Gaspe- 
Worcester trough. 

In the next geologic era, the rock formations of the Connecticut 
Valley region had slipped down, and the sea had inundated the latter up 
to the northern boundary of the State. This twenty-mile-wide estuary 
gradually filled from the higher levels with materials that later were to 
become the sandstones, shales, and conglomerates of the valley. But 
during the formation of these rocks there occurred great outflows of lava, 

io Massachusetts: The General Background 

which covered in some places the older weak formation and, forming the 
traprock, resisted erosion so that they stand today as the prominent 
elevations of the valley. 

All New England in a later period was reduced by erosion to a base- 
level, with the southeastern margin of Massachusetts submerged under 
a shallow sea. But by the end of this geologic era, the whole of the Ap- 
palachian region was uplifted, and Massachusetts was raised to a plateau 
of moderate elevation. The rivers again appeared to repeat the process 
of erosion, and the dissected topography of the uplands of the State is 
a present indication of that activity. 

In recent geologic time, the continental ice-sheet, originating in the 
Laurentian region, crept down over New England, advancing as far 
south as Martha's Vineyard, Nantucket, and Long Island. During its 
advance, it picked up rocks which became embedded in the ice, and with 
these it scraped the soil and ground the mountains. It dammed rivers 
and changed courses, formed lakes, and deeply altered the character of 
the land. Upon its retreat, it left behind a terminal moraine which made 
and shaped Cape Cod, Martha's Vineyard, and Nantucket. Over the 
whole land it spread glacial debris of soil, rocks, and boulders. 

The complex geologic history of Massachusetts has resulted in a 
widely varied landscape patchwork. Within a small area, the State 
offers a great variety of terrain rugged coasts, barren sand beaches, 
wild mountains, green valleys, and upland plateaus. 

The State as a whole, however, may be divided into four physiographic 
types: coastal lowlands, interior lowlands, dissected uplands, and residuals 
of ancient mountains. 

The coastal lowlands spread out at Narragansett Bay, cutting through 
the middle of Rhode Island and across Massachusetts to the New Hamp- 
shire line near the Merrimack River. Thus they take in the eastern 
part of the State, including the Cape Cod peninsula and the islands off 
the mainland. The whole coastline of Massachusetts, with its rugged 
mountainous shore and deep indentations, is evidence of an early sub- 
mergence and a later uplift of the area. The submerged river mouths, 
the many good harbors and bays of Boston, Buzzard, and Narragansett, 
are prominent features of the topography of Massachusetts. Farther 
inland, the effect of the lowering of the coastal plain is found in the falls 
and rapids of the rivers. 

In the northeastern section of this division the bed-rock is near the 
surface, and rock-outcrops are found in many places. It is this out- 
cropping along the coast that gives the North Shore of Massachusetts 

Natural Setting 1 1 

its rugged and picturesque character. This division is also characterized 
by the many shallow troughs and basins that are eroded on the softer 
rocks and enclosed by the higher lands of resistant formations. The two 
largest and most important of these depressions are the Boston and 
Narragansett Basins. 

The most outstanding feature of the division is, without doubt, the 
peninsula of Cape Cod, which extends for sixty-five miles in the form 
of an arm bent upward at the elbow. This owes its origin to the glacier, 
and was refashioned by the sea and wind. Near here are also many 
islands of the same origin Martha's Vineyard, Nantucket, and the 
sixteen Elizabeth islands. The glacial outwash plains of Martha's Vine- 
yard and Nantucket are now broad grassy heaths. The southern side 
of the delta-like plain of Cape Cod has been cut along high cliffs by the 
surf and waves. Here the plain is covered with a growth of pitch pine 
and scrub oak. Much of the * forearm' of the Cape is a bleak grassy 
country, while the outer end is a wild and desolate region with long 
yellow beaches. Lacking land fit for farming, the Cape and Islands have 
reared a distinctive type of hardy men who 'farm ' the sea. 

In the interior of Massachusetts, there are two lowlands or valleys: 
the Connecticut River Valley and the Berkshire Valley. Each of these 
is enclosed by uplands. The Connecticut River Valley is a lens-shaped 
trench extending from the northern boundary of the State to Long 
Island Sound, and is drained throughout its length by the Connecticut 
River. Its weak red sandstones give its soil a distinctive ruddy tint. 
The landscape throughout the valley is dominated by curved wooded 
ridges that run longitudinally and owe their origin to intrusive trap- 
lava which resisted erosion after the weaker layers were worn away. 
Some of these traprock elevations rise, in the southern part, high above 
the valley, ranging from 954 feet to 1628 feet in Mounts Holyoke, Tom, 
Toby, and Grace. 

The Connecticut Valley, with its rich soil and mild climate, has be- 
come a productive agricultural country, as well as the seat of many 
prosperous and populous cities and towns. Its broad open meadows, 
reddish soil, and tobacco and onion fields present an aspect somewhat 
unusual in New England. 

The Berkshire Valley, shut off by the Berkshire plateau in the east 
and the Taconic Mountains in the west, is an isolated world of its own. 
The northern part of the valley is watered by streams that cut through 
the Taconics to the Hudson, and the southern part by the headwaters 
of the Housatonic. From Pittsfield northward it is only six miles wide; 

12 Massachusetts: The General Background 

but southward it opens up into the meadowlands of Great Barrington, 
Lenox, and Sheffield. The valley with its green meadows is largely 
devoted to dairy farming, and lives a peaceful, isolated life. 

The uplands of Massachusetts are two divisions separated by the Con- 
necticut River, but joining north of the valley to form the great central 
upland of northern New England. 

The western uplands, or, as they are commonly known, the Berk- 
shire Hills, are a continuation of the Vermont Green Mountains, deeply 
dissected and composed of a number of ranges and small valleys. The 
Taconic Range, on the extreme border of the State, attains its highest 
elevation in Mount . Greylock at 3535 feet, and decreases to the south, 
where Mount Washington in the southeastern corner of Massachusetts 
rises 2624 feet. The Hoosac Range, farther east, varies in altitude from 
1 200 to 1600 feet, with Spruce Hill at 2588 feet as its highest point. 

In the Vermont Green Mountains, only the valleys are cultivated and 
inhabited; but here in Massachusetts, farms and hamlets are found on 
the tops of the elevations, often at high altitudes. This is the country 
of the famous 'hill towns' of the Berkshires, which attract many visitors 
during the summer to enjoy the health-giving atmosphere and surround- 
ing scenic beauty. The best known of these hill towns are Florida and 
Peru. East of these ranges, the uplands slope southeasterly toward the 
Connecticut River Valley, and are deeply cut by such streams as the 
Deerfield, Westfield, and Farmington Rivers. The most picturesque of 
these rivers is the Deerfield, which has an impressive canyon-like valley 
through the plateau. 

The eastern uplands of Worcester County rise gradually from the 
Connecticut River Valley eastward to an elevation of noo feet in the 
middle of the State, then slope down toward the coast. This plateau 
is an extension of the White Mountains of New Hampshire, which cross 
Massachusetts into Connecticut. The outstanding features of the plateau 
are the monadnocks of Mount Wachusett and Mount Watatic, solitary 
remnants of once lofty mountains. 

In general, the topography of Massachusetts is a varied patchwork 
of physiographic features, the eroded remnants of once high mountains, 
leveled to a plateau which has been deeply dissected by streams, and 
scraped and reformed by glaciers. It affords, from its indented and rocky 
coast in the east to its lofty hills in the extreme west, a cross-section of 
the Appalachian Mountain system in its old age, when it was covered 
by the continental ice-sheet. Moreover, this varied topography has had 
a great influence upon the lives and occupations of its people the 

Natural Setting 13 

fishermen of the coast, the urban dwellers of eastern cities, the industrial 
workers along the waterways of the mill towns, the suburban farmers, 
the large-scale planters of the Connecticut Valley, and the Berkshire 
natives, still somewhat isolated and provincial. 


Massachusetts lies in an area characterized by a forest cover composed 
mainly of trees which shed their leaves yearly about the time of approach- 
ing winter. Nevertheless, within the State are to be found well-defined 
areas with quite different floristic makeup. These subdivisions might 
be called: the Cape Cod region; the area of the sea margin extending 
from Cape Cod to the New Hampshire line; the upland region of Central 
Massachusetts; and the rugged area of the Berkshires in the western part 
of the State. To the above might also be added the tops of the two high- 
est points of land within the State, Mount Greylock and Mount Wa- 

In the morainal and outwash area characterizing Cape Cod is found a 
floristic composition similar in certain respects to that of southern New 
Jersey, since the Cape is really the only close approach to coastal plain 
within the State. 

Northward along the seacoast are many plants which do not stray far 
from the influence of the sea. Exceptions range from the low-growing 
beach plants to the marsh grasses, sedges, and rushes. 

By far the largest area of the State is included in the upland region, 
which is covered by a typical northern deciduous forest of maples, birches, 
beeches, oaks, with a scattering of pine and an occasional stand of hem- 
lock and larch. The forest floor is covered with a host of low-growing 
herbs varying according to their particular habitat. In the low marshy 
spots will be found many early spring plants such as skunk cabbage, 
American white hellebore, marsh marigold, white and blue violets; while 
on the drier slopes grow the false spikenard, Solomon's-seal, Canada 
mayflower, wild oats, and various trilliums. From early spring to late 
fall there is a constant parade of gorgeous color with such striking plants 
as rhodora, azalea, mountain laurel, shad, dogwood, viburnum, aug- 
mented by innumerable herbaceous types. The ferns add materially to 
the charm of the landscape, from the low, delicate maidenhair spleenwort 
to the large, graceful osmundas. 

14 Massachusetts: The General Background 

The Berkshires offer still another scenic and floristic type, much more 
rugged than the last, and to some much more beautiful. The forest is 
still of the deciduous type, but with a ground cover differing in certain 
respects, for here will be found plants more often associated with cooler 
regions of the North. 

Space does not permit mention of the great variety of plants growing 
within the State, but there 'are available at least three collections of 
mounted plants. The herbarium of the New England Botanical Club, 
located at the Gray Herbarium at Harvard University, has an excellent 
representative collection. The herbarium of the Hadwen Botanical Club, 
located at Clark University in Worcester, specializes in the flora of 
Worcester County, which is of the general upland region; while that at 
Amherst College in Amherst contains plants of the western region. All 
three of these herbaria are available to the genuinely interested person. 
Harvard University also maintains the famous Arnold Arboretum where 
trees and shrubs are appropriately planted and labeled. 


The effigy of a codfish hanging since 1784 in the assembly room of the 
State House on Beacon Hill, and the fact that early settlers used beaver 
skins as currency, testify to the firmness with which the existence of early 
Massachusetts men was rooted in the abundance of wild life. Fishing 
has maintained its economic importance through three centuries, but 
when in 1636 William Pynchon removed to the wilderness of Springfield 
to trade in beaver, he signified the beginning of a process of extinction 
of Massachusetts fauna halted only in recent years. 

The forests preserve today a much narrower range of wild life. The 
gray wolf and the black bear have been extirpated. The lynx, once com- 
mon, only accidentally finds its way into the mountainous portions of 
the State at long intervals. The beaver is gone. The northern Virginia 
deer, almost driven out during the nineteenth century, has appeared in 
larger numbers in late years, but is scarce. Of the larger forms of wild 
life, only the fox holds its own. In spite of hunters, the red fox, cross fox, 
and black fox are still commonly seen. 

Of the family Leporidae, the eastern varying hare or white rabbit is 
occasionally seen. The northern cottontail or gray rabbit is more un- 
common. The family Muridae is represented by many varieties of mice 

Natural Setting 15 

and rats and by the muskrat. The skunk is very common in open wood- 
lands and fields. There are two varieties of weasels: the little brown 
weasel, often seen in stony places, and the New York weasel, which is 
not very common and usually lives in the woods. The large brown mink is 
sometimes found along the coast. Shrews and moles exist in numbers, 
and several varieties of bat are common. Especially large is the family 
of Rodentia, whose members are the northern gray squirrel and the 
southern red squirrel, the chipmunk or ground squirrel, the woodchuck 
or groundhog, the rare Canadian flying squirrel, and the more common 
southern flying squirrel. A most remarkable creature, the one member 
in the State of the family Zapodidae, is the Hudson Bay jumping mouse. 

Whales, though no longer numerous, are sometimes sighted off the 
coast or washed up on the beach. Many varieties of snakes are found, as 
are lizards, tortoises, and toads, frogs, and salamanders. 

The seacoast and secluded streams and ponds inland are the home of 
a large variety of water, marsh, and shore birds, including the diving 
birds, the grebe, the puflin, guillemot, murre, razor-billed auk, little auk, 
and loon. The great northern loon and the red- throated loon visit the 
State during part of the year. 

The gulls and terns are the best-known members of the long-winged 
swimmers. In this same class are the skuas and jaegers, virtually sea- 
hawks, with powerful wings, beaks, and claws. 

The tube-nosed swimmers, having tubular nostrils and exceptional 
powers of flight, are represented by fulmars, shearwaters, and petrels. 
The four-toed, fully-webbed, Totipolmate order of water birds includes 
gannets, cormorants, and man-o'-war birds. 

Among the better-known river ducks are the black, red-legged black, 
baldpate, and wood ducks. Rarer varieties include the mallard, European 
widgeon, golden teal, blue-winged teal, and American pintail. The sea 
ducks are the canvasback scaup, lesser scaup, golden-eye, bufflehead, 
old-squaw, eider, and scoter ducks, as well as the rare ring-necked and 
harlequin varieties. The Canada and brant goose visit the State during 
part of the year, though not in great numbers, and the whistling swan is 
a rare migrant. 

Of Herodiones are the great blue heron, little blue heron, green heron, 
black-crowned night heron, bittern, and the rare least bittern. A few 
examples of the order Paludicolae still remain, chiefly the sora and yellow 
rail ; gallimulea and coots are rare, and the crane is merely an accidental 

The shore birds are waders differing from herons and marsh birds in 

1 6 Massachusetts: The General Background 

having a body rounded or slightly depressed rather than narrow and 
compressed. Body and bill are small, and these birds build no regular 

The ground-dwelling, scratching game birds are found in diminishing 
numbers. Probably the ring-necked pheasant is the most common. 
Bobwhites, which flourished locally when introduced and protected, are 
now uncommon. The ruffed and Witlow grouse and the heath hen re- 
main in only a few places. The domestic dove or pigeon is found in the 
larger cities, less commonly in rural districts; and the mourning dove is 
frequently seen. 

Among the birds of prey are such accidental visitors as the turkey 
vulture and the eagle. The hawk family has many members in the 
State, as has the owl family. 

The cuckoos and the belted kingfisher comprise an order by themselves. 
Another order includes the woodpeckers. The Macrochire family, with 
peculiar wing development and frail feet, has for members the whip- 
poor-will, nighthawk, chimney swift, ruby-throated hummingbird, and 
the very rare goatsucker. 

The Passeres, or perching birds, are the largest of all orders. Of the 
songless perching birds the tyrant flycatcher is typical. The songbirds 
of the Passeres are very numerous, including the larks and starlings, the 
blue jay, bobolink, cowbird, blackbird, meadowlark, oriole, rusty black- 
bird, and grackle. Of the family Fringillidae, the largest family of perch- 
ing songbirds, the most numerous group is the sparrow with twenty 

Fish caught in the lakes and rivers and along the coast of Massachu- 
setts include alewives, bass, rockbass, bluefish, bonito, butterfish, carp, 
catfish, cod, cunners, cusk, eels, flounders, haddock, hake, halibut, her- 
ring, kingfish, mackerel, Spanish mackerel, perch, pickerel, pollock, 
salmon, scup, shad, skate, smelt, sturgeon, swordfish, tautog, torn-cod, 
trout, turbot, and weakfish. The State is well known for its shellfish: 
clams, lobsters, oysters, scallops, and shrimp. 

By a not unusual human phenomenon, as wild life has declined, in- 
terest in natural history has increased. In the mid-nineteenth century 
Agassiz laid the basis for a pre-eminence in the field of biology retained 
by Massachusetts institutions to this day. Agassiz 's pioneer work in 
classification was carried on by his son, and his students became foremost 
scientists Jeffries Wyman, Nathaniel Southgate Shaler, Burt G. 
Wilder, among others. The biological museum at Harvard bears Agas- 
siz's name, and he founded the Marine Biological Institute at Woods 

Natural Setting 17 

Hole. The splendid theoretical and practical work being done by the 
Massachusetts Bureau of Fisheries, the biological departments of Massa- 
chusetts universities, the Boston Society of Natural History, the State 
Department of Conservation may be properly said to owe much to the 
pioneer labors of the Swiss-American scientist. 

Massachusetts philosophers and naturalists from Thoreau to Dallas 
Lore Sharp have drawn much of their inspiration from native wild life. 
Artists, too, have turned to birds and animals for their subjects, notably 
Frank W. Benson, the well-known painter and etcher of waterfowl, whose 
work may be seen in many private galleries and in the Boston Museum 
of Fine Arts, as well as Charles Heil, whose studies of birds in water- 
colors are exceptional. 

Of the organizations which foster the study of nature in a broader sense, 
the Boston Society of Natural History, founded in 1830, itself the out- 
growth of the Linnaean Society dating back to 1814, is evidence of the 
early interest in the subject. The Audubon Society, the Field and Forest 
Club, the Appalachian Mountain Club, the Green Mountain Club, and 
numerous bird clubs throughout the State serve to center the interest of 
nature-lovers today. 


THE remote ancestors of the Indian tribes in Massachusetts were a 
hunting and fishing people without agriculture. They had learned to 
fashion several varieties of stone implements, but did not use either 
tobacco, pottery, or axes. These early people were probably related to 
the Beothuk red Indians of Newfoundland, and burial places belonging 
to their culture have been unearthed at Marblehead and near Fresh 
Pond in Cambridge. Excavations at Grassy Island in Berkley on the 
Taunton River indicate the presence of an ancient village, established 
by the depth of the salt peat overlay as being at least one thousand years 

The Indians encountered by the first Europeans in Massachusetts 
belonged to the Algonquin linguistic stock, and occupied the large area 
ranging from the Maritime Provinces of Canada to the Gulf of Florida 
and as far west as the Mississippi. The old Algonquins of Massachusetts 
came from the west, gradually pushing the pre-Algonquin inhabitants 
to the coast, where they were finally assimilated or wiped out. Favorite 
camping places were the areas near the falls of the larger rivers, which 
were later picked by the white men as sites for dams and factories. 

Roger Williams has preserved the legend that a crow brought a grain 
of corn in one ear and a bean in the other from the field of the great god 
Kauntantouwit in the southwest. This fable assumes historical im- 
portance in view of the fact that it was precisely the old Algonquins, 
coming from the west and south, who introduced agriculture. They also 
brought with them the art of pottery-making, although its forms were 
restricted to tobacco pipes and cooking vessels. Many of the vessels had 
pointed bases, made to be supported by hearthstones and not suspended 
over the fire. Ornamentation consisted largely of lines and dots arranged 
in zones or other patterns, one of the most persistent of which was a 
zigzag design commonly found in pottery from the mound groups of the 
Ohio region. 

Like their white successors, the earliest Massachusetts Indians got 
much of their food from the sea. Some of the tribes made desultory visits 
to the salt water; others lived permanently near the shore. Clams, 
quahogs, scallops, and oysters formed an important addition to their 

First Americans 19 

food supply, and the shells heaped up in the course of many years have 
aided in preserving fragments of their pottery and the more perishable 
implements used in their rude arts. An invasion of the Iroquois separated 
the old Algonquin and later Algonquin cultures. Shell beads belong almost 
invariably to the later Algonquin period. Pottery vessels shaped in globu- 
lar form for suspension over the fire and terra cotta pipes of the later 
Algonquins show Iroquois influence. The purple quahog shell wam- 
pum and the white wampum were borrowed from the Dutch of Long 

The occasional presence in early Indian graves of porcelain and glass 
beads and of copper and brass ornaments emphasizes the fact that early 
contact of Europeans with Massachusetts Indians did not begin at 
Plymouth. In the year 1578, for example, no fewer than four hundred 
European vessels were engaged in whaling and fishing along the New 
England coast, and most of these traded with the Indians. The ' Skeleton 
in Armor' found at Fall River in 1831 wore a brass breastplate about 
fourteen inches long, and around his lower torso was a belt of brass tubes 
closed together lengthwise. The fact that similar tubes arranged in like 
manner had been found in Denmark made Longfellow believe that the 
grave was that of a Norseman, and in this belief he wrote his poem. Later 
examination showed that the skeleton was that of an Indian not ante- 
dating 1650, and as no Indian could have manufactured brass, the 
* armor ' was probably hammered from a brass kettle received in trade. 

On Dighton Rock, a sandstone boulder, eleven feet high, on Assonet 
Neck in Berkley, appear pecked incisions of questionable origin, some ap- 
parently alphabetical and some pictorial. Certain authorities have read 
among them a Latin record of a visit of the Portuguese Miguel Cortereal 
some years after he and his ship disappeared from history on the rocky 
coast of Newfoundland in 1502, supporting their case by recalling a local 
Indian legend that strange men in a wooden house came up the river and 
fought with the natives. 

However vague pre-Colonial history of the Indians must remain, we 
know that during the early Colonial period seven tribes inhabited 
Massachusetts: the Massachusetts, the Wampanoags, the Nausets, the 
Pennacooks, the Nipmucks, the Pocumtucs, and the Mohicans. 

The Massachusetts dominated the territory enclosed in a circle drawn 
through Boston and Charlestown harbors, Maiden, Nantucket, Hingham, 
Weymouth, Braintree, and Dorchester. Before the arrival of the first 
settlers the Massachusetts had reached the height of their importance. 
The plague of 1616-17 wrecked their power, and by 1631 they numbered 

2O Massachusetts: The General Background 

only about five hundred. Ultimately they were gathered into the villages 
of the Christianized or Praying Indians almost the last act of a tragic 

The Wampanoags held sovereignty over the whole tract from Cape 
Cod to Massachusetts Bay, with some control over the petty tribes of 
the interior. 

The Nausets, a friendly tribe who accepted the white man as a brother, 
occupied Cape Cod and the adjacent islands under the dominion of the 
Wampanoags. Most of them became Christianized before King Philip's 
War. Nauset Light at Truro commemorates these gentle red men. 

The Pennacooks, allied with the quarrelsome Abanaki of Maine who 
continually raided the lands of the Massachusetts, originally inhabited 
northern Massachusetts. At the close of King Philip's War in 1676 the 
remnant of the Pennacooks migrated to Canada. 

The Nipmucks roamed the eastern interior of Massachusetts from 
Boston on the east to Bennington, Vermont, on the west. Concord, New 
Hampshire, on the north, and Connecticut and Rhode Island on the 
south bounded their territory, which centered in Worcester County. 

The Pocumtucs, whose chief village was near the present town of 
Deerfield, dominated all the Indians of the Connecticut Valley in Massa- 

Like the Massachusetts, the Mohicans, popularly memorialized in 
Cooper's novel, were decimated by the plague of 1616-17. This tribe 
had originally ranged from New York into the upper portions of the 
Housa tonic Valley. In 1664 their Council moved its fire from Albany to 
Stockbridge, Massachusetts. From Stockbridge some of the Mohicans 
migrated to the Susquehanna River, but the remnants of this picturesque 
people were gathered into a mission at Stockbridge a forlorn hope for 

All these Indians were typical long-headed Algonquins, with smooth 
skins, swarthy complexions, black hair and eyes, and high foreheads. 
They had broad shoulders and brawny arms, but lean bellies, flat knees, 
and small hands and feet. Their skins were redder and less coppery than 
those of their western relations. 

The men wore in winter a costume later adopted by white hunters 
leggings, dressed buckskin shirts, breech clouts and moccasins, and 
sometimes fur caps. In summer the breech clouts and moccasins formed 
a complete costume. Women wore leggings and long gowns. Garments 
were decorated with fringes and sometimes painted with simple designs. 

Both sexes painted their faces. Tattooing was confined to the cheeks, 

First Americans 21 

upon which totemic figures were permanently placed by the insertion of 
black pigment beneath the surface of the skin. The men plucked their 
beards, and hair was dressed in various styles according to the sex, age, 
and station of the individual. 

The primary weapon was the wooden bow strung with moose sinew, 
and wooden arrows tipped with stone or bone and carried in quivers of 
otter skin. In warfare the usual offensive weapon was the tomahawk, 
with bark shields serving to some extent for defense. 

Communities were built on hunting and agriculture. The members of 
the tribes or communities were the recognized proprietors of certain 
hunting, fishing, and agricultural lands, held as a rule in common. The 
winter villages were usually situated in warm, thickly wooded valleys 
near a lake or river. The early spring was spent on the fishing grounds, 
and when the planting season arrived the tribe moved to its summer 
fields. Each family had its garden of corn, beans, pumpkins, squash, 
artichokes, and tobacco, cultivated with hoes of stone, wood, or clam 
shells and fertilized by herring and shad. Wild berries, roots, and nuts 
furnished other sources of food, supplemented by fish and by the meat of 
the larger mammals preserved by cutting in strips and smoke-drying. 

The Indians divided themselves very strictly into three social classes: 
those of royal blood, including the sachems, shamans, elders of the council, 
and subordinate chiefs; commoners or freemen with rights to the tribal 
lands; and 'outsiders' of alien blood, usually captives, with no tribal 
rights. Descent was commonly reckoned through the female line, and the 
office of head chief or sachem was hereditary. If tribes were large and 
important they might be governed by several under-chiefs, and each 
tribe had a council of elders of noble blood. The shamans or pow-wows 
possessed great influence. They were partly seers, partly wizards, and 
partly physicians. When, as occasionally happened, the offices of sachem 
and shaman were combined, the person vested with this dual authority 
held tremendous power. 

Polygamy was fairly common, and divorce was approved and frequent, 
the right being exercised as freely by women as by men. Justice was a 
simple matter. If any tribesman was wronged, all related to him were 
bound to see that proper restitution was made. Murder was avenged or 
suitably punished by the kinsmen of the victim. 

The Algonquins believed that Manitou, a supernatural power, was 
inherent in all things. An evil power personified as Mattand was feared 
and placated. Elaborate communal ceremonies celebrated the harvest, 
and rituals concerned with sun, rainfall, and a plenitude of game were 

22 Massachusetts: The General Background 

performed religiously. In all these ceremonies, as in secular matters, 
smoking had definite significance. 

On a day in March, 1621, a flurry was created among the citizens of 
Plymouth when a strange Indian suddenly appeared, quite alone, in the 
middle of Leyden Street. He caused even greater excitement when, with 
an air of grave friendliness, he spoke two words in English: 'Welcome, 
Englishmen!' The stranger was Saihoset, a member of one of Massa- 
chusetts' first families come to offer aid to these white aliens. He had 
learned a few words of English from casual fishermen at Monhegan, and 
he spoke them with unconscious drama, unaware that they spelled the 
doom of his race. . 

When the Pilgrims first arrived in the new country, they settled on 
lands belonging to Massasoit, chief of the Wampanoags, whose favorite 
residence was at Pokanoket (Mount Hope, Bristol, Rhode Island), a spot 
which was to witness the death not only of his son Philip but of the hopes 
of his race. On April i, 1621, on Strawberry Hill, Plymouth, Massasoit 
in solemn council ratified the first treaty between Indian and white man. 
The treaty, effected by the good offices of Samoset, was faithfully sup- 
ported by Massasoit, and lasted the fifty-four years of his lifetime. 
Massasoit was never converted to Christianity, but without his generous 
help the settlement of Massachusetts would have been infinitely more 
difficult and perhaps impossible. 

Another Indian who gave the Pilgrims much practical aid in their 
adjustment to the conditions of life in a wild country among savage 
peoples was Squanto, who served as an interpreter. He was one of five 
Indians carried to London in 1605 by Captain George Weymouth. In 
1614 he was brought back to Cape Cod by John Smith, but in the same 
year he again visited England this time with Captain Thomas Dernier. 
Returning to America in 1619, he fell in with the Pilgrims at Plymouth. 
He is supposed to have been the only Indian to escape the Patuxet 
(Plymouth) plague. 

Not all tribes, of course, were friendly to the first settlers. Before the 
arrival of the Pilgrims the savage Pequot (destroyer) Indians had fought 
their way through from the west and settled in what is now eastern Con- 
necticut. In 1636 Boston joined the towns of Hartford, Wethersfield, 
and Windsor in a concerted attack against the Pequots with the aid of 
the Mohicans. The remnants of the tribe were sold to the Bermudans, 
who purchased no bargain, as the Indians proved to be 'sullen and 
treacherous.' They were poor laborers in the fields, but as whalers and 
sailors they developed considerable skill and daring. 

First Americans 23 

One of the most determined foes of the white settlers was King Philip, 
who believed that the continued encroachment of the white men must 
end in the extermination of the red men, and that the colonists were 
consciously working toward this end. The gradual extension of the 
colonists for two generations brought about a condition in which Indian 
and white land claims conflicted. Roger Williams had once in a letter to 
Governor Bradford hotly protested the validity of the land titles of the 
colonists. 'Why lay such stress,' he demanded, 'upon your patent from 
King James? Tis but idle parchment. James has no more right to give 
away or sell Massasoit's lands and cut and carve his country than Mas- 
sasoit has to sell King James' kingdom or to send Indians to colonize 
Warwickshire.' In addition, the colonists had gained presumption with 
power, and insisted on administering justice to everybody. To the 
Indians this not only seemed an unwarrantable interference with their 
rights, but also made it difficult, if not impossible, for them to obtain fair 
'hearings in the English courts. 

Along with his belief that the Indian must drive out the intruder or be 
exterminated, Philip had perhaps a personal reason for his hatred of the 
whites a belief that his brother Wamsutta had been murdered. At all 
events, he prepared for war secretly and with intelligence. Shortly before 
the outbreak of hostilities in 1675 the Governor of Massachusetts sent 
an ambassador to Philip asking him to pledge peace. Philip returned a 
proud but not undiplomatic reply: 'Your governor is but a subject of 
King Charles of England. I shall not treat with a subject. I shall treat 
of peace only with the King, my brother. When he comes, I am ready.' 

Philip undoubtedly intended a simultaneous movement of all the 
tribes on the North Atlantic seaboard against the white men. An un- 
expected event, however, precipitated war a year sooner than he had 
intended and destroyed his plans: the treachery of Sassamon. 

The latter, one of Philip's tribe, had been converted to Christianity, 
had lived at Harvard College for a short time, and was a school teacher 
in the Praying Town of Natick. He became Philip's secretary, and it 
was he who imparted news of Philip's plans to the Governor at Plymouth. 
Philip learned of the treachery, and Sassamon's body was found in 
Assawompsett Pond in Middleborough. The implication was obvious, 
and the English authorities promptly apprehended three of Philip's 
tribesmen and brought them to trial. 

In order to give a semblance of fairness to the trial, six Indians were 
included on the jury. The concurrence of the six in a verdict of guilty 
could reasonably be counted on. But the court took no chances. Before 

24 Massachusetts: The General Background 

the six Indians were empaneled, a legal jury of twelve good (white) men 
and true had been drawn. In case of a 'bolt' by the Indians, a legal 
conviction was still assured. The Indians were executed in June, 1675, 
creating the overt act which forced Philip's hand. Before this event no 
hostilities had been undertaken by Philip or his warriors against the 
whites: now he immediately attacked Swansea. 

Town after town fell before him. While the English forces were march- 
ing in one direction, the Indians were burning and laying waste in an- 
other. The Narragansetts had not yet heartily engaged in the campaign, 
though there is no doubt that they stood pledged to it. In order to secure 
their strong support, Philip went to their country. This tactical necessity, 
forced upon him by the precipitation of war, turned out to be fatal. In 
December an army of fifteen hundred English concentrated upon this 
region where Philip was known to be. The whole Narragansett Nation 
was trapped in an immense swamp at South Kingston, Rhode Island, and 
Philip was overwhelmingly defeated. 

This was the turning-point of the war. When success in Massachusetts 
no longer attended Philip's cause, his southern allies began to desert him. 
He was driven from place to place, losing more and more of his warriors. 
His wife and son were captured and sold into slavery; his heart and cour- 
age were broken. He took shelter at last in his ancient seat at Pokanoket, 
but even here there was no longer any refuge. He was driven out and 
slain by one of his own men, in vengeance, according to the English report, 
for the life of a brother who had been shot by Philip. 

A few miles south of Kingston, a stone shaft by the railroad track 
marks the grave of the Narragansett Nation. The barrel of the gun with 
which Philip was killed is now in Pilgrim Hall, Plymouth, and its lock is 
in the keeping of the Massachusetts Historical Society of Boston. 

With the death of King Philip the power of the tribes of southern New 
England was completely destroyed. The war dragged on for two years 
more, until 1678. After Philip's rout, however, there was never any 
doubt as to its outcome. During its course the Wampanoags and their 
lesser allies, as well as the Narragansetts, were all but wiped out. The 
few survivors fled northward or westward beyond the Hudson. 

The extermination of the red men was not accomplished without dread- 
ful casualties among the English. One in every ten of the five thousand 
Englishmen of military age in the Massachusetts and Plymouth colonies 
is estimated to have been killed or captured. It was forty years before 
the devastated frontiers were reoccupied. 

Not only among the Indians were there idealists who, like Samoset 

First Americans 25 

and Massasoit, believed that there could be brotherhood between red 
men and white. Such idealists existed also among the colonists. One of 
the most active of these was John Eliot, the 'Apostle to the Indians.' 
Eliot was a sincere evangelist and a man of tremendous industry. He 
mastered the Algonquin language and translated the Bible into this 
tongue so that his converts might read it for themselves. He believed 
that before the Indians could be converted they must first be civilized, 
and in that belief the famous Praying Towns were conceived. 

In founding these centers of Christian education, Eliot associated with 
himself Gookin, Mayhew, and other men of intelligence and altruism. 
They established some thirty Praying Towns with schools and a teacher 
in each. The first was at Natick in 1651. A set of by-laws was formulated 
and an Indian named Waban was appointed justice of the peace. In the 
following year another Praying Town was established at Concord, and 
soon there were others sprinkled over the territory from Cape Cod to 
Narragansett Bay. Eliot traveled from one to another, preaching, teach- 
ing, and supervising. At first he was violently opposed by the local chiefs 
and priests, who feared the undermining of their power, but behind 
Eliot's gospel teachings loomed the heavy shadow of the English au- 
thorities, and gradually opposition was emptied of force. By 1674 there 
were eleven hundred converts in Massachusetts five hundred in 
Plymouth and the rest in Nantucket and Martha's Vineyard. Many of 
these conversions were no doubt genuine, but whether they were due 
more to religious conviction than to friendship for the white teachers is 

Eliot's plan embraced the possibility of higher education for his 
proteges. The first brick building at Harvard College was erected for 
Indian students, but they did not make use of it in numbers sufficient to 
justify the building, and it was transformed into a printing shop. One 
Indian, Caleb Cheeshahteamuck, was graduated from Harvard in the 
class of 1665; at least three others studied at the college but did not 

The Indians on Cape Cod and the adjacent islands had been in large 
part Christianized before the outbreak of King Philip's War. It is 
probable that some of them left the Praying Towns to join Philip, as did 
many from the Praying Towns around Boston. 

It was the undeserved fate of the Christian Indians to be treated by 
Philip as allies of the English and to be suspected by the English of 
treacherous commerce with Philip. One of the blacker pages in the 
history of the relations of the colonists and the Indians is the chronicle 

26 Massachusetts : The General Background 

of English treatment of the Christianized Naticks. Without overt act 
on the part of the latter to justify any suspicion of their loyalty, they 
were ordered to emigrate in the dead of winter. The Praying Town at 
Wamesit (Tewksbury) was broken up, and its inhabitants driven out to 
Long Island and Deer Island. The Indians suffered terribly in their con- 
finement at such a season to an area where they had neither shelter nor 
stores. After several weeks the General Court, yielding to adverse public 
opinion, gave permission for their removal from the islands providing, 
however, that this must be done without expense to the colony. Those 
who had survived were taken to Cambridge, where a humane citizen, 
Thomas Oliver, gave them refuge on his lands along the Charles River 
until spring, when most of them returned to the ruins of their homes. 
Ill, weakened by exposure and hunger, they were too feeble to maintain 
many towns, and the remoter ones were abandoned. 

This setback dealt a death blow to any further attempts to Christianize 
the Indians. The ' Apostle to the Indians ' strove in vain. Six years after 
the conclusion of King Philip's War, only four Praying Towns remained 
out of some thirty thriving centers which John Eliot had established. 
His life work had been undone. 

The Indians at Natick, who at one time held all the town offices, were 
gradually replaced by white men, and their land titles extinguished. At 
various times and places Indian reservations were established. In 1861 
there were reservations at Chappequiddick, Christiantown, Gay Head, 
Herring Pond, Natick, and Ponkapog. But this restricted life was not 
favorable to the red man. Mentally and physically, the Indians de- 
generated with the taking on of the white men's vices. 

Today there are only two places in Massachusetts where the Indians 
have been able to preserve a semblance of their ethnic identity: Mashpee 
and Gay Head. The former town, incorporated in 1871, comprises 
Mashpee, South Mashpee, and a part of Wakeby. It has a public library, 
a town hall, and two churches; one of the latter, the Indian Mission 
Church, founded in 1684, is of interest to visitors. But the real sight in 
Mashpee is the cranberry bogs, the principal support of the town, which 
belong mostly to the white non-residents who employ the Indians as 
pickers. In the season, bending their backs over the bog, can be seen the 
half-breed descendants of the proud and friendly savages who once 
roamed the windswept dunes of Cape Cod. 

On the farthest tip of Martha's Vineyard, across Menemsha Pond, 
rises a peninsula that ends in cliffs composed of strata of incredibly varie- 
gated clays red, blue, orange, tan, and black alternating with a 


A GOOD many landmarks in the history of Massachusetts 
are still standing. The pictures of some of these landmarks 
are reproduced here: the house of John Alden, who was one 
of the heroes of Longfellow's poem, 'Miles Standish'; the 
Paul Revere House; the Old South Meeting-House; the Old 
State House, which saw the Boston Massacre take place be- 
neath the stately carvings of the Lion and the Unicorn which 
adorn its roof". 

Also included among the pictures are two ships, for the sea 
has always been important in the making of Massachusetts. 
First is the ' Arbella ' a reconstruction which floats on 
the waters of the Salem Harbor not far from the spot where 
the original vessel dropped anchor in 1630. And there is the 
frigate l Constitution,' famous for its victories in the War of 
1812, and the subject of Holmes's poem, 'Old Ironsides.' 





fP. FLA 

BRET r <LED r 









First Americans 27 

dazzling white sandy substance. This is Gay Head. From these bright 
clays the Indians, who have kept their racial stock more nearly pure here 
than elsewhere, fashion small vases and jars which preserve the designs 
and patterns inherited from remote ancestors. The sale of these souvenirs 
by silent Indian children waiting by the roadside for the hordes of sum- 
mer tourists is the last reminder of a primitive culture that could not 
survive the rape of its free forests and wide lands. 


MASSACHUSETTS (mas-sa-chu'sets) 190 miles long, 60 to 100 miles broad, 
8266 square miles in area; bounded northerly by New Hampshire and Vermont, 
westerly by New York, southerly by Connecticut, Rhode Island, and the At- 
lantic, easterly by Massachusetts Bay and the Atlantic, lies between the 
parallels of 41 10' and 42 53' north latitude and between 69 57' and 73 
30' west latitude. Its name is a combination of three Algonquin words mean- 
ing 'near the great mountain': adchu (mountain or hill), set (location near or in 
the vicinity of), massu (great). 

MASSACHUSETTS' history begins not with the landing of the Pilgrims 
at Plymouth but when Martin Luther dramatically nailed his ninety-five 
theses to the church door at Wittenberg. The Protestant Reformation 
from which the religious dissension of the reign of Henry VIII may be 
traced drove Pilgrim and Puritan to Massachusetts in quest of theological 
freedom for themselves if not for other religious and social dissenters. 

Before religious nonconformists became the first permanent settlers, the 
coast of the Bay Colony had been well explored by hardy adventurers. 
Leif, son of Eric the Red, may have touched Massachusetts with his 
Norsemen in the year 1000; it is probable, too, that French and Spanish 
fishermen cast their nets on the Grand Banks off Newfoundland in the 
middle of the fifteenth century and that many of them touched Cape Cod, 
lured by the fish from which the sickle-shaped promontory takes its name. 
The first voyage definitely recorded was that of John Cabot, Venetian 
navigator, whose exploration in 1497 and 1498 gave England her claim 
to the region of North America. During the next century scattered ex- 
plorers slowly added to Europe's meager knowledge of the region: John 
Rut, a shipmaster of the English Royal Navy, Verrazzano under the 
fleur de Us, Gomez under the flag of Spain, all sought a route to the fabled 
riches of Zipangu and Cathay. Unsung fishermen, too, contented with the 
less romantic cod of Massachusetts' shores, looked for shelter from the 
North Atlantic's storms in the snug harbors of the coast. 

Commercial enterprise and the search for exotic Eastern treasure 

Enough of Its History to Explain Its People 29 

motivated these early voyages, and similar motives were responsible for 
the first attempts to settle Massachusetts. The patent for the coloniza- 
tion of southern New England which Sir Humphrey Gilbert obtained 
from Elizabeth in 1578, recognizing that permanent population must 
precede trade, authorized the planting of an English community beyond 
the seas. Sir Humphrey unfortunately died before this was accomplished; 
returning from his first exploratory voyage, his frail ten- ton vessel was 
^swamped by the huge waves of an Atlantic storm, and his seamen on 
an accompanying ship had a last glimpse of their commander standing 
on the af terdeck, waving a book and shouting, ' We are as near to heaven 
by sea as by land.' Gilbert's patent descended to his half brother, Sir 
Walter Raleigh, but England, bent on harrying Spain, was too much 
concerned with the success of her marauding sea dogs to be interested in 
colony planting. A few attempts at settlement followed, but they were 
made in violation of the Raleigh patent. In 1602 Bartholomew Gosnold 
explored Massachusetts Bay, christened Cape Cod, built a fort on the 
island of Cuttyhunk in Buzzard's Bay, and finally returned to England 
with his ships loaded with sassafras. 

Raleigh's waning power ended with the death of Elizabeth, and James 
I, the new Stuart monarch, assigned the land to a group of Plymouth 
merchants and adventurers known as the Plymouth Company. Com- 
merce and profits stimulated Sir Ferdinando Gorges, Sir John Popham, 
and the other gentlemen who managed the destinies of this new company. 
Learning of the richness of the New England coast from George Wey- 
mouth, a private explorer, the Plymouth Company attempted to found 
the colony of Sagadahoc on the Kennebec River in what is now Maine 
(1607), at the time that the first permanent English colony was being 
established in Virginia. This venture failed completely and the company 
lapsed into inactivity, although lands were granted to a number of small 
fishing and trading colonies that sprang up along the Massachusetts coast 
in the early seventeenth century, inspired by John Smith's glowing ac- 
counts of the region. One visionary explorer, licensed by the company, 
devoted a season to gold-digging on Martha's Vineyard, but only ' spent 
his victuall and returned with nothing.' 

The lust for trade failed to entice a population sufficient to make 
Massachusetts important, but where desire for gain failed the Reforma- 
tion succeeded. Introduced to England by the oft- wedded Henry VIII, 
it had barely taken root when his successor, Mary, returned the land to 
Catholicism and sent Protestant leaders scurrying for their lives. Eliza- 
beth attempted a compromise settlement that satisfied neither extreme 

30 Massachusetts: The General Background 

Catholics nor extreme Protestants, although the compromise laid the 
basis for the Church of England. The Elizabethan settlement was par- 
ticularly distasteful to Protestants who had fled from England during 
the reign of 'Bloody Mary,' and had imbibed the radical teaching of 
Luther and Calvin while sojourning on the Continent. It was from this 
group that Massachusetts received its first wave of settlement. 

First among these enthusiastic Protestants to reach the New World 
were the Separatists or Pilgrims. They believed each congregation should' 
be entirely independent of all other congregations, and the compromise 
establishing the Church of England was particularly unacceptable to 
them. A small band of these people had been driven by the uncongenial 
atmosphere of their native Scrooby to seek a haven for their beliefs in 
Holland early in the seventeenth century, but the industrialism of 
Ley den displeased sons of English soil, who determined to turn instead 
to the New World. After securing support from London financiers they 
obtained a grant (1619) to settle on the James River in Virginia, and it 
was for that point that the 'Mayflower' set sail in 1620. Storms drove 
them off their course, however, and it was in Provincetown harbor that 
the small ship cast anchor on a bleak November day. The appearance of 
the countryside disturbed them: 'For sumer being done, all things stand 
upon them with a weatherbeaten face; and ye whole countrie, full of 
woods and thickets, represented a wild and savage heiw.' Disheartened 
at the prospects, the Pilgrims spent some time looking for more hospitable 
surroundings. Plymouth harbor was finally selected, and on the day 
after Christmas, 1620, they began to erect their first common house for 
themselves and their goods. 

In founding their colony at Plymouth, the Pilgrims were on land to 
which they had no right; they were, in a sense, beyond the pale of English 
law which would have followed them had they reached their destination 
in Virginia. To protect themselves until governmental control could be 
made to include them, they drew up the 'Mayflower Compact' while 
their ship was still anchored in Provincetown harbor. By this agreement, 
based upon Calvinistic principles, all agreed to abide by the majority 
will. A pattern of democracy was cast for this first Massachusetts colony 
which served throughout the trying winter and allowed the colony to 
enter upon a period of slow but steady growth. Within a comparatively 
short time the London backers were paid in full and Plymouth became 
economically sound and independent. In this the Pilgrims made their 
greatest contribution: they demonstrated that a colony could be self- 
supporting and encouraged others to attempt the experiment. 

Enough of Its History to Explain Its People 31 

A number of small communities were founded along the Massachusetts 
coast during the next decade. Nearly all were villages or posts dedicated 
to fishing and trade, and all secured their grants from the Council for 
New England, which had by this time taken over the claims of the Ply- 
mouth Company. Most famous among these early settlements was one 
sent out in 1622 by Thomas Weston, a London merchant who had aided 
the Pilgrims, at Wessagusset, now Weymouth. When abandoned by 
Weston, the post built by his men was taken over by Captain Robert 
Gorges and became a dispersing point for isolated settlements. From this 
point the militant churchman, Thomas Walford, commenced his trek to 
Mishawum, now Charlestown; Samuel Maverick, a gentleman- trader, 
established himself in what is now East Boston; the Reverend William 
Blaxton (or Blackstone), a rebel Anglican clergyman, sought solitude in 
what was later to be known as Beacon Hill; and David Thompson re- 
moved to the island in Boston harbor that still bears his name. The re- 
ligious-minded Pilgrims had little in common with most of these adven- 
turers, but they objected particularly to the settlement of a group of in- 
dentured servants led by Captain Thomas Wollaston and Thomas Morton 
at Quincy in 1625. Morton and his fellows were jolly sportsmen, and while 
they traded with the Indians they reserved time enough to frolic. * They 
also set up a Maypole,' wrote the horrified Bradford, Governor of Ply- 
mouth, 'drinking and dancing aboute in many days togeather, inviting 
the Indian women for their consorts, dancing and frisking togeather like 
so many fairies or furies.' These 'beastley practicses of the madd Bac- 
chinalians' did not cease until the Pilgrims sent Miles Standish to cap- 
ture the post and deport Morton to England. A fishing post under the 
command of Roger Conant had also been established at Cape Ann in 
1623 by an English trading concern called the Dorchester Company. 
These villages were all small and could not, unaided, have expanded into 
a united colony, but they gave Englishmen a foothold and an interest 
which, when the time was ripe, attracted migration and laid the founda- 
tions of the Commonwealth. 

The later migration evolved from this insignificant Dorchester fishing 
enterprise on Cape Ann. Conant's failure left many of his English backers 
dissatisfied but still anxious to experiment in empire-building. The 
Reverend John White, John Endicott, and John Humphrey were the 
most restive spirits in this group. These men were Puritans who, unwilling 
to separate from the Established Church, believed that the Church 
might be purified from within; they hoped that a colony in America 
would provide an opportunity for the free exercise of their beliefs and 

32 Massachusetts: The General Background 

would serve as a 'bulwark against the kingdom of Antichrist.' The 
Council for New England was respectfully petitioned for a grant of land, 
which was approved in March, 1628. The petitioners were given control 
of the territory between a point three miles south of the Charles River 
and another three miles north of the Merrimack, running from sea to sea. 
Armed with this grant, a shipload of settlers under Endicott set sail for 
Salem in 1628, where Conant and his band had moved two years before. 
Meanwhile royal sanction was sought and obtained, and in 1629 their 
* dread sovereign ' issued a charter confirming the grant from the Council 
of New England. 

This royal act created the Massachusetts Bay Company, and it was 
upon the basis of this charter that the democracy and expansion of the 
Massachusetts Bay Colony developed. The colony was to be admin- 
istered by two general courts; the first was to be made up of all the stock- 
holders or freemen and was to hold quarterly sessions, at one of which 
the members of the other court were to be selected in the form of a 
governor, deputy governor, and eighteen assistants. The use of the term 
'freemen' as a designation for members of the General Court laid the 
basis for the representative system as it later emerged in Massachusetts. 
Equally important was the failure of the charter to state that meetings 
of the Court must be held in England. This made it possible for the 
charter and the entire government of the colony to be transferred to 

Certain prominent Puritan leaders in England, notably John Winthrop, 
recognized this vital fact. They perceived that if the charter was removed 
to America the colony would virtually be free of English control and 
could, therefore, become a Puritan commonwealth governed by Biblical 
principles. Winthrop's arguments prevailed, and the company resolved 
to move entirely to Massachusetts and to change from a trading company 
with Puritan sympathies to a Puritan colony. In return, Winthrop 
agreed to emigrate with his considerable group of followers. In March, 
1630, they set out confidently, and with them went the charter. A new 
type of English colony was automatically established, and Massachusetts 
became a self-contained corporate colony markedly different from earlier 
proprietary colonies like Virginia. 

Salem, which had pleased Roger Conant, did not please Winthrop, 
who had become the colony's first governor, and he moved first to 
Charlestown and then to Boston, leaving the other communities as 
towns to join those that grew up around Boston harbor. A period of 
almost unprecedented growth followed, and by 1640 sixteen thousand 

Enough of Its History to Explain Its People 3.3 

people had joined in the Great Migration to Massachusetts, for which 
English religious and economic conditions were largely responsible. The 
Puritans had joined forces with the Parliamentary Party, which opposed 
James I and had lost. Charles I dissolved his third Parliament in 1629, 
and entered upon an eleven-year period of personal rule designed partly 
to stamp out dissent and entrench the Anglican Church. Puritan dis- 
satisfaction was aggravated by economic distress, particularly in the 
eastern and southeastern counties, the principal sources of emigration to 
America. Puritan discontent was reflected in the number of settlements 
Medford, Roxbury, Dorchester, Lynn, Cambridge which were 
made on the Bay Company's land during the era of Jacobin dictator- 

While the Massachusetts Bay charter contained intimations of de- 
mocracy, growth was slow. The leaders of the colony planned a social 
order in which individual freedom was to be sublimated to the will of 
God as interpreted by His clergy. The Governor and his assistants de- 
voted themselves to this end. They refused to summon a meeting of the 
General Court until one hundred and nine freemen, insisting on their 
charter right, demanded that this be done. So firmly did Winthrop and 
his clerical allies believe that they alone were the proper interpreters of 
the Divine will that they illegally vested nearly all governmental powers 
within themselves before succumbing to this popular pressure by pro- 
viding that only church members could sit in the General Court. This 
occasioned a growing discontent which culminated in 1634, when the 
freemen demanded to see the charter. The Governor dared not refuse, 
and the indignant members of the General Court, realizing that their 
rights had been infringed, hastily passed legislation which would vest 
governmental authority for all time in their own hands. 

Discontent bred of these struggles accelerated the settlement of 
Massachusetts and the rest of New England. As long as the magistrates 
could direct the course of this westward movement they approved, if 
only for the reason that God's word was planted in the wilderness. Land 
was granted freely to any group of town proprietors who were church 
members, and tier upon tier of frontier towns were created as population 
flowed westward from England through Boston. On the south shore were 
founded Duxbury (1632), Scituate (1633), Hingham (1636), Barnstable 
(1638), Yarmouth (1639), Marshfield (1640), and Eastham (1649); on 
the broad fields of the north shore Saugus, later named Lynn (1631), 
Ipswich (1634), Marblehead (1635), Newbury (1635), Rowley (1639), 
and Salisbury (1640), while to the west Cambridge or Newtowne (1631), 

34 Massachusetts: The General Background 

Dedham (1636), Braintree (1640), Concord or Musketequid (1635), and 
Sudbury (1639) steadily advanced the course of settlement. 

While the peopling of Massachusetts continued, Boston was sending 
out its inhabitants to settle other New England colonies. In 1635 the 
Reverend Thomas Hooker's congregation at Cambridge, dissatisfied 
with the ruling hand of John Cotton and other Boston clergy, and 
moved by 'a strong bent of their spirits for change,' gave Connecticut its 
first English inhabitants by founding Hartford. In the same year 
Wethersfield and Windsor, Connecticut, were established by mass 
migrations from Watertown and Dorchester, and in 1636 a group from 
Roxbury laid out the first fields of Springfield. From Massachusetts 
Bay, too, went Roger Williams and Anne Hutchinson, expelled for their 
principles, to found Providence and Newport in Rhode Island; John 
Wheelwright, likewise banished, made the weary journey to Exeter, 
New Hampshire, to establish a more democratic church. The same 
spirit of revolt against the established order that had sent Puritans to 
America thus led to a dispersion of their numbers and ideas in the 

The social, economic, and spiritual influences which have distinguished 
Massachusetts from the other States were implanted in these towns. 
Nature ordained small-scale agriculture as the basis of Colonial economic 
life in Massachusetts. Rough, rocky soil made the clearing and cultiva- 
tion of large plots of land impossible, and only interested labor could 
make it reasonably productive. Slavery was tried during Colonial days, 
but when found to be unprofitable was soon abandoned. The cold winters 
of Massachusetts made a compact form of settlement imperative; homes 
were clustered about a central green or common and the fields scattered 
nearby. Even though this encouraged sociability, the Puritan farmer 
preferred to utilize the long winter months in making furniture, harnesses, 
and the many other things needed by his family that his meagre income 
from the soil would not permit him to buy. Thus developed the fabled 
New England jack-of-all-trades whose descendants were equipped to 
take over mechanical tasks when mills began to invade Massachusetts 
early in the nineteenth century. 

Situated on the village common in the center of the towns was the 
church. A closely knit settlement mitigated the influence of the frontier, 
which might have arrested the formal observance of religion. Long 
winter evenings afforded ample opportunity for introspection and made 
the Puritans more righteous and godly than their English brethren. In 
such society the minister became an outstanding figure; he was each 

Enough of Its History to Explain Its People 35 

town's acknowledged leader and frequently, in addition, its lawyer, 
doctor, and schoolmaster. His rule was not absolute, however, for each 
community was governed by a town meeting, in which every church 
member had an equal voice. This essentially democratic institution was 
one of the most enduring contributions of Massachusetts, through which 
its people received the training necessary to provide political leadership 
in the Revolution. 

These town meetings not only managed ordinary governmental func- 
tions, but the life of each inhabitant was carefully regulated. Individual 
liberty was sacrificed to detailed legislation regulating habits and social 
conduct. Even dress was regarded as a legitimate field for official scrutiny. 
These 'blue laws/ as they have since been called, represented a desire for 
simplicity natural to a group that had rebelled against the ceremony of 
the Established Church; they reflected, too, the realization that hard 
work was necessary to conquer a wilderness. The shiftless were 'warned 
out' of Massachusetts towns, holidays such as Christmas were forbidden, 
Maypoles and similar frivolities were discouraged. There was work to 
be done, and the town fathers were determined to see that no one shirked. 
The Sabbath alone was exempted, not solely because of Biblical injunc- 
tion but because a day of rest was required by hard-working colonizers. 

The Church gave Massachusetts more than blue laws. It initiated, 
among other things, the educational development of America. Puri- 
tanism presupposed an intelligent clergy capable of interpreting Scrip- 
ture, and literate worshipers who could understand the Bible and the long 
sermons to which they were subjected. Schools, therefore, were essential 
for the training of clergymen as well as their congregations. In 1636 the 
General Court appropriated a sum of money to start the College of New- 
towne or Cambridge, a college endowed by John Harvard with his books, 
his money, and his name. Popular education, however, dates from 1647, 
when a law requiring elementary schools in towns of fifty families and 
secondary schools in those double that size or larger was enacted. Al- 
though not free, these schools were open to all, and laid the foundation 
of the American educational system. 

Massachusetts was permitted to develop its peculiar social and religious 
institutions because of the preoccupation of the mother country. From 
the time of its founding until 1660 the colony was virtually independent 
of England, then engrossed in civil war and the Cromwellian Protectorate. 
The Puritan colonies were able in 1643 to form the New England Con- 
federation as a bulwark of defense against the Indians and the Dutch of 
New York. With the restoration of Charles II in 1660, however, Massa- 

36 Massachusetts: The General Background 

chusetts entered upon a new era which saw the Bible Commonwealth 
gradually evolve into an orderly crown colony, similar to Virginia or 
the other English outposts along the coast. 

This change was possible partly because Puritan excesses had led to a 
declining interest in religion in Massachusetts. In the i65o's, for example, 
all of the forces of Puritanism were focused on a few troublesome 
Quakers who had made their way into the colony. They were beaten and 
banished, only to return in quest of martyrdom, with which the magis- 
trates unwittingly provided them. Such willful persecution turned the 
people against the clergy and magistrates who had for so long dominated 
Massachusetts. The younger people who had not suffered for their 
religion as had their parents and the rising secular commercial class 
demanded a government less completely dominated by the Church. 
They won their first victory in 1657 with the adoption of the Half Way 
Covenant, which allowed baptized as well as converted church members 
to exercise the franchise, but it was not until the overthrow of the 
Massachusetts charter in 1684 that the Bible Commonwealth completely 

The withdrawal of the charter on which the Bay Colony had rested its 
early governmental system was a natural result of the Stuart Restoration. 
The tendency throughout the Empire after 1660 was toward tightening 
imperial control and drawing the colonies closer together that they might 
be useful to the mother country. This the Massachusetts leaders, un- 
disciplined by twenty years of imperial inefficiency, resisted vigorously, 
refusing to grant liberty of conscience or citizenship to members of the 
Church of England, openly snubbing royal commissions or agents sent 
to investigate conditions, and flagrantly violating the laws with which 
Parliament was attempting to regulate the Empire's trade. Justly in- 
dignant, the English Government began court proceedings against 
Massachusetts that culminated in 1684 in a decree cancelling the Massa- 
chusetts charter. 

A new government known as the Dominion of New England was 
provided for Massachusetts. This was an attempt to centralize all the 
northern colonies so that royal control could be effected. Massachusetts, 
Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Hampshire, and Maine and later New 
York and New Jersey were united into a single governmental unit under 
the control of Sir Edmund Andros. Although an able administrator, he 
immediately provoked colonial wrath by what were considered tyrannical 
acts. For a time Massachusetts resisted his orders in every conceivable 
way and the Reverend Increase Mather, President of Harvard College, 

Enough of Its History to Explain Its People 37 

was sent to England to protest directly to James II. When the news of the 
Glorious Revolution in England (1688) which toppled the last of the 
Stuart monarchs from the throne and elevated William and Mary in their 
stead reached the colony, the Puritans seized the opportunity to stage 
their own revolt against Andros. The Dominion of New England was 
overthrown, and a provisional government was set up until the will of the 
new rulers could be learned. 

Massachusetts hoped for a restoration of its old charter, but this was 
not in conformity with the new Colonial policy. The new instrument of 
government issued by William and Mary in 1691 created a royal colony 
similar to Virginia or Maryland, established boundaries, and solidified 
institutions in a form that was to endure until the Revolution. During its 
period of independence Massachusetts had launched an imperialistic 
policy of its own and had annexed Maine and New Hampshire; now 
New Hampshire was taken away, but Massachusetts was given juris- 
diction over Plymouth and the islands south of Cape Cod. The Governor 
of the Bay Colony was henceforth to be appointed by the Crown, and the 
old assistants became the Governor's Council, elected by the Assembly. 
Two legislative houses (which had actually existed in Massachusetts 
since 1644, when a dispute between the assistants and freemen over the 
ownership of a stray sow drew them to separate chambers) were recog- 
nized by the new charter. One of the most important provisions of the 
new charter abolished church membership as a prerequisite for voting; 
Massachusetts was to be a civil rather than a Bible Commonwealth. 

The changed governmental structure embodied in the charter of 1691 
initiated the forces which almost a century later were to lead Massa- 
chusetts and the other colonies to the brink of revolt. Massachusetts 
farmers, accustomed to virtual freedom since 1630, resented the inter- 
ference of a governor appointed by the Crown. The charter gave the 
Governor the right to veto laws passed by the Assembly, but this ad- 
vantage was balanced by the Assembly's right to vote the Governor's 
salary. Conflict between these two branches of government, one repre- 
senting the Crown, the other representing the settlers, who were jealous 
of what they had come to regard as then* rights, was continual after 1717. 
England's efforts to control the trade of her increasingly rebellious colony 
was the crux of the controversy. 

The people of Massachusetts were peculiarly sensitive to commercial 
regulation, for by the beginning of the eighteenth century they were 
finding in the sea the riches which nature had denied them elsewhere. 
Starting with scattered fishing ventures, their trade had become in- 

38 Massachusetts: The General Background 

creasingly profitable as Yankee shippers used the abundant harbors and 
the plentiful supply of lumber for the construction of ships which scoured 
the seven seas in search of profits. Massachusetts gradually emerged as 
the carrier for America; her ships hauled the sugar of the West Indies and 
the tobacco of Virginia to the mother country, and returned laden with 
manufactured goods and luxuries for Colonial planter and merchant. 

Engaged largely in trade, Massachusetts felt the effect of commercial 
regulation more than any other colony. Under the restrictions of the 
Restoration and the eighteenth century the market for many of the 
essential products of Colonial enterprise was confined to England, and 
the colonists were forbidden to secure their manufactured goods except 
through the mother country. These laws did little harm to the staple- 
producing colonies. Virginia could exchange her tobacco for the luxuries 
available in England, and Barbadoes could do the same with her sugar. 
But Massachusetts produced nothing that the mother country desired, 
her fish competed with those of Britain's fleets, and her agricultural goods 
found little market in a country still predominately rural. Yet the Bay 
Colony's growing population needed the products of English mills and 
factories, and Massachusetts in order to circumvent these commercial 
restrictions developed the famous Triangular Trade. Sugar and mo- 
lasses were brought from the West Indies in return for foodstuffs, lumber, 
livestock, and codfish. Molasses was transformed into rum, which was 
traded in Africa for slaves, who were then sold in the sugar-growing West 
Indian islands to obtain the gold required for English luxuries. While 
England had numerous possessions in the Caribbean region, the British 
islands were not large enough to absorb so great a volume of trade. The 
continued economic existence of the colony depended on an uninter- 
rupted trade with French, Spanish, and Dutch sugar islands, a trade 
made illegal by English commercial legislation. 

Massachusetts did not feel the full weight of these burdensome laws for 
some time. England made few attempts to enforce them, and smuggling 
went on with the open connivance of royal governors and their agents, 
many of the colony's great fortunes being founded in this illegal but 
respectable trade. It was not until the close of the long series of wars 
with France which filled much of the eighteenth century that the mother 
country realized the full extent of commercial laxity. This conflict be- 
tween the two great colonial powers, which lasted for more than half 
a century, reached its culmination in the Seven Years' War (1756-63), 
which was touched off in America and offered a true test of the colony's 
loyalty to Crown and Empire. As in the previous contests, the Massa- 

Enough of Its History to Explain Its People 39 

chusetts back country was subjected to a series of raids by French and 
Indians who swept down the Champlain Valley from Canada. Eastern 
shippers, impervious to barbarities on the frontier, blithely continued 
their illicit traffic with the French sugar islands and with Canada. The 
French armies were supplied by this means with the foodstuffs necessary 
to ravage the Massachusetts hinterland. Enticed by the greater profits 
of wartime, thrifty Yankee captains carried on this trade with the enemy 
so extensively that England's superior navy was completely unable to 
starve the French West Indian possessions into submission; in fact, 
foodstuffs sold there more cheaply than in British islands. British officers 
found it cheaper to import grain from England than to compete in 
America's markets with traders who were anxious to sell to the enemy. 
Massachusetts, along with the other colonies, refused to provide ade- 
quately for its own defense or to bear what the home government con- 
sidered a just share of the war's expenses. 

This scandalous conduct convinced England that her whole Colonial 
administration needed reform, but it was this reform which finally led to 
America's successful struggle for independence. In that clash of mother 
country and colony Massachusetts played a leading part, not only be- 
cause a democratic tradition had been bred in her citizens for generations, 
but also because she, more than any other colony, was adversely affected 
by the new imperial policy. The first of these measures, the Sugar Act of 
1764, made effective earlier prohibitions on trade with French or Spanish 
possessions; the second, the Stamp Act enacted a year later, provided for 
revenue stamps which were to be affixed to publications and to legal and 
commercial papers. Through these two measures the Crown hoped to 
raise a part of the revenue to maintain a body of troops in America neces- 
sary for the protection of the colonists against Indian attack, made im- 
minent in 1763 by the serious outbreak of border warfare known as 
Pontiac's Rebellion. 

These two measures actually did much harm to Massachusetts. The 
Sugar Act practically ended the foreign trade on which the colony de- 
pended for its currency supply, while the Stamp Act drained the little 
money remaining away from Boston. Furthermore, Massachusetts was 
undergoing the usual post-war depression, which magnified the effects of 
the new acts. It is little wonder that Boston merchants, hurriedly re- 
trenching, agreed to wear no more lace and ruffles or that Boston trades- 
men were willing to appear only in American-made leather clothes. It is 
easy to understand, too, why Sam Adams and the little group of political 
leaders who gathered with him at the picturesque Boston tavern, the 

40 Massachusetts: The General Background 

Green Dragon, could stir up mobs which forced the resignation of the 
Massachusetts stamp collector and despoiled the house of Lieutenant 
Governor Thomas Hutchinson. Amidst this popular discontent a general 
boycott of English goods, in which Boston merchants joined with those 
of Philadelphia and New York, was easily accomplished, and it was this 
boycott, seriously injuring British manufacturers, who were already 
suffering from a depression similar to that being felt in America, that 
caused the repeal of the Stamp Act and the revision of the Sugar Act 
in 1766. 

Peace, however, was not for long. In 1767 a series of revenue measures, 
the Townshend Acts, which levied duties on paint, glass, tea, and other 
products imported into the colonies, again stirred Massachusetts to a 
fever of resentment. Boston shippers were particularly alarmed by re- 
forms in the customs service that accompanied the Townshend Acts. 
A Board of Customs Commissioners was placed in the Bay Colony, and 
that threatened to bring to a complete end the little smuggling which was 
carried on after the passage of the Sugar Act. Again merchants, those of 
Boston this time taking the lead, protested by refusing to import English 
goods; again mobs roamed the Boston streets, harrying before them luck- 
less agents of the Crown. Mob rule reached its height when an angry 
crowd tried to prevent a customs agent from collecting duty on a cargo 
of wine that was about to be landed by John Hancock. The agent was, 
as he expressed it, ' hoved down ' into the hold while the patriots gleefully 
carried the wine ashore. Protests such as these, together with a shifting 
point of view in England, finally led to the repeal of the Townshend Acts 
in 1770, but they also led to the establishment of a garrison in Boston 
that peace might be preserved in that turbulent city. The inevitable 
clash between these soldiers and the overwrought citizenry of Boston 
came on the night of March 5, 1770, when a mob that was taunting a 
sentry at the customs house was fired upon, giving first blood to the 
revolution not yet formally begun, and to history the 'Boston Massacre.' 

For three years after the repeal of the Townshend Acts the controversy 
subsided. Prosperity returned and people everywhere forgot the few 
years of turbulence. They forgot that England still taxed their tea and 
molasses, and Sam Adams worked in vain to stir up sentiment against 
the mother country. Even John Adams, staunch patriot though he was, 
drank tea at John Hancock's home, and hoped it had been smuggled from 
Holland but did not take the pains to inquire. 

This calm was broken in 1773 with the passage of the Tea Act, which 
gave the East India Company a monopoly for the sale of that beverage 

Enough of Its History to Explain Its People 41 

in the colonies and lowered the duty until it could no longer be smuggled 
profitably. Shippers who had illegally imported tea in the past were 
swept from business, as well as the merchants who handled its shipping 
and sale. The Tea Act alarmed Colonial business classes, who, fearing 
Parliament might create similar monopolies on other products in the 
future, were driven once more into the hands of the radicals. Sam 
Adams was in his glory. In a series of carefully planned meetings he 
worked Boston sentiment to a new height, then, at the climax of a great 
gathering in the Old South Meeting House, sent a group of disguised 
laborers and tradesmen to dump the tea on three East India Company 
ships into Boston Harbor. 

The reaction both in England and America to this wanton destruction 
of property was one of instant revulsion, particularly among the merchant 
group that had aided the patriots in the past ; nevertheless a wise handling 
of the situation would probably have quieted revolutionary agitation for 
some time to come. Instead, the British Ministry blundered badly. A 
series of Coercive Acts were hurriedly passed by Parliament closing the 
Port of Boston to trade, altering the charter, revising the legal system, 
and inflicting penalties on Massachusetts which were to be removed only 
when restitution for the destroyed tea should be made. Most of the 
Colonial merchants, even in Boston, were willing to take this step, but 
the Coercive Acts had put the radicals in control again. Unable to secure 
merchant co-operation in a boycott of England, they determined to 
attempt united political action, and from Massachusetts and other 
colonies a call for a Continental Congress was issued. The Boston Tea 
Party gave the patriot forces of the Revolution the unity required for 

The Massachusetts Assembly chose its delegates to this first Congress 
with the door of the legislative chamber locked, and with Governor 
Thomas Gage vainly shouting through the keyhole that the legislature 
was dissolved and could transact no further business. Under these con- 
ditions, duplicated in other colonies, the delegates selected were naturally 
of the radical wing, and the Continental Congress quickly showed their 
domination. They endorsed the Suffolk Resolves and enforced a general 
boycott of English goods. As yet the members had no thought of inde- 
pendence ; it remained for further developments in Massachusetts to lead 
them to the point where relations with the mother country could be 

Tension had been high in the Bay Colony ever since the arrival of 
General Thomas Gage, who had been sent with a large force of troops to 

42 Massachusetts: The General Background 

enforce the Coercive Acts. Clashes between the soldiers and patriots were 
narrowly averted on several occasions during the fall and winter of 1774- 
75, and only served to hurry the process by which the colonists were 
arming themselves, drilling their militia, and forming groups of Minute- 
men who were ready to swing into action against the British at a moment's 
notice. On April 19, 1775, the opportunity came. General Gage had re- 
solved to send a detachment of troops to Concord to overawe the country- 
side by a show of British strength and to secure the supplies accumulated 
there by the colonists. The march began on the night of April 18, but 
the patriots were prepared for such a step and immediately dispatched 
two riders to warn their countrymen. One rider, Paul Revere, was cap- 
tured before he could reach Concord; the other, William Dawes, suc- 
ceeded in spreading the alarm. Minutemen began gathering immediately. 
A small group assembled on the village Green at Lexington, where they 
were met by the larger British force. In the scuffle that followed a shot 
was fired the shot heard round the world. The troops then marched 
on to Concord, destroyed the stores, and returned to Boston, with a 
rising countryside following their steps and keeping up a steady fire that 
lasted until the last British soldier was safe in Boston. 

The siege of Boston followed naturally, for the English had retreated 
to the safety of that city and it was inevitable that the colonists should 
decide to keep them there. The city then lay at the tip of a narrow 
peninsula, so that this could be accomplished easily if all avenues to the 
mainland were properly guarded. One such avenue lay across Boston 
Neck; this was carefully watched by the army of twenty thousand men 
authorized by the Assembly, and commanded first by General Artemus 
Ward and after July 2 by George Washington. Another possible route 
was across Charlestown Neck, and to protect this the Americans had to 
fortify Bunker Hill. This was done on the night of June 16. Actually it 
was Breed's Hill that was fortified rather than Bunker Hill, and it was 
there that the famous battle was fought the following day. The poorly 
prepared American forces were driven slowly backward, but acquitted 
themselves well, and demonstrated for the first time that the colonists 
could cope successfully with the supposedly invincible British arms. 

After Bunker Hill, the siege of Boston became one of quiet waiting until 
the spring of 1776. Not until cannon which Ethan Allen had captured 
at Ticonderoga were sledded to Boston was it possible for Washington 
to attack. These new arms, mounted on Nooks Hill, Dorchester Heights, 
commanded the entire city, and immediately began to throw shot upon 
the helpless British. Finally General Howe, now in command, recognized 

Enough of Its History to Explain Its People 43 

the inevitable. On March 17 the evacuation of Boston took place and the 
entire British army, together with many Tory citizens, sailed away to 
Nova Scotia. Massachusetts had not only launched the military phase 
of the Revolution, but had given the patriot cause its first major victory. 
For the remainder of the war, the State was free of hostile troops. 

Independence was inevitable after this first clash of rival arms, and 
with the separation of colonies from mother country Massachusetts was 
faced with the problem of erecting a new governmental structure that 
would perpetuate ideals of liberty and freedom. The last General Court 
held under the old provincial charter convened in 1774, and from that 
time on Massachusetts was governed by a Provincial Congress that had 
no legal basis for existence and was not representative. Objections 
naturally arose, particularly in Berkshire County, where the independent 
farmers refused to allow courts to sit until they had been given a govern- 
ment in which they had a voice. A constitution to meet this demand was 
drafted by the Provincial Congress in 1777-79 an d submitted to the 
people for ratification the first state constitution to be tested by pop- 
ular vote but that constitution contained few provisions for separation 
of powers and no Bill of Rights, and was promptly rejected. Finally in 
September, 1778, a popularly elected Constitutional Convention met in 
Cambridge, and after due consideration accepted a frame of government 
drawn up largely by John Adams. This was submitted to the people on 
March 2, 1780, and ratified on June 7. Massachusetts was the last of the 
States to adopt a written constitution, yet so wisely had its framers 
labored that today the same instrument still governs the Commonwealth, 
a record of which no other state can boast. Moreover, that constitution 
of 1780, drawn up by a popularly elected convention and submitted to 
the people for ratification, set a pattern that was to be followed in the 
framing of the Federal Constitution. 

In Massachusetts, as in the other States, the Revolutionary period was 
one of social and economic as well as political upheaval. Many of the 
great commercial and governmental leaders of the past became Tories 
and followed the retreating British armies to Canada or England. In 
their place a new aristocracy arose which drew its wealth, as in Colonial 
days, from the sea. More and more, as their operations increased, were 
the financial resources of the Commonwealth concentrated along the 
coast, leaving the dissatisfied farmers of the interior struggling vainly 
against the stubborn soil. This dissatisfaction was fanned to open 
rebellion by the economic depression which swept over the newly created 
United States after the war. In the hilly country around Worcester and 

44 Massachusetts: The General Background 

in the Berkshires the farmers began to demand legislative relief in the 
form of paper money and stay laws which would prevent mortgage fore- 
closures. These discontented elements united under the leadership of 
Daniel Shays, a Revolutionary war veteran. In 1786 he and his dis- 
heveled followers closed the courts of Worcester and threatened to cap- 
ture Boston until an army, hastily formed by Governor Bowdoin and 
financed by Boston merchants, quelled the uprising. 

This show of popular discontent alarmed the propertied classes of 
Massachusetts. They were now more disposed to support the growing 
movement for a new constitution to displace the Articles of Confedera- 
tion, which had proved so useless in fostering trade, stabilizing finance, 
and protecting the interests of property. Actually, Massachusetts became 
the sixth State to ratify the Federal Constitution, but this was accom- 
plished only after much adroit manipulation. A majority of the ratifying 
convention which assembled in Boston was opposed to the new form of 
government, with the farmers of the interior hilly region, the Berkshires 
and Maine, then still a part of Massachusetts, most outspoken in their 
opposition. Conservative leaders finally won over John Hancock, who, 
as was usual when he had an important decision to make, had retired to 
his home with an attack of gout until he determined the direction of 
popular sentiment. This was accomplished only by offering him the 
governorship of the State and, if Virginia did not ratify and make 
Washington eligible, their support for the presidency; but it was effective, 
for Hancock was the idol of the lower classes, and his support made 
ratification possible. In taking this step, however, Massachusetts sub- 
mitted a series of proposed amendments to the Constitution; this practice 
was followed by the remaining States, and from them grew the first 
ten amendments to our national Constitution, the so-called Bill of 

With the inauguration of the new government under Washington, 
Massachusetts entered on a period of prosperity and peace. While her 
old trade routes within the British Empire were now closed to her, new 
ones were soon discovered, particularly that immensely profitable trade 
with China which thrived unchecked until iron steamships supplanted 
American sailing vessels. In every other corner of the world, too, ships 
of daring Yankee masters began to appear, seeking cargoes and fortunes 
for themselves and their State. After 1793, with England and France 
locked in the first of the series of wars that followed the French Revolu- 
tion, Massachusetts took over a large share of the carrying trade formerly 
monopolized by those powers. From every quarter new wealth was 

Enough of Its History to Explain Its People 45 

flowing into the Commonwealth; the depression that had given birth to 
Shays' Rebellion was now only a fast dimming memory. 

This prosperity naturally shaped the political bent of the people, and 
when the shuffle of political fortunes which had gone on through Wash- 
ington's two administrations finally ended, Massachusetts was firmly 
wedded to the principles of the Federalist Party. This conviction was 
strengthened while John Adams, one of the Commonwealth's own sons, 
was Chief Executive. Many in the State even supported the Alien and 
Sedition Acts through which the Federalists sought to solidify national 
power during the French Naval War of 1798. Jefferson's election in 1800 
was looked upon as a major calamity; pious Massachusetts ladies con- 
cealed their Bibles lest that Francophile atheist burn them, and conserva- 
tive merchants and shipowners prepared for a disaster which they thought 
certain. Instead, the State's prosperity continued to increase, and by 
1804 Massachusetts was ready to desert the Federalist column for the 
first time and support Jefferson's re-election. 

Those who had taken this step soon were ready to admit their mistake, 
for the tangled foreign policy of Jefferson's second administration bore 
harder on Massachusetts than on any other State. The Embargo with 
which the President attempted to combat French and English inter- 
ference with American shipping led the Commonwealth once more into 
the slough of depression. The wealth of Massachusetts still came from 
the sea, and its people still protested against interference with their trade, 
as they had when burdened by English Navigation Acts. Those protests, 
voiced first by newspaper editors who spelled Embargo backward as 'O 
Grab Me,' swelled to a final chorus of rebellion when Jefferson's successor, 
Madison, responded to demands of the expansionist West and carried 
the United States into the War of 1812 against England. For the three 
years of that war the trade of the Commonwealth was at a standstill, 
driven from the seas by the superior British navy; and for those three 
years the people gave vent to their resentment in every conceivable 
manner. Massachusetts refused to allow her militia to be used outside 
the state borders, she gave only lukewarm financial support to the na- 
tional cause, she held celebrations to cheer English victories over Napo- 
leon, and she was instrumental in calling the Hartford Convention of 1814, 
where delegates from the several New England States talked vaguely of 
secession from the Union and nullification of the Constitution. 

With the close of the war in 1815, Massachusetts entered a new phase 
of her history. It was during this period that the basis for her later 
industrial development was laid, and the commercial aristocracy which 

46 Massachusetts : The General Background 

had shaped her destinies for so long was successfully challenged for the 
first time. American manufacturing began with Jefferson's Embargo, 
which stopped the importation of manufactured goods from England; 
it grew steadily during the war that followed, when the United States, 
cut off from European sources, was forced to become self-supporting; and 
it was given a permanent basis by the protective tariff of 1816, designed 
to insure the infant industries which had developed between 1807 and 
1815. At first this manufacturing was scattered through the Eastern 
States, but as time passed it concentrated more and more in New England 
and particularly in Massachusetts. There the Yankee farmers, long ac- 
customed to the production of household goods, had a training in handi- 
craft that equipped them to organize and manage the mills that dotted 
the countryside. The many streams that coursed the State's valleys 
furnished a plentiful supply of water-power. Labor could be secured as 
in no other section of the Union, for thousands of Massachusetts farmers 
were ready to abandon their unequal struggle with a stubborn soil and 
drift into industrial employment. Hence the Commonwealth was able 
to take full advantage of Francis Cabot Lowell's perfection of the first 
power loom which, originally installed at a mill in Waltham in 1814, 
revolutionized the textile industry and turned Lowell, Lawrence, Fall 
River, and other towns into manufacturing centers. By the time of the 
Civil War, Irish immigrants were flocking in to perform the labor in 
these factories and Massachusetts was fast assuming the appearance of 
a modern industrial state. 

The rise of manufacturing coincided with a decline in agriculture. This 
was partly due to the greater opportunity for profit available in the infant 
industries; more responsible, however, was the growth of Western agri- 
culture, with which the farmers of Massachusetts could not compete. 
Western farm products penetrated Eastern markets as soon as the Ohio 
Valley frontier was established, but it was only after 1825, when the 
opening of the Erie Canal allowed the cheap and rapid movement of 
Western products to the East, that the full impact of this new competition 
was felt. Grain from the Ohio Valley could now undersell grain from the 
Berkshires in the Boston markets, and Massachusetts' farmers were 
faced with the alternative of going to the cities to become workers in the 
growing factories or of migrating westward themselves. Many of them 
chose the latter course, moving in a constant stream across New York 
to settle the northern tier of the Old Northwest States. Rural decay in 
Massachusetts began. Cultivated fields were allowed to return to a state 
of nature, and abandoned farms alone remained as dreary reminders of 
former prosperity. 

Enough of Its History to Explain Its People 47 

The flow of Massachusetts population to the West was not without its 
effect on the Commonwealth. Leaders of the State, alarmed at the exodus 
of their sons, engaged in a bit of Puritan self-scrutiny to discover the 
cause. They agreed that one expelling force was the antiquated govern- 
mental and religious system still in use, and that only a reform in that 
system could stem the exodus. Politically, this reforming spirit found 
expression in the release of Maine and in a Constitutional Convention of 
1820. This convention yielded to the demand of the people for a greater 
voice in their own government by drafting ten amendments to the Con- 
stitution providing for the incorporation of cities, the abolition of property 
qualifications for voting, the removal of religious tests for office-holders, 
and other much needed reforms. The religious expression of this social 
change reached its culmination in 1833, when another constitutional 
amendment was adopted completely separating the Church and State 
and placing Congregationalism, hitherto favored by governmental sup- 
port, on the same plane as other sects. The last vestiges of aristocratic 
Puritanism were swept from the statute books, and the ideals of demo- 
cracy were brought nearer reality. 

The reforming spirit in Massachusetts was not stilled by these concrete 
gains. Unitarianism, begun in America at King's Chapel (Boston) just 
after Independence, was sweeping through the Commonwealth under 
the fostering guidance of William Ellery Channing. Its refreshingly lib- 
eral doctrines threatened to bury the Congregational Church under an 
avalanche of popular disapproval, and only the valiant efforts of the 
Reverend Horace Bushnell, who sought to reconcile the old Calvinistic 
theology with the gentle humanitarianism of the new era, saved Con- 
gregational power and influence. In Concord, Emerson, Thoreau, and a 
whole school of disciples began to feel the first vague resentment against 
the machine, and preached the cult of individualism and the doctrine of 
the nobility of man in immortal verse and prose. Dorothea L. Dix 
shocked the state of Massachusetts into providing the first decent care 
for the insane before beginning her country-wide crusade in behalf of 
these little understood unfortunates. Horace Mann agitated valiantly 
and successfully in behalf of the revolutionary doctrine of universal 
education, and through his efforts elevated Massachusetts to a position 
of leadership in this important sphere. Total abstinence societies, formed 
first in Boston in 1826, were spreading like wildfire through the State 
and nation, beginning that organized movement that was to end in the 
Eighteenth (and Twenty-First) Amendments. At Brook Farm, near 
Boston, at Fruitlands, near Harvard, and elsewhere bewildered idealists 

48 Massachusetts: The General Background 

like Hawthorne, Alcott, and Margaret Fuller sought refuge from a chang- 
ing world in the simple life and communism an experiment gently 
but effectively satirized by Hawthorne in 'The Blithedale Romance.' 

From this mad, shifting world emanated the crusade against slavery, 
centered in Boston and New York State, where the revivalism of the 
Reverend Charles G. Finney whipped his disciples into action against 
'the peculiar institution' of the South. It was in Boston that William 
Lloyd Garrison established his newspaper The Liberator in 1831, com- 
mitted to the immediate emancipation of all humans held in bondage 
and vitriolic in the abuse which it heaped on slaveholders. It was in 
Boston that the New England Anti-Slavery Society was formed in 1832, 
which within a year became the American Anti-Slavery Society and 
spread over the North, stirring sentiment everywhere in favor of uncom- 
pensated emancipation. The movement that was to plunge the nation 
into a civil war within two decades was launched in Massachusetts. 

Garrison and his fellow reformers did not have an easy path to follow. 
They were opposed by many milder men, led by William Ellery Chan- 
ning, who favored legal and peaceful methods of freeing the slaves, and 
by most of the respectable elements of society, who soon became alarmed 
lest the agitation check the flow of cotton from the South, on which the 
Massachusetts textile industry depended. Although Garrison's followers 
were initially of little importance, the movement soon attracted such 
men as John Quincy Adams, Wendell Phillips, and John Greenleaf 
Whittier, and later included a large group of outstanding Massachusetts 
men and women. These abolitionists strongly opposed the Fugitive Slave 
Act, established 'Underground Railroad' stations to hurry escaping 
slaves to freedom in Canada, and organized the New England Emigrant 
Aid Company, through which Eli Thayer of Worcester vainly tried to 
win Kansas for the North by peopling it with freedom-loving individuals 
who would bar slavery from that territory. 

The turbulence of those trying days was soon translated into Massa- 
chusetts politics, where the reforming spirit was as clearly discernible as 
in the idealism of Brook Farm or the fanaticism of Garrison. The Fed- 
eralist Party had passed from existence by 1824, engulfed in a tide of 
disapproval which followed its opposition to the War of 1812, and from 
that time Massachusetts steadfastly supported either the Whig Party or 
an independent candidate of its own. The reforming zeal of its people 
was expressed first not against the slaveholders but against the foreigners, 
for the i84o's and 1850*8 saw a steady stream of Irish immigrants pouring 
into the Commonwealth until many of the larger cities were predomi- 

Enough of Its History to Explain Its People 49 

nantly Celtic in composition. Alarmed by this alien invasion, Massa- 
chusetts gave its vote in the state elections of 1854 and 1855 almost 
solidly to the American or Know Nothing Party, which was pledged to 
check immigration and combat the growing power of the Catholic Church. 
By 1856, however, the Republican Party with its anti-slavery principles 
invaded the Commonwealth, and the votes of Massachusetts went for its 
candidate, John C. Fremont, and helped elect Abraham Lincoln to the 
presidency in 1860. 

Thus did Massachusetts, the birthplace of abolitionism, remain true 
to its genius. Nor did this loyalty lessen when a panic of fear swept the 
Southern States toward secession and plunged the nation into civil war. 
When President Lincoln called the North to arms on April 15, 1861, the 
first state to respond was Massachusetts, which within four days sent 
fifteen hundred men to Fort Monroe. Massachusetts blood was also the 
first to be shed in the Civil War when on April 19, 1861, just eighty-six 
years to the day after the battles of Lexington and Concord, a mob 
attacked the Sixth Regiment in Baltimore. The State was aroused, a 
wave of patriotism in which factional differences were forgotten swept 
Massachusetts, and support of the Union became the major issue. For 
the four trying years of this sectional struggle the Bay State contributed 
freely in men, money, and effort that the Union might be preserved. 

Appomattox closed a chapter in American life, and the next scene in 
the drama of American history was sketched against the background of 
industrialism. With the acceleration of industry and the revolutions 
which took place simultaneously in agriculture and mining, the medieval 
period of America drew to a close. 

The sea, upon which the fortunes of Massachusetts had been built, was 
a factor of decreasing significance. Exports declined with monotonous 
regularity, but imports continued to be a consideration of consequence; 
for although Massachusetts did not serve as a distributor beyond the 
confines of New England, her own industries required a growing volume 
of raw materials. The great white sails which once cleared out of Salem 
and New Bedford were never succeeded by the funnels of the steamship, 
and only Boston remained a vital point in Massachusetts commerce. 
Fishing alone continued to thrive, and although riches were still sought 
in the traffic lanes of the Atlantic, a new economy had begun. Improved 
methods of steel production and the development of the petroleum in- 
dustry assured the success of the new industrialism, but it marked the 
end, among other things, of the whalers. In 1869 the last whaler was 
fitted out in New Bedford. The glamor of whaling boats like clipper 

5O Massachusetts: The General Background 

ships faded into history and legend, but a supply of fluid capital had been 
created which poured into Western railroads as well as Massachusetts 

The industrial evolution of Massachusetts is the economic history of 
the United States in miniature. Manufacturing, like population, con- 
tinued to be drawn by the magnetic attraction of the West, but in many 
fields Massachusetts held undisputed pre-eminence until the end of the 
century. More than one-third of all the woolens of the nation were 
produced in this State, and in the eighties Fall River led the field in cotton 
manufacture, Lawrence, Lowell, and New Bedford closely following. 
Partly because of its climate New Bedford became famous for its fine 
grade of cotton goods, while the northern New England mills developed 
the heavier fabrics. By 1890 Lawrence had become the third most im- 
portant city in America in the manufacture of woolens, and Lowell was 
a close fourth. 

The boot and shoe industry had already made considerable progress, 
but as a result of technological advances in power manufacture the im- 
portance of the industry increased tremendously. In 1866, for example, 
Lynn possessed 220 factories whose annual output was $12,000,000, 
while the State output was $53,000,000, increasing to $88,000,000 by 
1870. In 1890 Lynn's industry alone was evaluated at $26,000,000, and 
the extent to which the manufacture of boots and shoes was concentrated 
in Massachusetts is evidenced by the fact that Brockton, Haverhill, 
Marlborough, and Worcester were all leading shoe centers. Despite the 
rivalry of New York and the Middle West, Massachusetts resisted serious 
competition until 1900, by which date the State was producing almost 
fifty per cent of the nation's output in this field. 

Considerable success had been achieved in the manufacture of ma- 
chinery, partly as a by-product of industrial eminence. Power looms to 
feed its textile mills were locally produced. Shoe machinery was made at 
an immense plant in Beverly and smaller ones at Boston and Waltham. 
Paper mill machinery was constructed at Lowell, Pittsfield, Lawrence, 
and Worcester. As competition developed at points nearer the source of 
raw material, however, the metal industry underwent a radical change. 
Lighter grades of machines, tools, and mechanical equipment were found 
to be more profitable, and native Yankee ingenuity developed a fine skill 
in their production. 

Industry and the rise of cities attracted scores of workers who sought 
peace and security in the New Canaan. The immigrant invasion which 
resulted changed the social complexion of the State; sixty-six per cent 

Enough of Its History to Explain Its People 51 

of all the white stock in Massachusetts contains a foreign strain. Before 
the Civil War immigration was drawn largely from western Europe, but 
beginning with the decade of the eighties the majority came from the 
southern and eastern sections of the Continent, with the result that al- 
most every racial group is represented in the population. The most rigid 
type of immigration control was in effect up to 1849, and Massachusetts 
contained a relatively small racial admixture ; today it has more foreigners 
than any other State except New York. French-Canadians, Greeks, 
Poles, Czechoslovakians, Russians, Finns, Letts, Lithuanians, and 
Turks live side by side with the descendants of Bay Colony settlers. Many 
new strands have been added to Anglo-Saxon culture. Slavic, Semitic, 
and Celtic influences have permeated Massachusetts thought, enriching 
folkways, enlivening speech, and giving a new perspective to graphic art, 
music, and literature. The effect of immigration may also be traced in the 
new direction of the labor movement, as well as in an increase of the Cath- 
olic and Jewish religious groups. 

The establishment of factories and the concentration of population 
was paralleled by a growth in workers' organizations. Trade unions after 
the Civil War grew from seventeen to forty-two in number, and in many 
cases the State was the focal point of their growth. Organization of the 
boot and shoe industry proceeded quickly, largely because labor and not 
machinery was the important element. Organization of the textile in- 
dustry was not so simple; here the lower skills demanded of the workers 
retarded unionization. The National Cotton Mule Spinners were or- 
ganized in 1889, but it was not until the United Textile Workers came 
upon the scene in 1901 that any semblance of success was achieved. 
American society was unprepared for such an economic revolution, social 
relations were severely strained, and the latter nineteenth century was 
marked by industrial strife. Illinois had its Haymarket, Pennsylvania 
its Homestead, and Massachusetts its Lawrence (1912). To contem- 
poraries it seemed as though the long-cherished ideals of American life 
and institutions were disintegrating, but calmer reflection indicated that 
this was merely another stage in the evolution of industrial society. 

As a result of organized effort many gains accrued to labor and society 
as a whole. A department of labor and industry was established (1912), 
and legislation was adopted for the protection of health, the investigation 
of industrial diseases, and the recognition of occupational hazards. Under 
the new law (1933) a person might no longer be coerced into an agree- 
ment not to join a union as a condition of employment. Massachusetts 
law today requires that employers who advertise for labor during a strike 

52 Massachusetts: The General Background 

must state specifically that a state of strike exists. No woman or child 
may be employed for more than forty-eight hours a week, and children 
under fourteen are forbidden to work at all. Minors in the age group of 
fourteen to sixteen years must complete the sixth grade of elementary 
school, and may not work more than six days a week or eight hours a day. 

By the beginning of the nineteenth century the influx of immigration 
and the growing development of industry brought about corresponding 
changes in government. The New England town meeting, generally 
economical, simple, and efficient, did not lend itself to this hurried ex- 
pansion and was found inadequate to meet the problems of urban life. 
A constitutional amendment of 1820 had given the General Court the 
right to charter cities, and by 1885 there were twenty- three cities con- 
taining sixty per cent of the population. The commission form of gov- 
ernment, which places all phases of city government in the hands of five 
persons, though tried, was never successful: Gloucester, Haverhill, Lynn, 
Lawrence, and Salem all attempted it at one time or another. 

Education experienced a revival after the Civil War. The rise of the 
cities, now the dominant factor in American life, presented new problems 
which it was hoped education would solve. The movement initiated by 
Horace Mann in the earlier decades of the nineteenth century was com- 
pleted, and the scope of the public school system expanded, largely by 
the increase in the number of free public high schools. But it was in the 
upper levels of education that the results of economic maturity were most 
apparent. Wealth created by industrialism supplied the endowments 
necessary for the establishment of new institutions. In an era notable for 
the founding of colleges and universities throughout the country many 
as a result of State aid fifteen were founded in Massachusetts (1863- 
1927). In an era in which American education achieved international 
recognition because of its great educators and administrators, Andrew 
Dixon White of Cornell, James McCosh of Princeton, John Bascomb of 
Wisconsin, Noah Porter of Yale, Massachusetts produced four: Charles 
William Eliot of Harvard, Granville Stanley Hall of Clark, Francis A. 
Walker of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and Alice Free- 
man (Palmer) of Wellesley. The emancipation of women, quickened by 
modern conditions, was furthered by opportunities for advanced study, 
and the contribution of Massachusetts was distinguished. Wellesley 
was founded in 1870, Smith College (Northampton) in 1871, Radcliffe 
(Cambridge) in 1879, an d Simmons (Boston) in 1899. Facilities for 
preparation in engineering and related subjects were provided by the 
creation of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (Boston) and the 

Enough of Its History to Explain Its People 53 

Worcester Polytechnic Institute (Worcester), both established in 1865. 
Responding to the demands of urban conditions, seventy-five cities and 
towns established industrial schools. Latterly educational facilities have 
been developed to reach people outside the public school system and the 
universities. Many of the larger trade unions offer a variety of courses 
for workers and their families, and the University Extension Division of 
the Department of Education has supplied an increasing number with 
vocational, technical, and cultural training. 

An important adjunct of the educational system in Massachusetts is 
the library. Not only is there a free public library in every city and town 
(since 1926), but the State has many important special libraries and col- 
lections. There are few places with more varied materials for the study 
of American history; bibliophiles and historians, as well as others less 
fervent, make use of its varied treasures. The American Antiquarian 
Society (Worcester), rich in newspapers, periodicals, and manuscripts, 
is amply supplemented by the Massachusetts Historical Society (Boston), 
the Bostonian Society, the Boston Athenaeum, the Essex Institute 
(Salem), and the Boston Public Library, the last possessing a significant 
assortment of Americana, including the private libraries of Thomas 
Prince, John Adams, Theodore Parker, and Thomas Wentworth Hig- 
ginson. In addition, the college and university libraries with their 
specialized interests, seldom duplicated, make Massachusetts a State 
with unusual opportunities for research and study. 

Simultaneously with industrialism came a renewal of intellectual 
speculation; science was stimulated by fresh winds of doctrine from 
Europe and endowments of industrialists. Education and science were 
electrified by the concept of development which coursed through America 
in the period after the Civil War. Darwin, Spencer, Tyndall, and Huxley 
became symbols of scientific achievement here as well as abroad. Massa- 
chusetts furnished one of the leading defenders of the disturbing views 
of Darwin in the person of Asa Gray, Fisher Professor of Botany at 
Harvard, and also its most eminent opponent, Louis Agassiz. Agassiz, 
who taught geology and zoology at Harvard, stamped his personality 
on every scientific movement, and like another Massachusetts man 
Benjamin Franklin was the greatest popularizer of his time. The 
doctrine of evolution initiated a scientific renaissance in which Massa- 
chusetts shared. Modern research revived the colonial tradition of 
scholarship currently typified by two distinguished scientists, James 
Bryant Conant of Harvard and Karl Taylor Compton of the Massachu- 
setts Institute of Technology. 

54 Massachusetts: The General Background 

The industrial trend was not without its effect upon organized religion. 
European scholarship and the rapid rise of urban communities con- 
fronted the churches with a changing world, and in this critical period of 
religious history Massachusetts played a significant role. Christian 
Science, founded by Mary Baker Eddy (Lynn, 1867), provided a refuge 
for many who were dissatisfied with conventional theological forms. 
Another vital aspect was the development of social Christianity, which 
was partly a reaction to an increasing absorption in practical affairs. A 
declining interest in doctrinal matters was the inevitable consequence of 
secularism, but social Christianity arose because industrialism presented 
America with new complexities. The churches tempered this transition 
stage by a revival of the social gospel emphasizing the intimate relation 
between religion and life. All denominations awakened to the realization 
that there was a real connection between slums and morals, and a growing 
concern with systematic relief was manifested by the clergy. Reform 
became the current text which was preached with eloquence by many 
Massachusetts men Francis G. Peabody, Professor of Christian 
Morals at Harvard Divinity School, Phillips Brooks of Trinity Church, 
Minot Judson Savage of the Church of the Unity, Octavius Brooks 
Frothingham and William Joseph Potter, leading Unitarian radicals - 
who successfully emulated such national leaders as Washington Gladden, 
Lyman Abbott, Josiah Strong, and Cardinal Gibbons. Emphasis on 
sociology rather than cosmology was a reflection of the scientific temper, 
which soon became universal, enlisting the efforts of those outside 
Christianity, notably two Jewish leaders, Charles Fleischer and Solomon 
Schindler, both rabbis at Temple Israel in Boston. In 1889 the Society 
of Christian Socialists was founded in Boston for the purpose of awaken- 
ing 'members of the Christian churches to the fact that the teachings of 
Jesus Christ lead directly to some specific form or forms of Socialism.' 

The development of Massachusetts may be divided into three major 
periods: from its founding until the election of Thomas Jefferson to the 
presidency; from 1800 to the Civil War; and from 1865 to the present. 
The destinies of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries were moulded 
by mighty forces, momentarily visible in Massachusetts, which during 
the first period symbolized the development of the nation. Carver and 
Bradford, Winthrop and Cotton, the Mathers, Samuel Sewall, and 
Franklin belong to America; John and Samuel Adams, James Otis, Paul 
Revere, and John Hancock were the patriots of the Revolution. During 
the second period this situation slowly changed. Colonial radicals found 
they had exchanged the interest of British imperialists for the interests of 

Enough of Its History to Explain Its People 55 

Federalist shipowners who, while flying a new flag, shared a like philo- 
sophy. While the rest of America moved westward to cotton belt and 
farmland, Massachusetts continued to devote herself to trade and de- 
veloped a point of view peculiar to New England. A brief interlude of 
nationalism followed the War of 1812, after which Massachusetts re- 
verted to a spirit of sectionalism typified by the Hartford Convention 
(1814), characteristic not only of New England but of the nation. Al- 
though Federalism disappeared and industry took the place of commerce, 
the National Republicans and later the Whigs gradually borrowed 
Federalist doctrine to the end that Massachusetts and New England 
might endure. The third period ushered in the economic revolution 
which transformed the American scene. Currents of New England in- 
dividualism still flow from Massachusetts, typified in recent years by such 
men as Henry Cabot Lodge and Calvin Coolidge, but such currents are 
simply tributaries to the main stream. Provincialisms have been dissi- 
pated in the steam of locomotives and the blast of airplane propellers, 
while iron and steel labor to bring forth a new nation. 


FOR three centuries Massachusetts has been carrying on an experiment 
as old as human history: the effort of men to govern themselves. One 
governmental form has succeeded another as each generation, with 
population increasingly pressing and conditions of living continuously 
changing, developed new solutions to its governmental problems. 

The earliest form of government in Massachusetts was that of Plym- 
outh Colony. Having no charter, the Pilgrims based their authority 
upon a patent granted in 1621 to the Plymouth Company, and in 1636 
definitely outlined the powers of their officials: the Governor was to be 
elected annually by the people, and his assistants were to govern and to 
act as a judiciary. Legislation, however, originated with the people, as 
all freemen were admitted to the General Court, a condition which 
existed until 1639, when, because of increased population and migration, 
deputies were chosen. 

The first Massachusetts Colonial charter was given by Charles I in 
1628. Later he tried unsuccessfully to have it abrogated. The form of 
government was different from that of Plymouth in that the first Gov- 
ernor and assistants were appointed by the Crown. Matthew Craddock, 
the first Governor, never came to America. Subsequent Governors, 
however, were elected annually until James II appointed Joseph Dudley 
in 1685. Sir Edmund Andros, Dudley's appointed successor, essayed to 
be a vice-regal dictator and was promptly deposed. In the intercharter 
period which followed, Simon Bradstreet headed the Colony. 

The second, or Province Charter, a grant of King William and Queen 
Mary, arrived in 1692. It brought Plymouth Colony, Maine, and a 
portion of Nova Scotia under one jurisdiction. It was a far less liberal 
charter than the first. The Governor, Lieutenant-Governor, and State 
Secretary were appointed by the Crown. In 1726, King George sent over 
an explanatory modifying charter which limited the Governor's authority 
to adjourn the General Court, but made the election of the Speaker sub- 
ject to the veto of the Governor. Control of money, bills, and the right 
of electing the councillors curbed somewhat the Governor's immense 
power. The last General Court held under the Provincial Charter was 
in 1774. 


THE geography of Massachusetts is largely responsible for its 
industry, for it combines water-power with good harborage. 
Mills and the maritime trades consequently predominate. 
Once established, the mills grew long after the need for local 
water-power had disappeared. So, in the pictures that follow, 
there is an old stone mill and a giant, modern weaving-room. 
There is boat-building as it was done two hundred years ago 
and still is done in Essex today. And also there is a picture 
of the shipyards at Fore River with much modern equipment. 

There are also pictures of fishermen and their varied crops, 
cranberry bogs which need the level, sandy soil of the Cape, 
clam beds, glass-making which was undertaken at Sandwich 
where glass was made by a process now lost, and printing 
which is not an inheritance from the geography of the State, 
but a result of the solemn studiousness of Boston's earliest 
settlers which left its mark in generously scattered colleges 
and printing shops throughout the State. 



















Government 57 

In the following period, before the State Constitution was accepted, 
patriots and a Provincial Congress ran the affairs of State. James Bow- 
doin and a Council were in charge. The government was the people's 
own after June, 1774, but there was agitation, particularly from Berk- 
shire County, to confirm this in a constitution. The General Court of 
1777-78 drew up such an instrument making Massachusetts the first 
State to submit a new constitution to the people, but it was rejected. 
The citizens properly felt that such a momentous covenant should be 
drawn by a body elected solely for that purpose and, moreover, the first 
draft contained no bill of rights or separation of powers. 

The people next voted in favor of a constitutional convention. It 
convened at Cambridge in September, 1779. James Bowdoin was chosen 
presiding officer. A sub-committee of prominent citizens eventually 
turned over the task of drawing up the new instrument to John Adams, 
indisputably the best-qualified man of his day. Adams, paying tribute 
to the pioneer liberals, later said it was * Locke, Sidney, and Rousseau 
and De Mabley reduced to practice.' The new Constitution was sub- 
mitted March 2, 1780, and was ratified June 7. John Hancock was 
elected Governor. Although Massachusetts had been the first of the 
States to establish a government of its own, it was the last of the thirteen 
Colonies to adopt a written constitution. 

Massachusetts is today the only State in the Union still governed 
under its original constitution. This has endured chiefly because of its 
broad provisions and flexible character. It was the first such document 
boldly to establish the principle of the separation of powers of the various 
branches of government. It contains assurance of the protection of in- 
alienable rights. Among its more important provisions were the right 
of the Governor and Council or the Legislature to require opinions from 
justices of the Supreme Judicial Court, the removal of judges by address, 
and the inapplicability of martial laws to citizens except with the consent 
of the Legislature. 

There have been three constitutional conventions since 1779: in 1820, 
1853, and 1917. More than seventy amendments have been made to the 
Constitution, but the general plan of government it erected is still es- 
sentially in operation. While power has been increasingly centralized in 
the Chief Executive and the State Government, the Constitution is still 
the bulwark of individual freedom and rights. As in the case of other 
State constitutions, it is a more powerful instrument than the Federal 
Constitution, because it has all powers not explicitly delegated to the 
Federal Government, while the Federal Government enjoys only powers 
specifically granted. 

58 Massachusetts: The General Background 

The town was the earliest unit of government. It was not for some 
century and a half that there was a formal statute declaring the town 
'a body politic and corporate,' capable of suing and being sued; yet it was 
early in the history of the Colony that in practice the town became a 
self-governing unit a miniature republic. The difficulties of travel, 
the dangers of leaving frontier farms open to Indian pillage, and inveterate 
distrust of arbitrary power acted jointly in favor of local independence. 
The General Court at Boston among its first actions granted the scat- 
tered infant towns incorporation and the right to make regulations, al- 
though at first these were made to apply only to stray swine. Gradually 
thereafter the townsmen assumed local authority. 

In 1632 the Cambridge elders ruled that, under penalty of a fine, 
every person must appear at the monthly town meeting within half 
an hour of the sounding of the bell. Definite local officials began to ap- 
pear. Dorchester was at first ruled by the clergy and magistrates. In 
what is asserted to be the oldest self-rule document extant in the United 
States, the Dorchester town meeting record of 1633, the citizens were 
summoned by the rumble of a drum and twelve men acting as a ' steering 
committee.' The next year, 1634, Charlestown organized the first Board 
of Selectmen. This system, which provided a civil agency of government, 
was promptly adopted by other towns. This spontaneous organization 
of government within the towns, rather than any intention of the first 
charter, in 1635 led the General Court, in recognition of an accomplished 
fact, to make the first grant of local self-government in America. Given 
at Newe Towne, March 3, it granted the towns the right to dispose of 
common property, order civil affairs, and choose their own officers. By 
1640, twenty town governments were in existence. 

Expansion of the duties of the town officers and an increase in the 
number of town officials followed. In 1642 the General Court directed 
the 'chosen men' of each town to see to education, a humble act which 
gave birth to the public school system in America. Ten years after, the 
town of Cambridge vested the taxing power in their ' townsmen,' a 
privilege exercised by the Selectmen of Dorchester since 1645. In ad- 
dition to expanded duties for the Selectmen who were even directed 
to remove oyster shells from the public highways so many duties were 
heaped upon the town Constable among them taking charge of small- 
pox funerals, levying fines, and catching Quakers that anyone declining 
the job was assessed the sizable fine of 10. Until 1684 the officeholders 
and town duties continued to grow. Gaugers, viewers of pipestaves, 
cullers of brick, and measurers of salt appeared on the public rolls. Town 
legislation multiplied. 

Government 59 

So vigorous was the growth of the towns that between the formal end 
of the Colony and beginning of the Province, 1684-92, the town organiza- 
tion and privileges were recognized. The efforts of Governor Andros to 
tax tha towns, command public assemblies, and interfere with the town 
meeting were no small factors in arousing the towns to depose him. 
Convinced of the inalienability of their right of self-rule, the towns main- 
tained it until the provincial charter from William and Mary arrived in 
1691. When the new charter was found to be without a provision guaran- 
teeing local self-government, the first act passed by the General Court 
hastened to make that guaranty. 

In the eighteenth century, growth of the towns was spasmodic because 
of the unsettled times and perils of the frontier. Tax lists show 1 1 1 towns 
in 1715; 156 in 1742; 161 in 1752; 199 in 1768; and 239 in 1780. At times 
the frontier hazard was so acute that the General Court passed a law by 
which persons abandoning a frontier town would forfeit their estates. 

The same passion for self-rule, displayed at the time of Sir Edmund 
Andros, prompted the towns to embrace the principles of the Revolution. 
They voted to support the Declaration of Independence, provided sup- 
plies and ammunition, and voted bounties to volunteers. The towns, 
impelled by the ideals of the first settlers, were the backbone of the 

The Constitution of 1780, after one hundred and fifty years of doubt, 
confirmed local autonomy. A General Act on towns, passed in 1786, 
treated application of the principle at length. It named the officers to 
be elected, the right to assess taxes, make by-laws, and punish offenders. 
The people were guaranteed the right to place an article in a town war- 
rant or even compel a Justice of the Peace to convoke a town meeting. 
There were then about three hundred communities with about 400,000 

In 1820 a constitutional amendment gave the General Court the right 
to charter cities. Two years later Boston, which had made five attempts 
since 1784 to discard the town system, was incorporated. The genesis 
of city government was in the chartered borough of Colonial times. New 
York in 1686 had the first borough charter. It was modeled on the Eng- 
lish Community corporation, with the Mayor and the Council or Alder- 
men acting as opposing checks. 

At first committees of the Council handled matters like public works 
and water supply, but separate departments were finally created for such 
purposes. Wherever a Mayor secured the veto power, the Council de- 
clined in importance. Inefficiency in departments, laxity in enforcing 

60 Massachusetts: The General Background 

State laws, squandering of public funds, and poor policing led to increas- 
ing State interference in the years preceding the Civil War. After the 
Civil War, towns continued to shift to city government. In 1865 there 
were 14 cities and in 1875 19, with more than fifty per cent of the popula- 
tion. In 1885 there were 23 cities with sixty per cent of the popula- 

As the tide of immigration rose, general optimism prevailed; and with 
the population interested in business pursuits, public debts, inefficiency, 
and the spoils system flourished. By the turn of the present century the 
reform of city government was a major issue and, as a consequence, 
many towns of increasing population were seeking to discover a modified 
town system and avoid city organization with its maze of problems. 

By a law passed in 1915, called the Optional Charter Law, the Massa- 
chusetts Legislature, which has authority to grant or annul a city charter, 
made four choices possible: Mayor and Council elected at-large; Mayor 
and Council elected partially by wards and at-large; the Commission 
form or City Manager form. In this State, the system of providing a 
charter by special acts is followed, thus theoretically basing each charter 
on the particular needs of the community. 

However, the city form has not appealed to many large towns. In 
1915 Brookline tried the limited or representative town meeting to 
regulate its size. Any citizen may speak, but only duly elected citizens 
may vote. Water town followed this example in 1919, Arlington in 1921, 
and about twelve others up to the present date. 

Although there is a belief that the traditional town meeting is to be 
found only in small communities on the Cape or in the Berkshires, there 
are still large communities which retain not only their town designation, 
like Braintree, Plymouth, and Natick all over 12,000 in population 
but also towns which, although larger than some cities, retain what has 
been sometimes called the 'last refuge of pure democracy/ the unlimited 
town meeting; among them is Framingham, a community of about 23,000. 

The county system which developed in Massachusetts was at first 
patterned after the English model familiar to the first settlers. Its or- 
ganization here was chiefly for judicial purposes. In the West, as in the 
English counties in Saxon days, the county has developed legislative 
powers; but in the Bay State the towns and cities, some of whose officers 
are today county commissioners, were too strong to permit it. The 
first counties were organized in 1643 as Suffolk, Middlesex, Essex, and 
Norfolk. By the time of the Revolution, 12 of the present 14 counties 
were in existence. Franklin was organized in 1811 and Hampden, the 

Government 61 

last, in 1812. The early officers were appointed. After the Revolution, 
most of them became elective. 

Originally all malefactors were brought before the General Court at 
Boston. This resulted in such congestions and delay that in 1635 the Gen- 
eral Court established courts at Ipswich, Salem, Newtowne, and Boston 
to handle all but capital cases. The General Court became a court of 
appeal. As courts for various purposes developed, the General Court, 
for convenience, located them in the four 'shires' organized in 1643. 
Growth of the judicial and penal system from then on was rapid. In 
1647 local magistrates were appointed for smaller cases. In 1655 each 
county was ordered to establish a House of Correction. In 1685 came 
the authority to probate wills and establish Chancery Courts for equity 
cases. In 1699 the 'beadle' became the Sheriff, and as such was made 
keeper of the House of Correction. 

There were few changes in the Provincial period. Judges, sheriffs, and 
justices were still appointed by the Governor and Council. In 1699 the 
Inferior Courts for common pleas were established in each county (there 
then being ten counties), and a Superior Court of Judicature was estab- 
lished by the Province. The same year legislation making the Sheriff 
general keeper of the jails was passed. 

When the Commonwealth period began in 1780, the Superior Court 
of Judicature became the Supreme Judicial Court. Two years later the 
Inferior Courts became the Courts of Common Pleas, and in 1811 they 
were succeeded by the Circuit Court of Common Pleas with a Chief 
Justice and assistants, to be succeeded in 1859 by the Superior Courts. 
The present Municipal Courts are successors of the old police courts or 
courts of Justice of the Peace. 

Although the courts, as organized in the counties, are creatures of the 
General Court, they constitute one of the great trinity of independent 
branches of our government. The independence of the courts is based 
upon the Constitution, for it is within their power to void even legislation 
when it is not consonant with constitutional provisions. Common law, 
just as in Colonial times, is the basis of Massachusetts jurisprudence, 
modified and developed, however, during the past three hundred years 
in accordance with legislative enactments and judicial decisions. 

The courts, when in session, are open to all citizens. There are two 
chief divisions, for criminal and for civil business. Minor cases may be 
disposed in the District Courts. Major matters are customarily con- 
sidered in the Superior Courts, although litigants of even minor matters 
have the right to carry their cases to the Superior bench. The Supreme 
Judicial Court is the highest court of appeal in the Commonwealth. 

62 Massachusetts: The General Background 

In Massachusetts the Legislature is known as the General Court, al- 
though it has long since created courts for the judicial affairs of the 
State. Today the General Court is exclusively a lawmaking body. Bi- 
cameral, it consists of a lower popular body, the House of Representatives, 
over which the Speaker presides, and a smaller upper body, the State 
Senate, over which the President presides. 

The first General Court under the Constitution met in Boston October 
25, 1780. The number of its members varied considerably. At times it 
had more than 400. The establishment of Maine as a separate State 
helped to reduce the number, but it was not until 1857 that a constitu- 
tional amendment fixed it at the present membership of 240 for the 
House and 40 for the Senate. The Acts of 1926, which established re- 
presentative and senatorial districts, determined there should be one 
Senator for every 103,000 persons and one Representative for every 

While most States have biennial sessions, Massachusetts retains 
annual sessions. Under the right of free petition, any citizen of the 
Commonwealth, by requesting either a Representative or Senator, may 
introduce a petition to alter or abolish an old law, or establish a new one. 
Although such petitions are pigeonholed in many States, in Massachusetts 
a report has to be made on each one. 

Similarly, if introduced in the Senate, such a petition is given a reading 
in the Senate and is referred to the proper committee. Next it is printed 
and a public hearing is given in order that both proponents and opponents 
may be heard. The committee then reports on the petition. If the report 
is favorable, the petition, now in the form of a bill, faces three readings 
either in the Senate or House, depending on the officer who introduced it. 
If it survives the third reading, there is then a vote to be engrossed. If 
engrossed, it then goes to the other legislative body, and through the 
same readings and engrossment. Differences between the branches may 
be ironed out in a conference committee. 

Theoretically the laws are supposed to be administered by the Gov- 
ernor with the aid of his Council. In reality the Governor, having a dual 
role because of his position as head of a political party, is the origin of 
legislation. With this practice of inspiring legislation and with an enor- 
mous amount of patronage under his control, the Governor's position is 
no longer one merely of dignity and honor, but of constantly increasing 

Under the Colonial charter, all Governors save the first were elected 
by the people for a one-year term. James II, before he was deposed, 

Government 63 

broke this procedure. Thereafter, under the charter of William and 
Mary, the Governor was subject to appointment by the Crown. He 
became vice-regal, a military figure with power to prorogue or dissolve 
the General Court. Since 1780 the Governor has been elected at-large. 
John Hancock, the first Constitutional Governor, was elected six terms. 
A majority vote was required, resulting in 1855 ' m a change to a plurality 
vote after the election had several times been forced into the General 
Court for selection of the winner. Since 1917 the Governor's term has 
been for two years instead of one. 

The Governor is Commander-in- Chief of the State's Militia and 
Naval forces. With advice of the Council he may prorogue the House 
and Senate and appoint all judicial officers, may appoint and remove 
State department heads, and exercises the power of pardon for every 
verdict but impeachment. 

Only Maine, New Hampshire, and Massachusetts still have a Gov- 
ernor's Council. The seven assistants of the Governor of Plymouth 
Colony constitute the historical origin of the Council. The charter of 
Charles I provided for the election of eighteen assistants. The charter 
of William and Mary provided for the election of twenty-eight councillors. 
The first draft of the State Constitution omitted them, but the instru- 
ment of 1780 retained them, as did the Constitutional Convention of 
1820, although their number was reduced to nine. These were elected 
from the group of forty, who were elected jointly Senator-Councillor, 
leaving a Senate of thirty-one members. It is an interesting fact that 
many declined the councillorship, regarding the Senate seat as more 

In 1840 the thirteenth constitutional amendment was passed, providing 
for the selection of the Councillors by the House and Senate from the 
people-at-large. A committee of the Constitutional Convention of 1853 
voted abolition of this measure, but the vote was rejected. Two years 
later another amendment was passed providing for eight councillor 
districts and direct election. 

The Council has been attacked on the grounds that it is a dispensable 
Colonial relic, that it makes impossible a concentration of responsibility, 
that its pardon proceedings are secret, that its revision of sentences is 
prejudicial to the courts, that its work could be performed by the Senate, 
and on the grounds of economy. It has been defended as a check on the 
power of the Governor, and for the reason that numerous duties now 
performed by it would otherwise have to be delegated elsewhere. 

In order to carry out the policies formulated by the Legislature, there 

64 Massachusetts: The General Background 

has developed and been placed under the supervision of the Governor a 
number of State departments. These departments, with an ever- widening 
scope in community activities, are distinct from such primary govern- 
mental units as the departments of the Secretary of State, the State 
Treasurer, and the Attorney-General. 

With early industrialization came an increase in the number of public 
welfare cases. Many of the towns and cities sought to evade their ob- 
ligation toward these victims of the changing economy, with the result 
that a State Board of Charity, forerunner of our present Department of 
Public Welfare, was established by the Legislature. 

Public health was another vital need which called for State interven- 
tion. Boston in 1799 established its own Board of Health. In 1828 
Salem, Marblehead, Plymouth, Charlestown, Lynn, and Cambridge had 
similar boards. But in 1849, when there was a devastating epidemic of 
cholera, these Boards of Health were not able to cope with the peril, with 
the result that the State Board of Health was established. 

In 1852 a law prohibiting the sale of alcoholic liquors was passed. Its 
enforcement was extremely difficult. A special committee which in- 
vestigated the situation in 1863 publicized the weaknesses of local en- 
forcement. Two years later, despite the opposition of some localities, 
the office of Constable of the Commonwealth was established. With his 
deputies he was to regulate, not only the liquor shops, but also to suppress 
gambling and vice. In 1875, when State prohibition of the sale of liquor 
was repealed, the enforcement unit was reorganized into what is today 
the Sta'te Police. 

The development of the State Board of Education had similar small 
beginnings. In 1826 each town was required to choose a school committee, 
usually of five members, and give an annual report to the Secretary of 
State. In 1834 a State School Fund was established from the sale of land 
in Maine and from claims against the Federal Government. Three years 
later the State Board of Education came into being. 

Practically every phase of human activity came under supervision of 
the State. New departments, some later consolidated, were organized: 
in 1838, the State Banking Commission; in 1853, the Board of Agricul- 
ture; in 1855, the Insurance Commission; in 1865, the Tax Commission; 
in 1869, the Bureau of Labor Statistics; in 1870, the Corporation Com- 
mission; in 1887, the first registration board. More recently, civil service, 
elections, highways, bridges, and public metropolitan areas have come 
under State supervision. 


BY 1830 the nearest geographical frontier had been pushed to about five 
hundred miles west of Massachusetts. A new frontier, however, delineated 
on no map, was arising the frontier of awakening labor. Frederick 
Jackson Turner and a host of his disciples have told the story of the 
Western frontier, and of the influence on the East of fresh currents of 
democracy from the West. Quite as important, however, in its ultimate 
effects is the story of the defense of democracy waged by these other 

Hardly more than fifty years after they had won the Revolution, only 
ten years after they had secured the vote, and seven years after the found- 
ing of the first trade union in the State, Massachusetts workmen in 1830 
raised a whole series of new demands. They asked for free public educa- 
tion, for the abolition of monopolies, the end of imprisonment for debt, 
the reform of the militia system, separation of religion and politics, sim- 
plification of legal procedure, compulsory mandate for representatives, 
and a graduated taxation of surplus property. 

Through the panics of 1837 and 1857, the post-war depression of the 
1870*5, the depression of 1884, the panics of 1893 and 1907, the post-war 
depression of 1921, and the crisis beginning in 1929; in the face of depriva- 
tion, discrimination, and armed force; with little support except from men 
and women as poor as themselves, these pioneers were responsible for the 
recognition by their State of the right to join a labor union, for the spread 
of free education, for at least the partial freeing of women and children 
from industrial slavery, and for the relaxation of laws that penalized a 
man and his family for being poor. Most of these pioneers of Massachu- 
setts democracy, like the majority of Western pioneers, remain anony- 
mous, their names and deeds either lost altogether or buried in the files of 
old newspapers, union journals, trade-union records, Labor Department 
reports, ships' logs, and other obscure sources from which much of even so 
brief an account as the present must be derived. A few outstanding names 
emerge those of George McNeill, a weaver of Fall River, of Ira Steward, 
a machinist of Boston, of the Lowell textile workers Sarah G. Bagley and 
Lucy Larcom, the latter a poet and author of 'A New England Girlhood.' 

Throughout the first half of the nineteenth century shipping was among 

66 Massachusetts: The General Background 

the most important industries in Massachusetts, the principal seafaring 
State of the nation. Conditions of labor on the ships were far from ideal. 
Aboard whaling vessels, especially, seamen risked their lives for little pay. 
To constant danger was added harsh discipline. Whaling vessels were 
floating factories, and coopers and smiths were necessary to their opera- 
tions. These skilled mechanics soon discovered that what was a strike 
on land was mutiny afloat. The cooper of the New Bedford vessel 'Har- 
vest' who 'said he would not work no more than day's work on shore' 
promptly found himself in irons aboard a sloop-of-wai . When the crew 
of the ' Midas ' refused to take the vessel out of Upsala shorthanded and 
appealed to the United States Consul, they were replaced with natives, 
one man was discharged, three were put in irons, and three others were 

No matter how successful a whaling voyage might be, the 'fo'mast' 
hand rarely came off with anything to bank. His 'lay' in the voyage was 
generally on the books, his profits were book profits. Against these were 
charged all his purchases, during a voyage of from three to five years, 
from the slop-chest aboard ship clothes, tobacco, boots, etc. at 
prices several times the value attaching to these goods elsewhere. If he 
had any surplus when he came ashore, the 'sailors' boarding-houses' and 
the 'land sharks' soon took care of that. The only thing that was dis- 
pensed free to the old New Bedford whalemen was a Bible. A well-known 
owner of one of that city's whaling fleets once described the Bible as the 
best cheap investment a shipowner could make. 

Speculative overexpansion and inflation of credit were already becom- 
ing familiar phenomena to the workmen of the i82o's. The hard winter 
of 1828-29 brought widespread misery and unemployment. Those who 
were employed labored long hours at low wages in Lowell, for instance, 
the working-day in the mills varied from i \]/2 to 13^ hours, and the wages 
from $i to $5 a week. Three thousand poor were annually imprisoned for 
debt in Massachusetts. Fluctuating currency and compulsory militia 
service penalized the workingmen. Many strikes were treated as illegal 
affairs that merited jail sentences for the participants, and not until 
1842, in the case of Commonwealth v. John Hunt, were the courts to 
establish the precedent that a trade union in this instance the Boston 
Journeymen Bootmakers' Society was something other than a criminal 
conspiracy against the State. 

In the face of such conditions the New England Association of Farm- 
ers, Mechanics, and Other Workingmen was formed in 1830. At the first 
public meeting of this group in Boston a political party, the Working 

Labor 67 

Men of Boston, was founded. Meetings of the party were held in North- 
ampton, Dedham, and Dorchester. By the following spring, the move- 
ment was spreading to the western part of the State. 

Immigrant laborers first began to appear in any considerable numbers 
in the 1830*3, when many Irish entered the port of Boston. 'Riots' - 
sometimes spontaneous and unorganized strikes, sometimes the result of 
indignation of other workers against new and cheap labor occurred. 

Union organization in Massachusetts began among skilled workers 
shipwrights, calkers, and journeymen in the building trades in the 
i82o's. The early 'trades' union' was a confederation of organizations in 
the same industry; what corresponded to the modern trade union was 
called an 'association' or 'society,' and often had charitable and benefit 
provisions for its members. A very early, if not the earliest, trade union in 
Massachusetts was that of the shipwrights and calkers of Boston and 
Charlestown, who in 1823 secured a State charter as the 'Columbian 
Charitable Society of Shipwrights and Calkers.' 

In 1825, six hundred Boston journeymen carpenters struck for the ten- 
hour day, but the strike was lost by the threatened blacklisting of the 
journeymen on the part of ' the gentlemen engaged in building.' During 
the i83o's many strikes for the ten-hour day occurred among machinists, 
leather finishers, and stonecutters, and among building trades workers. 
Most of these strikes were defeated either by the importation of strike- 
breakers from other localities or by threats on the part of the employers 
to reduce wages upon a reduction of hours. 

Strikes for higher wages also occurred in the period of 1830-40. On 
New Year's Day, 1834, one thousand women shoebinders of Lynn who 
worked at home at piece-rates formed a society, held several meetings and 
street parades, and resolved they would take no work until the rates were 
raised. The strike was defeated by the employers' action in sending the 
work elsewhere. In February, 1834, 'a brief disturbance occurred at 
Lowell among the female factory operatives on account of a reduction in 
wages.' Laborers on the Providence Railroad in Marshfield struck for 
higher wages in the same year, and the strike was suppressed by a com- 
pany of militia. In 1837, sailors in Boston struck for an advance from $14 
to $16 a month. 

The panic of 1837 halted the labor movement for several years. Cotton 
mills closed down, whale ships lay idle at the New Bedford wharves, shoe 
manufacturing in Haverhill and other 'shoe towns' ceased almost com- 

In the i84o's a new ten-hour movement developed, encouraged by Presi- 

68 Massachusetts: The General Background 

dent Van Buren's order in 1840 that 'all public establishments will here- 
after be regulated, as to working hours, by the ten-hour system.' A peti- 
tion of Lowell women textile operatives in 1842 asked the legislature for 
a law to prevent mill-owners from employing women more than ten hours 
per day. The first convention of the New England Working Men's Asso- 
ciation (later the Labor Reform League) dedicated to securing the ten- 
hour day, met at Boston in 1844; and in 1845, under the leadership of 
Sarah G. Bagley, the Lowell Female Labor Reform Association was 
founded for the same purpose. In response to this movement, a special 
legislative committee began in 1845 the first State investigation of labor 
conditions in the United States. It reported that hours for women in 
Massachusetts industry averaged over twelve per day. 'The remedy/ 
said the committee, 'is not with us. We look for it in the progressive 
improvement in art and science, in a higher appreciation of man's destiny, 
in a less love for money,' etc. The legislative committees of 1846, 1850, 
1852, 1855, 1866, and 1867 also failed to recommend a ten-hour law. How- 
ever, by 1844, as the result of President Van Buren's regulation as applied 
to the Charlestown Navy Yard and of effective organization among ship- 
yard workers, the ten-hour day became general in most shipbuilding 
establishments in the State. 

In 1853, the House passed a bill limiting hours of women in industry. 
But the Senate substituted for it an unenforceable bill. Not until 1874 
was the first enforceable law limiting hours of work in factories placed 
on the statute books in Massachusetts, and this applied only to women 
and children. 

In the i84o's immigration began again to rise. This period saw also the 
growth of associative, co-operative, and communal movements in Massa- 
chusetts. William H. Channing, George William Curtis, Henry James, 
Sr., and George Ripley, among others, spread the co-operative gospel. 
The humanitarians of the i84o's sought to supersede capitalism by de- 
veloping alternative, and superior, forms of economic organization. The 
wage-earners in capitalist enterprises, caught in the net of the wage 
system, sought to improve their conditions within that system by strik- 
ing. Methodical efforts of trade unions to investigate wages and conditions 
and to better them on the basis of their findings, to make agreements with 
their employers, and to enforce agreements with strikes, if necessary, dis- 
sipated the last fogs of transcendentalism in the labor movement. Initia- 
tion fees, dues, and fines were fixed, regular meeting-places rented, and 
hiring-halls set up. Regulations limiting the number of apprentices and 
protecting highly skilled workers were adopted, and the unions finally 

Labor 69 

and definitely expelled the few remaining employer-members from their 

As a result of Irish famine and German revolution, immigrants to the 
State from 1845 to 1855 were averaging thirty thousand a year. With the 
help, in many instances, of immigrants from Europe who were experienced 
in workers' movements, many trade unions were organized. Few survived 
the panic of 1857, with the exception of those in highly skilled trades with 
a long tradition of militancy, such as the shipbuilders, or those which, in 
danger of going under, affiliated to form national unions. 

In the period 1859-79 local trade unions increased from seventeen to 
forty-two, Massachusetts sharing with New York and Pennsylvania 
sixty per cent of the total number of unions in the United States. 

The first important strike in the shoe trade occurred in 1858-59 at Na- 
tick, where six hundred shoe workers, after a fourteen weeks' struggle, 
gained an increase in wages. One thousand shoemakers of Lynn formed a 
union and struck in February, 1860. A hundred special police were ap- 
pointed by the Lynn authorities, and a detachment of Boston police was 
sent into the city. The strikers, announcing their peaceful intent, es- 
corted the Boston police out of Lynn with jeers. The strike became gen- 
eral throughout eastern Massachusetts, and was joined by women stitch- 
ers, binders, and machine operators. Delegations from Marblehead, 
Beverly, Salem, Danvers, and Woburn joined at Lynn on March 7, 1860, 
in the largest labor demonstration ever held in Massachusetts up to that 
time. Five thousand men and one thousand women paraded with over 
one hundred banners and twenty-six American flags, enlivened by several 
military and fire companies and five brass bands. Eventually, by import- 
ing strikebreakers from Maine and New Hampshire, the factory owners 
were able to end the strike. 

The Order of the Knights of St. Crispin was founded by shoe workers 
at Milwaukee in 1867 after a plan of Newell Daniels, formerly of Milford, 
Massachusetts, and a Grand Lodge of that order was incorporated in 
1870 in the State. In 1868 the 'Crispins' struck in Ashland to enforce the 
discharge of non-union men. The employer secretly brought in one hun- 
dred men from Maine, protected by State police. In North Adams man- 
ufacturers imported men whom they forced to sign each month an agree- 
ment not to join the Order. The men signed and joined the 'Crispins.' 
Finding that supposedly 'loyal' workers were secretly joining the union, 
and that imported labor was being met at the railroad station by union 
men and warned against 'scabbing,' the factory owned by C. T. Sampson, 
at North Adams, actually imported Chinese from California. The firm 

7O Massachusetts: The General Background 

of Stowe, Bills and Whitney, finding during a strike that workers refused 
to respond to advertisements for men to replace the workers, set up a 
school in 1875 an d trained raw youths to the trade, thus finally succeeding 
in reopening the factory. 

Largely through the demands of organized labor the first State Bureau 
of Labor Statistics in the United States was formed in 1869, 'to collect 
and publish statistical details relating to all departments of labor in the 
Commonwealth, especially in its relations to the commercial, industrial, 
social, educational and sanitary condition of the laboring classes, and to 
the permanent prosperity of the productive industry of the Common- 

In most trade unions, political discussion was not permitted at meetings. 
Workingmen, however, were vitally interested in labor legislation, and 
not only participated in but led many of the political movements of the 
1870*5 and i88o's. Outside the trade unions were organized the Trades 
Assemblies, where political and social questions were discussed. The 
National Labor Union was created for this purpose in 1866, and continued 
to function until 1874. In April, 1878, at a regular meeting of the Boston 
Typographical Union, a motion was adopted to form a Central Union of 
the Trades in Boston and the vicinity. 

Labor also began to consider the larger question of the role of labor in 
relation to production. Ira Steward, a machinist of Boston, developed 
in the period of 1869-80 the theory that by a general eight-hour day and a 
general increase of purchasing power the problems of capital and labor 
could be solved. He set forth his ideas in a book which he left uncompleted 
at his death in 1883. The manuscript was altered, added to, and com- 
pleted by George Gunther, a weaver of Fall River, who brought it out un- 
der the title of 'Wealth and Progress' in 1887. Later Gunther joined with 
F. A. Sorge, for a time the representative of Karl Marx's International 
Workingmen's Association hi America, and with J. P. McDonnell the 
Fenian, to found the International Labor Union, which attempted to 
organize unskilled workers. 

George McNeil! also had a major part in labor's political movements of 
this period. His father, John McNeill, had been associated with John 
Greenleaf Whittier in the anti-slavery movement, and George himself 
took part in the strike of 1852 in the woolen mills of Amesbury, which 
was supported by WTiittier and Thomas Wentworth Higginson. Black- 
listed in the textile trade, George McNeill learned the trade of shoemaker. 
He was secretary (1863-64) of the Grand Eight-Hour League, president 
(1869-74) of the Boston Eight-Hour League, and president (1867-69) of the 

Labor 71 

Workingmen's Institute. He drafted the first program for the Knights of 
Labor Assembly in 1874. At first he was associated with Wendell Phillips, 
but the theories of the eight-hour reformers and of greenbackism were 
mutually incompatible, and the association ended. Phillips and McNeill 
were partly responsible for the establishment of the Massachusetts Bureau 
of Labor Statistics in 1869, and McNeill was appointed the first assistant 
chief of the bureau in that year, but was discharged in 1873 on account of 
his labor activities. McNeill resigned from the Knights of Labor to join 
the newly formed American Federation of Labor in 1886. He wrote a 
number of books on labor problems. 

Wendell Phillips was largely responsible for the Greenback Movement of 
1870-80, which, partly socialist and partly anarchist in inspiration, was 
an effort to displace bankers and middlemen from their key places in the 
economy of production. Currency and bonds, according to the green- 
backists, should be interchangeable. The basic economic theory common 
to socialism, anarchism, and greenbackism was that capital was solely the 
product of labor. This was no new doctrine, of course Adam Smith and 
Ricardo had already voiced it, while Marx had employed it as a weapon. 
Its newness lay in its use by workingmen's political movements in Amer- 
ica. Greenbackism, popularly supposed to be a currency reform move- 
ment, was more than that it aimed, by a new system of credit and by 
universal suffrage, at complete industrial reorganization. 

Besides Wendell Phillips, Josiah Warren, the first American anarchist, 
Ezra Heywood, Warren's follower, William H. Channing, Albert Bris- 
bane, and John Orvis of Brook Farm were among the middle-class re- 
formers participating in the unions' political movements. The Independ- 
ent Party was formed in 1870, and in three weeks workingmen, without 
newspaper support, succeeded in electing twenty-one State representatives 
and one State senator, polling a vote of 13,000 in the State. 

For more than twenty years after 1880, Massachusetts workers devoted 
themselves to 'pure and simple' trade unionism. In the period of 1881- 
1900 there were 1802 recorded strikes and lockouts, Massachusetts rank- 
ing fourth among the States in strikes and third in number of lockouts. 
Nearly one-third of these disputes was in the shoe industry, the next 
largest number being in the cotton goods industry and the building trades. 

In 1911, a labor law reduced women's working hours to fifty-four per 
week. In retaliation, manufacturers reduced wages proportionately, and 
this act precipitated the great Lawrence strike of 1912. 

According to a report of the United States Commissioner of Labor, 
'the average amount actually received [in Lawrence] by the 21,922 em- 

72 Massachusetts : The General Background 

ployees, during a week late in 1911, in which the mills were running full 
time, was $8.76.' Most of the workers were unorganized the United 
Textile Workers had twenty-five hundred members, and the Industrial 
Workers of the World a few hundred. After three days, however, nearly 
all the unskilled and semi-skilled operatives in the city were out. Joseph 
Ettor, a member of the General Executive Board of the I.W.W., came to 
Lawrence and assumed leadership of the strike. On January 15, strikers 
picketed in mass, and the Mayor requisitioned four out-of-town troops of 
militia in addition to the four local companies. On January 16, the mills 
were reopened with the protection of police and the militia, and picketers 
were driven back at the point of the bayonet. William M. Wood, president 
of the American Woolen Company, refused to meet with a strike com- 
mittee. On January 19, the skilled operatives joined the strike. Next day 
several sticks of dynamite were ' discovered ' in the strike district, seven 
strikers were arrested, and four additional companies of militia were 
brought in. Subsequently a leading business man was tried, convicted, 
and fined five hundred dollars for 'planting' the dynamite; President 
Wood was exonerated in court after failing to explain a payment to the 
purchaser of the dynamite. On the day of a huge demonstration, Janu- 
ary 29, a woman striker was killed, and the city council voted to turn the 
town over to the commander of the militia, which was reinforced by the 
addition of ten more companies of infantry and two of cavalry. Ettor 
and Arture Giovanitti, editor of // Proletario, were accused of the murder, 
and later acquitted. While Ettor was in jail, William ('Big Bill') Hay- 
wood took command of the strike. One hundred and nineteen strikers' 
children were sent to New York, where they were greeted by a crowd of 
five thousand. Later ninety-two more children were sent out of harm's 
way. When once more a new group of 'refugee' children was ready to 
board the train, fifty police and two companies of militia clubbed their 
parents and dragged children and parents to jail. After the organization 
of the largest picket line ever seen in Massachusetts, comprising twenty 
thousand workers, the strike was won, with wage increases, time-and-a- 
quarter for overtime, and guarantees of no discrimination against union 

During the strike the relief committee had raised a large sum, appealing 
in a circular for ' bread ' for the striking workers. The Attorney General 
of the State contended that this money should be spent only for bread, 
whereas portions of the fund had been used for legal expenses, transporta- 
tion of children, contributions to the national organization, etc. He se- 
cured a court order compelling the strikers to turn over $15,379.85 to the 

Labor 73 

court to be expended for 'charitable purposes,' with an accounting for 
sums already paid out. 

In August, 1919, the Boston Social Club, an organization of 1290 Bos- 
ton police, voted to join the American Federation of Labor in a body. 
The patrolmen complained that their wages had failed to keep pace with 
the cost of living, that the police stations were unsanitary, and that they 
worked overtime without compensation. Police Commissioner Edwin U. 
Curtis issued an order on August n forbidding members of the police 
force to 'join any organization outside the department except posts of the 
G.A.R., Spanish War Veterans, and American Legion.' Despite this or- 
der, on August 15 the Boston Social Club was chartered as the Police- 
men's Union under the A.F. of L., and the Boston Central Labor Union, 
representing eighty thousand organized workers, assured the new union of 
its support. Commissioner Curtis preferred charges against eight police- 
men; as sole judge, he passed on the validity of the ruling he had issued, 
and, declining to hear counsel for the policemen in rebuttal, found the men 
guilty. The Policemen's Union thereupon called a strike, to become ef- 
fective at the hour of the evening roll call on September 9. Only thirty of 
the four hundred and twenty patrolmen due at that roll call appeared. 
A citizens' committee, appointed as an arbitrating body, stated that * the 
Boston Policemen's Union should not affiliate or be connected with any 
labor organization,' but urged that 'the present wages, hours, and work- 
ing conditions require material adjustment.' 

The striking patrolmen placed twenty pickets at each police station. 
Mayor Peters called on ' all citizens to do their part to assist the authori- 
ties in maintaining order,' and Governor Calvin Coolidge called out one 
hundred State police. President Lowell of Harvard appealed to students 
1 to prepare themselves for such services as the Governor may call upon 
them to render.' Dean Greenough organized an 'emergency committee,' 
and Coach Fisher was reported by the press as having declared, ' To hell 
with football if men are needed.' ' Come back from your vacations, young 
men,' a press release credited Professor Hall of the Physics Department of 
Harvard with saying, ' there is sport and diversion for you right here in 

Sympathetic citizens of Boston gathered around police stations to cheer 
the strikers and boo patrolmen who remained on duty. Guardsmen opened 
fire with rifles and a machine gun on a cheering crowd of sympathizers in 
South Boston, killing two boys and wounding several bystanders, and in 
Scollay Square, cavalry charged on a crowd, shot a woman and killed a 
man. Metropolitan Park (State) policemen thereafter refused to go on 

74 Massachusetts: The General Background 

further strike duty, were suspended, and joined the union. The possibility 
of a sympathetic general strike neared. Hoodlums began pouring into 
Boston from outside towns, and President Mclnnis of the Policemen's 
Union placed responsibility for rioting and looting with Commissioner 
Curtis. Mayor Peters placed the blame on Governor Coolidge, and the 
Governor offered an 'implied rebuke' of the Mayor. Volunteer police- 
men were called out on the morning of September 1 i, by which time seven 
persons had been killed and some sixty injured. E. B. McGill was shot 
by guardsmen on Howard Street 'as he was merely passing by,' according 
to the press; Henry Grote was killed as he played 'craps' opposite the 
Armory in Jamaica Plain; and Richard D. Reemts, a striking patrolman, 
was killed as he attempted to disarm two special policemen. 

President Wilson denounced the strike, and next day Samuel Gompers, 
president of the A.F. of L., ordered the strikers back to work. With the 
support of the Federation lost, the policemen were beaten, and their 
union voted on September 1 2 to return to work. Next day, according to 
the press, there ' was no recurrence of disorder except for the killing of one 
man and the wounding of a woman.' Corporal Newton of the National 
Guard was reported as killing a youth of twenty-two named Coist as he 
ran across Tremont Street. The street was crowded with people, and Mrs. 
Mary Jacques was about to cross the street when she screamed and fell, 
shot through the leg. The people on the street began to crowd around, but 
the guardsmen pushed them back, shouting, according to the newspaper 
accounts, ' Get back or you'll get the same thing 1 ' 

Gompers appealed to Governor Coolidge to reinstate the strikers, at 
the same time completely disavowing the strike. Coolidge disclaimed the 
power of reinstatement, and added that he was opposed to 'the public 
safety again being placed in the hands of these same policemen.' 

The Boston police strike has always been considered a decisive factor 
in the career of Calvin Coolidge. In 1920, he was elected to the Vice- 
Presidency, and, upon the death of Warren G. Harding, in 1923, became 
President of the United States. 

The shoe industry today is second only to textiles in the State both as 
to value of output and in the number of workers employed. One of the 
most recent of many bitter struggles for organization in the shoe industry 
occurred in 1929, when the shoe workers of Lynn, Boston, Chelsea, and 
Salem struck with the major demand for the recognition of their union, 
the United Shoe Workers of America, as opposed to the Boot and Shoe 
Workers' Union, an A.F. of L. affiliate, with which they were dissatis- 
fied. The strike lasted more than six months, but was broken by the Boot 

Labor 75 

and Shoe Union, which imported men from Maine and New Hampshire. 
During this strike many 'runaway shops' left Massachusetts and moved 
to non-union centers in Maine and New Hampshire. The frequency with 
which these shops have moved has earned them the title of 'factories on 
wheels.' . 

In the summer of 1933, a movement started in Brockton for the amalga- 
mation of all the independent shoe unions into one national union. A 
new amalgamated union, the United Shoe and Leather Workers' Union, 
was formed; the Brockton Brotherhood, however, refused to enter. This 
new union, which included about fifty thousand workers, suffered from 
internal dissensions, to say nothing of wholesale factory removals. In 
1933-34 there were twenty-one shoe factories in Boston, employing some 
seven thousand workers; by 1935-36 there remained only four factories, 
employing about two thousand. Weakened by these conditions, the mem- 
bership of the United Shoe and Leather Workers Union had dwindled to 
fifteen thousand in 1936. In 1937, a movement again developed for 
amalgamation, this time as an affiliate of the Committee for Industrial 
Organization. The United and the Protective voted overwhelmingly for 
amalgamation; but the Brotherhood defeated the proposal by nine 
hundred votes. 

In the fishing industry the ancient ' share ' or ' lay ' system still governs 
the pay of all hands except the skipper, cook, and engineer. The foremast 
hand gets only his share of the i stock ' (proceeds of the voyage after deduc- 
tion of expenses) in lieu of a fixed wage. Theoretically, this workman thus 
becomes a partner in the venture. He has no property investment at 
stake, nor is he liable for financial losses involved in a 'broken voyage.' 
He does speculate, however, with his time, his labor, often with his health 
and not infrequently with his life. 

All the old methods of fishing trawling as the Gloucestermen prac- 
tice it, trap or weir fishing, hand-lining and seining are skilled labor, 
and most of the work aboard the mechanized beam trawlers also requires 
specialized knowledge. Risk, though considerably reduced from the days 
of sail, is still large, especially in the use of dories for trawling. No regular 
working hours are possible, and in the course of the usual voyage, work 
never really ceases. When the men are not fishing, they have their gear 
to mend, they must work ship, they must prepare the bait for trawl lines 
and bait their hooks, and they must gut, clean, and stow the fish, and un- 
load it when it is sold. 

Fish are sold, at the principal ports, through a fish exchange, similar to 
any commodity exchange save for one feature : the buyer is not held to his 

76 Massachusetts: The General Background 

price, even after the deal is closed. Should a number of vessels bring in 
full loads of fish immediately following such a sale, thus increasing supply 
and driving the price lower, the buyer may refuse to accept such fish as 
have not been taken out of the hold. Usually he offers a lower price; and 
as he has taken the freshest fish those on top, hence caught last the 
skipper generally makes a concession. The chief burden of this sort of 
dealing falls, of course, upon the crew the 'partners' in the voyage. 
The only chance such men have to make an unusually large ' stock ' is to tie 
up at a wharf with a full hold when no other vessel has one. And the 
chances against this are large. For these reasons, mainly, the fisherman 
is almost invariably poor. On account of the share system, fishermen have 
remained largely unorganized. 

In 1920, a fish peddler, Bartolomeo Vanzetti, and a shoe- worker, Nic- 
cola Sacco, both members of the Galleani group of anarchists, were ar- 
rested on the charge of murder and robbery in connection with the theft of 
a $15,000 payroll. Despite their alibis, the highly circumstantial nature 
of the evidence, and the commendations of previous employers, they were 
ultimately both adjudged guilty. During the seven years that elapsed 
between the murder and the execution of the sentence, protest demonstra- 
tions were held throughout the world. President Lowell of Harvard, Pres- 
ident Stratton of Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and Judge 
Robert Grant were invited by Governor Fuller to weigh the evidence and 
advise him. They upheld the finding of the court and Sacco and Vanzetti 
were executed on August 23, 1927. It was widely believed that, although 
legal forms were observed, the determining factor in the case from start 
to finish was the affiliation of the two men with an unpopular minority 
political group. 

The Women's Trade Union League secured, in 1921, an extension of the 
fifty-eight hour law for women to further industries. Employers of woman 
labor in the textile industry were given power under the National Industrial 
Recovery Act of 1933 to make codes of fair competition, and in that year 
they secured the suspension of section 59 of chapter 149 of the General 
Laws of Massachusetts which prohibited the employment of women in 
textile mills after 6 P.M. This suspension was continued from year to year 
after the collapse of the National Industrial Recovery Act. 

Of the 122,389 workers in the textile mills of the State in 1937, forty per 
cent were women. In the textile industry, women are a permanent labor 
force. Most of them enter the mills at a very early age and remain there 
for the greater part of their lives. Even marriage does not always take the 
textile working girl out of the mill, for the earnings of her husband seldom 

Labor 77 

suffice to meet the family expenses. Weekly wages for women range from 
$8 for ordinary workers to $27 for the most highly skilled spinners or 
weavers. Since there are seasonal periods of unemployment, weekly 
earnings over long periods naturally average considerably less. The 
'speedup' and 'stretchout' systems, together with improvements in 
machinery, have vastly increased the machine load per worker. Ten 
years ago an operative commonly took care of a single loom, now he cares 
for thirty or more. According to the May, 1937, issue of the Textile Worker 
of New England, 'Within the past two months the textile mills, while 
announcing a 10 per cent increase in wages, have actually increased the 
work load of the operatives from 25 to 200 per cent.' 

The same conditions and social philosophy that have permitted the 
labor of women for long hours in industry have also permitted child-labor. 
Edward Johnson, in ' Wonder- Working Providence' (1654), spoke of the 
people of Rowley who ' caused their little ones to be very diligent in spin- 
ning cotton wool,' and with the rise of the factory system children took 
places beside their parents in the textile mills. An early memorandum by 
the proprietor of a cotton mill in Lancaster records that in 1815 Dennis 
Rier of Newburyport agreed to work with his family at the following 
wages: Himself, $5 a week; a boy of sixteen, $2 a week; a boy of thirteen, 
$1.50 a week; a girl of twelve, $1.25 a week; a boy of ten, 83 cents a week; 
and a girl of eight, 75 cents a week. In 1825, according to the report of 
that year by the Commissioner of Education, for children under sixteen 
' the time of employment is generally twelve or thirteen hours each day, 
excepting the Sabbath.' At Bridgewater children worked twelve hours 
daily, and could not 'attend school and be employed.' In Duxbury chil- 
dren under sixteen worked from 'sunrise to sunset.' This report dealt 
with corporate establishments only in many others the conditions were 

Hours of labor for children under twelve were limited to ten per day by 
a law of 1842, and a law of 1858 stipulated that employed children must 
have eighteen weeks' schooling each year. In 1913 was passed the first 
enforceable eight-hour law for children in an important textile State. 

In 1937, minors under fourteen could not work during the hours school 
was in session, nor before 6.30 A.M. nor after 6 P.M. No boy under sixteen 
could sell papers or 'exercise the trade of scavenger' after 9 P.M. or before 
5 A.M. Minors might still be bound as apprentices or servants, although 
above the age of fourteen only with the consent of the bound person. 

Violations of child-labor laws are frequently reported. Uncontrolled 
home work by women and children is also common. 

78 Massachusetts: The General Background 

According to the 1930 Census, there were 60,524 children from ten to 
seventeen years of age gainfully employed in the State. Of this number 
9824 were between the ages of ten and fifteen. In 1924, the United States 
Congress accepted the so-called 'Child-Labor Amendment,' which is not 
a child-labor law, but an act authorizing Congress to pass such laws. The 
measure came up for ratification in Massachusetts in the same year. 
A campaign against the amendment, led by the Massachusetts Associated 
Industries, enlisted the aid of prominent citizens, including Cardinal 
O'Connell, A. Lawrence Lowell, and others. The campaign for the 
amendment was waged mainly by the State Federation of Labor and the 
Massachusetts League of Women Voters. The referendum showed a ma- 
jority against ratification of the amendment, and the General Court also 
returned unfavorable votes on ratification in each year from 1933 to 1937. 
At the 1937 legislative hearings on the amendment, the chairman abruptly 
closed the proceedings, and his action was protested by the proponents 
in a picket line before the State House, the first such since the Sacco- 
Vanzetti case in 1927. 

Several decisions of Massachusetts equity courts have had a bearing on 
labor. In 1910, the courts handed down the important decision (Mariana 
de Minico v. Daniel Craig) that it was within their jurisdiction to declare 
whether or not a strike was ' legal ' ; and in the following year a strike for 
the closed shop by the Boston Photo-Engravers' Union against all non- 
union employers in Boston was enjoined as ' illegal.' Considered as illegal 
in Massachusetts are picketing with banners (picketing without banners 
is 'peaceful persuasion,' and legal), and sympathetic strikes. In 1937, a 
law was passed making ' sit-down ' strikes illegal. Two important decisions 
favorable to labor were that which upheld a law making blacklisting by 
employers illegal (John Cornellier v. Haverhill Shoe Manufacturing As- 
sociation, 1915), and the decision (Commonwealth v. Walter M. Libby) 
upholding the constitutionality of a State law which makes it a criminal 
offense for an employer, during a strike or lockout, to advertise for 
employees without plainly and explicitly mentioning in the advertisement 
that labor trouble exists. 


FOR generations historians have been telling us that when the ' Mayflower ' 
dropped anchor off what is now Plymouth, our ancestors went ashore and 
proceeded immediately to build log cabins. This would mean that, upon 
the spur of the moment, these workmen invented a new type of building 
a construction such as they had never seen in England, of a kind un- 
known even to the Indians. A widely publicized painting illustrating this 
fanciful theory pictures a double row of such log houses reaching up the 
hillside of Leyden Street at Plymouth. Far from supporting this tradi- 
tion, all accounts of day-by-day happenings following the settlement of 
the coastal villages give ample proof that, so far as material and labor 
permitted, the first settlers in New England reproduced the homes they 
had left in Old England. The wooden versions of the English yeoman's 
cottage were not the first to be built by the settlers. The exigency of 
immediate shelter forced a direct retrogression to a type much earlier and 
more primitive than those left behind. But as there were skilled artisans 
and carpenters among the early settlers who were qualified by long ap- 
prenticeships in England to construct permanent houses, there is no need 
for giving more than a passing mention to the first temporary makeshift 
structures. The common folk were first housed in conical huts constructed 
of slanting poles covered with brush, reeds, and turf, sometimes with a low 
wall of branches and wattle plastered with clay. These were the ' English 
wigwams' referred to in chronicles, and were simply a transplantation of 
a type then in use by charcoal-burners in England. Some of these tempo- 
rary shelters were cellars built into the sides of banks, walled and roofed 
with brush and sod. In Salem a * pioneer village' was built in 1930, and 
reproductions of some of the early shelters and houses may be seen there. 
Soon after landing, the colonists dug saw pits in the English manner 
and began to produce boards in quantity suitable not only for the con- 
struction of their own houses but for exportation as well. In the summer 
of 1626, when the ship ' Fortune ' sailed from Plymouth, bound for England, 
' clapboards and wainscott ' were listed as part of her lading. In the sum- 
mer of 1623 Bradford mentions the building 'of great houses in pleasant 
situations,' and later writes that 'they builte a forte with good timber.' 
Isaac de Rasieres described the structure in 1627 as 'a large square house 

80 Massachusetts: The General Background 

made of thick sawn planks, stayed with oak beams.' When the fort was 
taken down at the close of King Philip's War in 1676, the timber was 
given to William Harlow, who built the Harlow House, which is still stand- 
ing in Plymouth. 

The usual type of permanent dwelling-house was a two-story structure, 
the second story overhanging, with two rooms upstairs and down, a small 
entry, and a mammoth chimney between. Lean-tos were often added 
later. The Fairbanks House in Dedham (1636), solidly framed of oak, 
rejoices in an unadorned simplicity lost in later and more academic struc- 
tures. The Boardman House in Saugus (1651) combines two character- 
istic features of the medieval Colonial: the overhang and the original 
innovation of the lean-to. The long, unbroken slope of its roof is well 
suited to stream-line the cold north wind. Ornament occurs in the Parson 
Capen House at Topsfield (1683), where heavy carved pendrils or drops 
depending from the bottom of the jetty or overhang lend an Elizabethan 
flavor. As the overhang, however, had been evolved in England for the 
purpose of gaining additional floor area above the street line, in a new and 
spacious country it dwindled and soon disappeared. 

The earliest ecclesiastical architecture was similarly influenced by 
English medievalism. The only church building of the seventeenth cen- 
tury still standing in the State, the Old Ship Church in Hingham, was 
erected by ship carpenters in 1681. Its roof, built in the form of a trun- 
cated pyramid, is surmounted by a belfry and lookout station. This early 
church, constructed to fulfill the simple needs of its congregation, is de- 
void of frivolity or pretense. Here, as frequently elsewhere in early Massa- 
chusetts architecture, deliberate indifference to any esthetic concept 
resulted in an effect of restraint and dignity. 

The first indications of a more studied architecture came at the opening 
of the eighteenth century with the adoption of less steep roofs, the use of 
sash windows instead of casements, and a growing tendency to employ a 
uniform cornice with a hip roof. William Price, a Boston print-seller, de- 
signed Christ Church (the Old North Church) in 1723, adorning its simple 
front with a lofty wooden steeple reminiscent of Wren. A more imposing 
structure, the Old South Church, erected seven years later from plans by 
Robert Twelve, is in this same style, which strongly influenced ecclesiasti- 
cal architecture in the colonies during the entire century. The architec- 
tural ambitions of the builders were satisfied by the steeple, little effort 
at further adornment being made beyond an occasional elaboration of the 
eaves into a classical cornice. 

Independent of architectural pomposities of the mainland, the fisher- 

Architecture 81 

men along the bended elbow of the State were erecting their huddled 
little ' Cape Codders.' Built on flat surfaces of the dunes, these one-and-a- 
half-story cottages with lean-tos hugged the earth for warmth over shal- 
low unfinished cellars. Entrance to the cellar was provided by a trapdoor 
inside the house or by an outside bulkhead, its ungainliness hidden by a 
lilac or other flowering shrub. Since the first story was usually not over 
seven feet high, the half story used as a storeroom and as sleeping quarters 
for the children provided little headroom. The typical Cape Codder had 
a shingle roof, a large central chimney, a clapboarded front, sometimes 
painted, and unpainted shingled sides which the salt air weathered to a 
dull silver. The windmill, with its shingled walls and skeleton-like vanes 
silhouetted against the dunes, is peculiar to the Cape and Nantucket. 

The floors were of pine, wide-cut, painted or ' spattered.' The doors ordi- 
narily had six panels and opened with a thumb latch. The first-floor win- 
dows had four 'lights' each, those in the upper floor but three. Smaller 
windows, set irregularly in the walls, provided light for closets. The 
parlor, more carefully finished than the kitchen, contained a 'chair rail,' 
a narrow moulding running around the wall about two and a half feet 
from the floor. So simple a cottage made up for its bareness by the bright 
polish of its window-panes and the gleam of its scrubbed floor. 

The 'half-a-cape,' a plain dwelling with a chimney at one end, derived 
its name from the fact that its owner always hoped the day would come 
when he could add the other half and convert his cottage into a proper 
house with a central chimney. The ' salt-box ' the origin of the name no 
longer so apparent now that salt comes in cardboard containers has a 
northerly lean-to roof. The ' rainbow roof ' rises in a convex curve to the 
ridgepole, with the appearance of an inverted boat's hull. The familiar 
roomy gambrel roof is occasionally but not often seen on the Cape. 

As the seaboard towns grew in wealth, and tools and materials were 
more easily secured, builders began to indulge in the free classic details 
of the Queen Anne and the Georgian styles. The result was Georgian 
colonial, which had a profound influence upon American domestic archi- 
tecture along the eastern seaboard. In New England, Georgian colonial 
buildings were almost invariably harmonious; details in most instances 
were delicate and refined; errors were apt to be on the side not of coarseness, 
but of smallness and reserve. The first phase of New England Georgian 
occupied the period between 1720-25 and 1740-45, of which the Royall 
House (1723) in Medford and the Dummer Mansion in Byfield are fine 
examples. The second phase, from 1745 to 1775-80, is exemplified in the 
Lee Mansion in Marblehead. The transition from Georgian to classicism, 

82 Massachusetts: The General Background 

showing a strong Adam influence, was dominant in the last phase, and 
included some of the best work of Bulfinch and Mclntire. 

In the absence of professional architects in Massachusetts during the 
eighteenth century, cultivated amateurs turned to the drafting board. 
Sir Francis Bernard, for nine years Colonial Governor of Massachusetts, 
designed Harvard Hall (1765) in Harvard Yard. Near-by Massachusetts 
Hall had been erected in 1720 from designs prepared by John Leverett, 
president of the college, and Benjamin Wadsworth, later president. 
John Smibert, portrait-painter, drew the plans for Faneuil Hall (1742) in 
Boston, later enlarged and modified by Bulfinch. Peter Harrison, a con- 
temporary of Smibert, although he had no professional training, became 
the most distinguished architect of the Colonial era. In 1 749 he designed 
King's Chapel in Boston, in which the influence of Wren and his successor 
Gibbs can be seen. The exterior is dour, but the interior, with its rich 
sobriety, repose, and studied suavity of proportion, remains one of the 
finest in existence. Harrison also designed Christ Church (1761) in Cam- 

The first professional architect of the Republic began his career as a 
cultivated amateur. Charles Bulfinch (1763-1844), born of a well-to-do 
family, made an architectural ' grand tour ' of Europe. As a gentleman of 
means and taste he designed houses for his friends. He planned the State 
House on Beacon Hill in Boston, the original red brick core of which, 
known as the Bulfinch Front, stands sandwiched between two white 

Bulfinch went bankrupt in 1796, and fortunately for architecture made 
extended use of his talent to earn his living. In his handling of detail and 
ornament the influence of Adam and Chambers is obvious, but in the 
sterner matters of plan and composition Bulfinch struck out in new direc- 
tions, and his designs, characterized by slender proportions, a delicacy 
well suited to execution in wood, tall pilasters of slight projection, light 
cornices and balustrades, slender columns, shallow surface arches, and 
fan-lights and side-lights with tenuous tracery, were a departure in line 
and detail. Bulfinch had studied to good effect Chambers's fine new 
Somerset House in London, as is apparent from a comparison of his first 
sketches for the State House, submitted in 1787, with the facade of the 
English structure containing the Navy Office. A volume which Bulfinch 
purchased abroad, *Le Vignole Moderne' (Paris, 1785), contains some of 
the motives used on the portico of the State House, as well as a good 
dome. His work in directing the completion of the Federal Capitol Build- 
ing in Washington after 1817, when at President Monroe's invitation he 

Architecture 83 

replaced Latrobe as architect of the Capitol, indicates that his fresh and 
bold approach had become somewhat restrained. 

The Elias Hasket Derby Mansion in Salem profited by the combined ef- 
forts of Bulfinch and Mclntire. Derby was so situated economically that 
he could demand the best talent available, so Bulfinch, who was considered 
the best, was asked to submit designs, which he did. Dissatisfied, Derby 
called in Mclntire, the local master, and he carried the job to completion. 
He designed the house almost independently, but incorporated in it some 
of the features by Bulfinch. 

As chairman of the board of selectmen of Boston, Bulfinch had much 
to do with turning the Common from a meadow into a park, and during 
this period he drew the plans for the warehouses on Boston's India Wharf. 
Other buildings of significance by Bulfinch remaining today in Massa- 
chusetts are Faneuil Hall (addition and revision, 1805), the Harrison 
Gray Otis House (1796), the Sears House (second Harrison Gray Otis 
House, 1800), Wadsworth House (third Harrison Gray Otis House, 
1807), Bulfinch Building, Massachusetts General Hospital (1818) all 
in Boston; University Hall, Harvard (1813-15); New North Church 
(1806) in Hingham; Lancaster Church (1810); Meeting House, Taunton; 
Pearson Hall (1818) and Bulfinch Hall (1818) at Phillips Academy in 

As the depression of the i78o's was succeeded by better times, Yankee 
vessels began to pour wealth into Boston, Salem, and other seaboard 
towns. Port towns soon were clustered with the square white houses of 
shipowners and sea captains, their roofs crowned with roof decks known 
as 'captain's walks' or 'widow's walks,' originally lookout places for 
scanning the harbor. Many of the builders of these houses had been ship 
carpenters, taught by the exacting demands of their craft economy of line 
and material. As a result their houses possessed a fluidity of line seen at 
its best in the work of Mclntire. 

The work of Samuel Mclntire (1757-1811), carver-architect and con- 
temporary of Bulfinch, shows the influence of European masters, notably 
Robert Adam. But Mclntire possessed too much native genius to be 
content with servile adaptation. 'He borrowed, but he repaid with in- 

Mclntire houses, many of which still line Chestnut Street in Salem, 
had little exterior grace. They were big, four-square, three stories high. 
Like their mistresses, the captains' ladies, these Salem houses guarded 
themselves from the world by a prim, even prudish exterior. Within, 
however, was amiability, charm, and finely studied and eloquently exe- 

84 Massachusetts : The General Background 

cuted detail, apparent in the broad staircases with their carved balusters 
and twisted newels, the wooden mantels enriched with figured ornament, 
the raised paneled dadoes, and delicate cornices with dentils and modil- 
lions. The exteriors were usually flanked with great pilasters or quoins, 
surmounted with cornices of well-proportioned members, and the houses 
were not infrequently enclosed with elaborate wooden fences. 

Mclntire's last houses, built from 1805 to 1811, were of brick. The 
use of this less pliable material and a growing classical influence gave his 
later work a more austere character. Outstanding examples of his archi- 
tecture are the Pierce- Johonnot-Nichols House (1782), Samuel Cook 
House (1804), John Gardner House (1805), David P. Waters House 
(1805), Dudley L. Pickman House (1810), all in Salem; the Elias H. 
Derby House (1799), and 'Oak Hill' (1800) in Peabody. Three complete 
Mclntire rooms from 'Oak Hill' have been installed in the American 
Wing of the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston. 

Asher Benjamin, a contemporary of Mclntire, designed the Old West 
Church (1806) and the Charles Street Church (1807) in Boston. Possessing 
the native genius of neither Bulfinch nor Mclntire, Benjamin made an 
important contribution to American architecture through his frequent 
publications, from 'The Country Builder's Assistant' (1797) to 'The 
Practical House Carpenter' (1830). 

The Greek revival, started in the beginning of the nineteenth century 
by Benjamin Henry Latrobe with his design for the Bank of Pennsylvania, 
did not spread to New England until the second decade. Alexander 
Parris and Solomon Willard, the planners of Bunker Hill Monument in 
Charlestown (1825-42), were its chief exponents in Massachusetts, and 
as such they designed Saint Paul's Cathedral (1820) in Boston. Later, 
with Quincy Market (1825) in Boston and the Stone Temple in Quincy 
(1828), Parris essayed other monuments to this revived style. 

Long after the ebbing of the tide of Greek influence, one of the most 
studied efforts in this style was built in Boston: the United States Custom 
House (1847). Designed by Ammi B. Young and Isaiah Rogers, this 
building was originally crowned with a dome. Later a tall shaft was 
added, transforming it into Boston's first skyscraper and an apt tomb- 
stone to the movement. The dome was not removed from the interior, 
but the lower floors were allowed to hide it and form a shell about it. 
Later examples of the Greek revival travestied the classic style rather 
than copied it. It became common practice for the designers of com- 
mercial buildings to make imitations of Greek porticoes and entries and 
to attach them without discrimination to the facades of banks and 

Architecture 85 

markets. Allied to little in the Massachusetts tradition, the Greek revival 
inevitably disintegrated. 

After the Greek revival came experimentation in many directions. 
Dwelling-houses took the form of Italian villas, or of mansard-roofed 
boxes the shadows of English shadows. The result was a tedious 
parade of mediocrity, punctuated here and there by an outstanding 
atrocity. French influence fared somewhat better than English, and the 
Athenaeum (1849), the Arlington Street Church, and the old Technology 
building (now Rogers Hall) , all in Boston, were intelligent adaptations of 
Renaissance motifs. 

Up to the end of the Civil War no academic training of architects was 
given in the State. In 1865, however, the Massachusetts Institute of 
Technology established the first American school for architects, in which 
something like the organized teaching of the Ecole des Beaux Arts was 
attempted, with William R. Ware as its first director. 

The period immediately following the Civil War was infected by 
Ruskin's fervent advocacy of medievalism and his sweeping condemna- 
tion of Renaissance architecture as 'immoral.' Ruskinian or Victorian 
Gothic, derived by an adoption of Italian Gothic detail and characterized 
by a confusion of aims frequently accompanied by mediocrity of achieve- 
ment, has its monument in Memorial Hall (1878) at Harvard, William R. 
Ware, architect. Probably the most severely condemned of its contem- 
poraries, 'Mem Hall' shows the laboring of an architect of taste and 
scholarship fatally hampered by a pernicious style. Boston's Copley 
Square, originally a swamp dear to none but duck-hunters, was filled in, 
and architects cast about for suitable designs for its new buildings. The 
Old South Church (1876) was designed by Cummings and Sears, who 
had obviously saturated themselves with Ruskin. A no less apparent 
study of the work of Sir Gilbert Scott, however, makes this building one 
of the more bearable examples of the Ruskinian episode in the United 
States. The old Museum of Fine Arts, devotedly Ruskinian (1876, no 
longer standing), built from designs by John Sturgis, was the first struc- 
ture in which domestic terra cotta was used. 

Just across the square Henry Hobson Richardson was burying the 
corpse of Victorian Gothic and raising a splendid structure, Trinity 
Church (1872-78). The bold individuality of Trinity, the most important 
example of 'Richardson Romanesque,' can be fully appreciated, even by 
trained eyes, only after detailed study. Taking as its point of departure 
the Romanesque of southern France, Trinity is characterized by its 
strong, vigorous and picturesque masses of rock-faced stonework and its 

86 Massachusetts: The General Background 

rich and individual ornament. John LaFarge's windows and interior 
decorations are in keeping with the richness of the exterior. 

Richardson was the second American to study at the Ecole des Beaux 
Arts and in Paris he worked for Labrouste, the architect of that extraordi- 
nary building, the Bibliotheque Sainte Genevieve in Paris. Trinity 
Church, considered Richardson's most important work, is antedated by 
the First Baptist Church of Boston (formerly New Brattle Square 
Church, 1874), a failure acoustically, but notable for its tower. When 
Richardson designed the tower he sent for Bartholdi, a fellow student at 
the Beaux Arts, to execute the heavy frieze. Bartholdi became so en- 
grossed in his new surroundings that he was moved to design his ' Light 
of Liberty,' eventually reproduced in New York Harbor. Other note- 
worthy examples of Richardson's work in the State are Sever Hall at 
Harvard, the Woburn and North Easton public libraries. The Crane 
Memorial Library in Quincy is probably Richardson's finest. 

The Richardsonian Romanesque was widely imitated, but seldom 
worthily adapted. An excellent adaptation of this style to a commercial 
purpose, however, is the Ames Building (1891), one of Boston's first tall 
office buildings and the last to employ all masonry instead of steel con- 
struction, designed by Shepley, Rutan, and Coolidge, who carried on 
Richardson's work. 

The epochal achievement of the nineteenth century was the Albertian 
Boston Public Library (1888-95). As his point of departure Charles 
Follen McKim chose the bold, unbroken lines of Labrouste's Italian 
Renaissance masterpiece, the Bibliotheque Sainte Genevieve in Paris. 
But he fused with this influence the more robust character of Alberti's 
San Francesco at Rimini. It is monumental, yet chaste in ornament. 
Everything is calculated to produce a feeling of dignity and restraint, 
and the whole effect is one of severity without coldness. 

The Wilbur Theater (1913) in Boston was the first auditorium to be 
designed with the help of a pioneer in the field of acoustics, Professor 
Sabine of Harvard. 

In Henry Adams, Massachusetts produced a scholar who sought in 
medieval architecture a key to the present; in Ralph Adams Cram the 
State possesses an architect who turns from the present to the medieval 
past, notably in the All Saints' Church in Ashmont; Saint Stephen's, 
Cohasset; First Unitarian, West Newton; All Saints' and the Church of 
Our Saviour in Brookline. 

Up to the time of the Chicago Exposition in 1893, when the steel 
skeleton and the elevator had definitely severed architectural practice 


WHEN the settlers first came to America, they built some- 
thing very like an English charcoal burner's hut. Reproduc- 
tions of these early huts can be seen at the Pioneer Village in 
Salem. Thereafter, as soon as the people were established, 
they built houses as much like the familiar houses of Eliza- 
bethan England as their materials permitted. Many of these 
houses were afterward enlarged by the building of a * lean-to ' 
on the northern side which protected the house from the pre- 
vailing northerly winds. The interiors were spacious and 

Later, in the time of Mclntire and Bulfinch, the architecture 
in Massachusetts reached a second peak. Chestnut Street in 
Salem shows the houses of this period at their best. On the 
same page with the picture of Chestnut Street is a picture of 
the Hill of Churches in Truro. It is included for contrast, for 
architecture in Massachusetts, like the people, reaches ex- 
tremes of barrenness as well as beauty. 

Besides Chestnut Street, two other Salem houses are shown, 
and several interiors and a doorway; also an early example of 
church architecture; Bulfinch's masterpiece, the State House; 
and finally two later examples of Massachusetts architecture. 

K C 



1 I U 

























Architecture 87 

from tradition, Massachusetts held its place in the forefront of American 
architecture. But since the birth of the modern movement, architecture 
here seems to be dormant, almost oblivious of the changes taking place 
elsewhere. The development of a more modern style here has been 
prejudiced by conditions, and these for the most part have been largely 
sociological. In the desperate effort to keep alive her inherited British 
culture, Massachusetts has kept her architecture steeped in the confines 
of tradition and precedent. Yet in spite of this seeming retrogression, 
Massachusetts' influence upon modern architecture has been great. 
This was not in the manner of recently constructed buildings, but in the 
sporadic strokes of genius that formed the roots of the radical school. 

Paradoxical though it may seem, the contemporary movement in 
architecture began in Boston; in Richardson's audacious use of element- 
ary masonry forms, gestation of modern architecture began. Not since 
Wren has an architect left such a profound impress of his own personality, 
both through his work and that of his successors. With few exceptions, 
Richardson's successors were a parade of puppet kings wielding the 
monarch's scepter. Their work was bold, unabashed, and ugly, and its 
manifestations were not joyous; nonetheless it had promise. Of this 
work Montgomery Schuyler wrote, 'It is more feasible to tame exuber- 
ances than to create a soul under the ribs of death. The emancipation 
of American architecture is thus ultimately more hopeful than if it were 
put under academic bonds to keep peace.' 

A healthily pregnant architecture such as this was being designed in 
the office of Furness and Hewitt at Philadelphia when a young Bostonian 
fresh from Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and bound for the 
Ecole des Beaux Arts in Paris began work there. Louis Henry Sullivan 
is the internationally recognized father of the radical school of archi- 
tecture. On Richardson's foundation he laid the cornerstone of modern 
architecture. He was the link between two great masters, Richardson 
and Frank Lloyd Wright. It is not unreasonable to believe that Richard- 
son saw before him in Boston too much tradition to overcome and that 
this influenced him to go West to start the radical school. In Sullivan's 
work we see the transition from Richardson's masonry to the lighter 
and more supple forms of steel construction. Yet Sullivan is probably 
more significant as Frank Lloyd Wright's Liebermeister than for his own 
designs. Sullivan's best ideas found expression in Wright more con- 
vincingly than in his own work. It was in Wright's architecture that the 
transition from old to new was completed. From it the world movement 

88 Massachusetts: The General Background 

Of contemporary work in Massachusetts there are few strictly modern 
buildings of merit. More significant is her work in keeping alive the 
traditional New England Georgian architecture. Prominent in this im- 
portant phase of American architecture has been the work of Coolidge, 
Shepley, Bulfinch, and Abbott, with such superior designs as Lowell and 
Dunster Houses at Harvard. The recently completed restoration at 
Williamsburg, Virginia the largest project of this nature ever under- 
taken in the country was done by Perry, Shaw and Hepburn, a 
Boston firm. Recent buildings at Radcliffe College in Cambridge are 
among other important works by the Boston architects. In these we 
feel a strain of the Southern influence, absorbed by the designers, no 
doubt, during their intimacy with this strain of Georgian at Williamsburg. 

Strictly modern architecture in Massachusetts is negligible. The 
Motor Mart Garage, in Boston, and Rindge Technical High School, in 
Cambridge, by Ralph Harrington Deane are more truly functional than 
others of the modern type. Boston has its share of mechanically good 
structures, a few of which are even clothed in pseudo-modern shells. 
Heading this group is the new Federal Building by Cram and Ferguson. 
Credit, or blame according to one's taste is not wholly due to the 
Boston firm, for its design was subjected to regimentation at the hands 
of the Federal Architect's Office in Washington, as are designs for all 
Federal Buildings. One is inclined to wonder, if the ardent medievalist 
had been given a free hand to indulge his fancy, whether the resultant 
structure would not have been more compatible with the functions 

Evidence that Boston architects have been able to lift themselves out 
of their stultifying environment and do modern work elsewhere is seen 
in the superior designs of the New York Hospital and Cornell Medical 
School Building in New York, completed in 1932 by Coolidge, Shepley, 
Bulfinch and Abbott. In this mammoth project, the Boston architects 
demanded a frank and independent solution, with an inflexible insistence 
upon adjustment of means to end. The result set a precedent in modern 

Thus the reactionary trend in Massachusetts architecture is attribut- 
able not so much to poverty of thought on the part of its architects as 
to a lack of fortunate opportunities and an intrenched conservatism on the 
part of patrons. 


IT MUST have been with some astonishment, to put it mildly, that the 
first settlers of Boston who of course actually, to begin with, had 
planted themselves in Charlestown found Boston itself to be already 
an English city, with a population of exactly one soul. This city, to be 
precise, consisted of William Blackstone or Blaxton, B.A., a graduate of 
Cambridge University, and one of the most curious and suggestive figures 
in the whole early history of the colonization of America. A member of 
the ill-starred Gorges expedition of 1625, Blackstone had spent two years 
in Wessagussett, now Weymouth. It appears that he had cast in his lot 
with Gorges not much more for reasons of Puritan conscience than be- 
cause he simply wanted to be alone. At any rate, in what is now Boston, 
in the year 1630, l William Blackstone, a solitary, bookish recluse, in his 
thirty-fifth year, had a dwelling somewhere on the west slope of Beacon 
Hill, not far from what are now Beacon and Spruce Streets, from which 
he commanded the mouth of the Charles. Here he had lived ever since 
his removal from Wessagussett, in 1625 or 1626, trading with the savages, 
cultivating his garden, and watching the growth of some apple trees.' 
Further, it is known that in 1634, reserving only six acres of land for 
himself a parcel bounded roughly by Beacon, Charles, Mount Vernon, 
and Spruce Streets he sold to the colonists the whole of Boston 
peninsula, which he himself had previously bought from the Indians; 
and 'being tired of the "lord brethren," as he had before his emigration 
been wearied of the "lord bishops,'" he then removed himself to an 
estate in Rhode Island, of which he was thus the first white inhabitant. 
This estate to which he had presumably brought his books, as well 
as seeds and cuttings from his garden he called Study Hill, and here 
he was destined to spend the rest of his life. Just once did he reappear 
in Boston, a good many years later, and then only for long enough to 
acquire a wife. He took this lady off to the wilderness with him, and 
Bostonians saw him no more. 

It is an arresting and delightful figure, this young Cambridge graduate 
with his books and his apple trees, his conscience, and his passionate 
desire for privacy; and one cannot think of his perpetual centrifugal 
retreat from civilization, whenever it managed to catch up with him, 

9O Massachusetts: The General Background 

without visualizing him as a symbol, or a charming figurehead, of the 
individualism which was to be so striking a characteristic of New England 
in the centuries to come. It was not that he was a misanthrope not in 
the least. For it was at his own express invitation and because of his 
real concern for their plight that the wretched half-starved settlers of 
Charlestown were first brought across the river to the healthier slopes 
and the better springs on his own land. No, he was simply the first 
exemplar, the prototype of that profound individualism which has so 
deeply marked the American character ever since, and of which Mass- 
achusetts especially in the field of letters has been the most prodigal 
and brilliant source. 

Of that fact, surely, there can be little question. In any summary, 
no matter how brief, of America's contribution to the world's literature, 
Massachusetts would be seen to have contributed most, not only in 
sheer quantity and quality, but and this is much more important 
in that particular searching of the conscience and the soul, and of the 
soul's relationship to the infinite, which has almost invariably been the 
dominant feature of American literature at its best. Jonathan Edwards, 
Benjamin Franklin, Emerson, Thoreau, Hawthorne, Longfellow, Lowell, 
Melville, Holmes, Whittier, Emily Dickinson, Henry Adams, and the 
brothers Henry and William James not to mention the historians 
Parkman, Prescott, and Motley the mere recital of the names is 
quite enough to prove that without the Massachusetts authors American 
literature would amount to very little. It is a wonderful galaxy; and it 
is no exaggeration to say that the only absentees from it who are of 
comparable stature are Poe, Whitman, Mark Twain, and possibly 
Howells and of these, Poe was himself at least a native of the State, 
for he was born in Boston. 

This amazing outburst fell almost wholly within the confines of the 
nineteenth century; and in fact, within about a half of that, the years 
from 1830 to 1880. But if the quality of it is even more astonishing than 
the quantity and the range, what is more interesting, whether to the 
historian of morals and customs or to the psychological student of the 
origins and function of literature, is precisely the William Blackstone 
motif, which, as was mentioned above, has so persistently given it its 
character. New England individualism and that is tantamount, of 
course, to saying Massachusetts individualism has often enough been 
referred to, but one wonders whether it has ever been given quite its 
due as the real mainspring of New England letters. One reason for this 
has been the very widespread notion that it should simply be seen as 

Literature 91 

the natural obverse of the excessive Puritanism and Calvinism from 
which it was in part a reaction; the individualists, in short, were nothing 
but small boys who had managed to escape from a very strict school. 
But this is a very superficial view of the individualist, and an equally 
superficial view of the Puritan. It might be fruitful to consider whether 
in point of fact the New England individualist was not just our old 
friend the Puritan writ large; and conversely, whether also the Puritan 
was not a good deal of an individualist. 

The truth is, of course, that the two terms need not at all be mutually 
exclusive, and that we are facing here one of those charming but mis- 
leading over-simplifications with which the history books so constantly 
regale us. It is so much easier, and so much more flattering to the nine- 
teenth century and all its works, to ascribe everything, en bloc, to the 
final overthrow of a sort of crippling Frankenstein monster, and to make 
out Puritanism as one of the most diabolical repressive hypocrisies with 
which a misguided mankind ever afflicted itself. Much can be said in 
support of this point of view, and much has been said; and it would be 
idle to deny that at its worst New England Puritanism became a dread- 
ful thing; if the witch-hanging hysteria of the seventeenth century was 
the most violent culmination of it, it brought also in its train other 
forms of spiritual disaster which, if less conspicuous, were scarcely less 
terrible. The free Protestantism which the Pilgrims had brought with 
them from England had gradually hardened, under the influence of 
John Cotton and his descendants the Mathers, into a theocracy. 'None 
should be electors nor elected, . . . except such as were visible subjects of 
our Lord Jesus Christ, personally confederated in our churches. In 
those and many other ways, he propounded unto them an endeavor 
after a theocracy, as near as might be, to that which was the glory of 
Israel.' So remarks Cotton Mather of his grandfather, whose advice 
had been asked as to a revision of the 'civil constitution' of the State. 

But the fact is, that though the theocrats had their way a good deal, 
they did not have it entirely: and this for the very simple reason that 
the Protestantism of New England, as it had been based to begin with 
on the passionate belief of the individual in his right to believe and 
worship in his own way, still carried in itself these stubborn seeds of 
freedom. Roger Williams, 'first rebel against the divine church-order 
in the wilderness' (again to quote Cotton Mather), submitted to a charge 
of heresy, and abandoned Salem, rather than surrender the tolerance 
which had outraged the church fathers. Another William Blackstone, 
he escaped to Rhode Island, and there wrote the first liberal document 

92 Massachusetts: The General Background 

in American history, 'The Bloody Tenent of Persecution for Cause of 
Conscience, discussed in a Conference between Truth and Peace.' 'A 
spiritual Crusoe, the most extreme and outcast soul in all America/ 
he was, like Blackstone, though for very different reasons, a direct fore- 
bear of the great individualists of the nineteenth century. It is indeed 
essential that we should bear in mind this passionate belief in the freedom 
of conscience which underlay from the very beginning the foundations 
of New England culture. Its defeats and obscurities at the hands of the 
theocrats and zealots were at most only temporary; and there was never 
a time, even in the darkest passages of Massachusetts history, when it 
was not somewhere in evidence. It is as evident in Jonathan Edwards's 
fierce conviction that the sacrament should be administered only to 
those who had had a radical experience of conversion and who could 
properly judge of this save the individual himself? as in the North- 
ampton congregation which dismissed him, after twenty-three years, be- 
cause it did not agree with him. And it is as evident again in the calm 
fortitude with which Edwards accepted his exile, devoting the last six 
years of his life to a mission among the Indians of Stockbridge the 
years, incidentally, during which he somehow managed to write his 
great philosophical treatise on the freedom of the will. 

It was a period the years from 1620 until the end of the Revolu- 
tion during which we must remember, in fact, that the congregation 
never surrendered its power both to choose and to dismiss its minister: 
it scrutinized his thought, and indeed his conduct, quite as closely as he 
scrutinized theirs. He might be tyrannical in his pursuit of his particular 
idea or ideal, but so, just as well, might they. Since God's grace was so 
arbitrarily bestowed, might it not fall upon Smith and Jones? Smith 
and Jones certainly thought so; and the result was a fierce co-operative 
and communal search for absolute truth, with a powerful clergy some- 
times leading, but almost as often led by a powerful Church. The 
clergy might and did ally themselves and form a caste; but despite all 
their efforts, the Church remained essentially democratic, and essentially 
dictated even when most misguided by the original Puritan belief 
in freedom of conscience. 

Meanwhile, during this period of nearly two hundred years it is 
scarcely an exaggeration to say that the liberal arts or anything even 
remotely like a literature simply did not exist in Massachusetts; and 
indeed it is difficult to conceive of their finding a place in a community 
so passionately surrendered to religious and moral preoccupations. But 
intellectual and spiritual and esthetic sinews were there, none the less; 

Literature 93 

the elements were ready; and it needed only the right catalyst, and the 
right moment, to release them in forms which probably nobody could 
have foreseen. The catalyst, or at any rate the most important of the 
catalysts, was the gradual rise of Unitarianism during the latter half 
of the eighteenth century, and then the phenomenal swiftness with 
which, early in the nineteenth, it effected an almost complete social 
conquest of Massachusetts. Here once more, but more clearly voiced 
than ever, was the Puritan insistence on freedom of conscience; but along 
with it also the revivifying force, almost impossible to gauge, of the 
Unitarian discovery that man's nature was not inevitably evil and in- 
evitably doomed, but actually perhaps contained in itself the seeds of 
virtue. 'How mournfully the human mind may misrepresent the Deity/ 
wrote William Ellery Channing in 1809, in the course of a frontal assault 
on Calvinism, and, 'We must start in religion from our own souls. In 
these is the fountain of all divine truth. 7 What must have been the 
effect of this all-liberating doctrine on the subtle-minded New Englander, 
after his long winter of Calvinism? It was a blaze of sunlight, of course, 
and such a warming and thawing and freeing of locked energies as from 
this distance we perhaps cannot possibly conceive. And it was into this 
sudden summer, this sudden blossoming of New England into something 
almost like gaiety, with its wonderful discovery that virtue might go 
hand in hand with happiness, that the group of children were born who 
were destined to become the flower - and the end of Massachusetts 
individualism. Prescott in 1796, Alcott in 1799, Emerson in 1803, 
Hawthorne in 1804, Longfellow and Whittier in 1807, Holmes in 1809, 
Motley in 1814, Dana in 1815, Thoreau in 1817, Melville in 1819, Emily 
Dickinson in 1830 these great-grandchildren of the New England 
genius were born by an inevitable conspiracy of time into just such an 
air as they needed for their purpose. What had shaped them the 
ghost of William Blackstone, the proud and frontier-seeking independence 
of the Puritan conscience they would themselves turn and shape to 
its final and beautiful mortal perfection. 

The first quarter of the nineteenth century was for Massachusetts its 
period of greatest prosperity nothing like it had been seen before, nothing 
like it has been seen since. The shipping trade was at its height, Boston 
and Salem had become great international ports, and in these and in 
New Bedford, where the whale trade had become a thriving industry, 
family fortunes were being founded almost overnight. Along miles of 
Cape Cod roadside, almost every cottage or house contained a blue- 
water sea captain, who knew St. Petersburg and Canton as well as he 

94 Massachusetts: The General Background 

knew India Wharf in Boston. Everybody began to travel, Massachusetts 
had suddenly become cosmopolitan, and what for two centuries had been 
a queerly isolated and in many respects an extraordinarily innocent 
community on the way to nowhere, now began for the first time to feel 
itself in very close contact with the rest of the world. A new and in- 
finitely richer sense of background became the common property of the 
people; the whole world was at Boston's door; new ideas were as common 
and as exciting as the exotic spices brought from Java and China. 

An immense advantage, this, for the young Emerson and the young 
Hawthorne, who, if they were caught willy-nilly in the new liberalism 
which was sweeping New England, were also caught in strange currents 
of rumor and echo from abroad. From England, from France, from Ger- 
many, came news of extraordinary developments in the literary world: 
the great secondary wave of romanticism, which followed by a generation 
the French Revolution, had begun to break in its thousand forms. What 
Channing's bold religious teaching had begun, the riotous brilliance and 
variety of the English romantic poets and the heady philosophy of Ger- 
many, at its most metaphysical, were to complete. The New England 
individualist who had first been a Puritan, and then a Unitarian, was 
now to reach his logical end in the lovely transparent butterfly hues of 
Transcendentalism . 

When Emerson, who had been trained for the church and who preached 
for three years at the Second Church in Boston, resigned his pastorate 
in 1832 because he no longer believed in the communion and could not 
bring himself to administer it even in the abbreviated form then in use 
among the Unitarians remarking characteristically that he simply 
' was not interested in it ' he was dedicating himself to the new wilder- 
ness and the new freedom, exactly as Roger Williams had done before 
him. Once more a frontier had been reached, but this one the most 
perilous of all that frontier within man's consciousness where the 
soul turns and looks fearlessly into itself, where the individual, like a 
diver, plunges into his own depths to sound them, and in so doing believes 
himself effectually to have sounded the world. Man, according to 
Emerson, was to be self-sufficient, self-reliant, for his divinity was within 
himself. He must trust his instincts and his intuitions absolutely, for these 
were his direct communion with the Over-Soul, or God, with which he 
was hi a sense identifiable. This direct knowledge of the divinity was not 
through the senses not at all. It was a mode of apprehension that 
transcended one's sensory knowledge of the phenomenal world and all 
the experience of the senses, and it was this notion of a ' transcendental ' 

Literature 95 

knowledge which gave its name to the little group which, after the pub- 
lication of his first book 'Nature' in 1836, formed itself about Emerson 
in Concord and Boston. * If the single man plant himself indomitably on 
his instincts, and there abide, the huge world will come round to him.' 
'For solace, the perspective of your own infinite life' this was almost 
or could easily be, the reductio ad absurdum of individualism, for it im- 
plied a negation of all authority, whether religious or social, and the 
complete autonomy of the individual soul. 

Patently, this doctrine with its ancillary notions bore within itself the 
seeds of an intellectual and Utopian anarchy; and it is interesting to 
notice, in this connection, how very flimsy and impractical, how absurdly 
and charmingly innocent, were such ideas of social awareness as this 
group entertained. It is hardly an exaggeration, in fact, to say that they 
were none of them concerned with society as such at all. The passionate 
search for a moral and religious center, a significance, a meaning, had 
led them steadily inward, never outward; and if they thought of the social 
problem at all, it was only to wave it away with the sublime assurance 
that, as man was essentially good, the social problem would quite nicely 
take care of itself. If the relationship of the Ego to God was satisfactory, 
then everything else would follow of course. The experiment at Brook 
Farm and Bronson Alcott's lesser adventure in a Utopia at Fruitlands 
were the natural, if humiliating, outcome of such beliefs, quite as much 
as Thoreau's attempt at a formal secession from society. Even the sole 
apparent exception to this indifference toward social problems, the anti- 
slavery agitation, in which practically without exception the tran- 
scendentalist joined, turns out on inspection to be not quite all that it 
purports to be. For here again the problem was looked at from the point 
of view, not of society, but of the individual; even the Negro should bow 
to no authority save God's, which was the authority within himself. 

Emerson's influence, nevertheless, in spite of a good deal of misunder- 
standing, not to mention occasional downright derision, was immense 
and profoundly fructifying, both on his own generation and on that 
which followed. He was the real center of his time, and his mark is 
everywhere. Thoreau's ' Walden,' both the experiment and the book, were 
but the carrying into practice of Emersonian self-sufficiency; and if they 
add a literary and speculative genius which is Thoreau's, the spirit of 
Emerson is indelibly in them. Not least, either, in the very conspicuous 
indifference, not to say contempt, for form. The method could hardly be 
more wayward; it is as wayward as Emerson's, who admittedly when he 
wanted an essay or a lecture just ransacked his copious notebooks, ex- 

96 Massachusetts: The General Background 

tracted a random selection of observations and gnomic sayings, and 
strung them together on a theme as best he could. And it is as well to 
observe in this connection that a comparative indifference to form was a 
perhaps inevitable attribute of vatic individualism everything must 
be spontaneous, a direct and uncontrolled uprush from the divine well of 
the soul; one was merely a medium for the divine voice, and in conse- 
quence there could not logically be any such thing as a compromise with 
so external and strictly phenomenal an affair as form or style. Com- 
munication yes, but only such as came naturally. Nor need one bother 
overmuch with consistency. 

This individualist attitude to form is noticeable everywhere in the 
literature of the Massachusetts renaissance, as much in the work of the 
conservative Boston and Cambridge group Longfellow, Holmes, and 
Lowell as in that of the Concord radicals. To consider a poem or an 
essay or a novel as a work of art, was this not to yield oneself to a kind 
of outside authority, and to compromise or adulterate the pure necessity 
and virtue of revelation? Revelation was the thing; and everything de- 
pended on the swiftness with which one brought it up from the depths of 
one's awareness, so that not a spark of the light should be lost. The 
result was a kind of romantic mysticism which was at its most lucid in 
Emerson, at its sunniest and serenest in Thoreau, at its profoundest in 
Herman Melville, and at its most vapid and ridiculous in the orphic 
sayings of Bronson Alcott. And the result also was a pervading looseness 
and raggedness, a kind of rustic and innocent willfulness, whether in 
prose or verse, in practically all the work of the Massachusetts galaxy. 
It is evident in Emerson's crabbed and gnomic free verse and his home- 
spun couplets quite as much as in his prose, where image follows image 
and idea idea with little or no regard for nexus or pattern, to say nothing 
of rhythm. It is evident again in that cryptic unintelligibility, the sibyl- 
line phrase, which, if it has a meaning, sometimes guards it all too well 
from the bewildered reader. The poor reader, indeed, was given no 
quarter, he must simply shift for himself; and presumably it was Emer- 
son's idea, as it was Alcott's and Thoreau's, that it was a sufficient privi- 
lege for the reader that he thus overheard, as it were, the words of the 
oracle at all. The words were the words of the divinity, and must not be 
altered: all that was needed was that they should be received with an 
understanding equally instinctive and divine. 

The truth is, the glorification of the individual and of individualism 
had reached such a pitch of egoism and self-absorption, accompanied by 
such an entire indifference to the external world, that had they not been 

Literature 97 

geniuses, literary geniuses, none of these men would have escaped disaster. 
Only a genius can be artless with impunity, and of all this wonderful 
group only one was a genuine artist, Nathaniel Hawthorne. Hawthorne 
listened carefully to everything the others had to say, he was himself 
something of a transcendentalist, he even stayed for a while at Brook 
Farm; but he remained always a little detached, he was essentially both 
in his life and in his work a moral and social observer; and it was this 
carefully kept moral and esthetic distance which enabled him alone of 
his group to understand the necessity for form and to achieve an indi- 
vidual mastery of it. Alone, too, was Hawthorne in having a quite 
definite social awareness, and in seeing precisely to what sort of bank- 
ruptcy the doctrine of uncontrolled individualism might lead. Emerson 
may not have realized it, but 'The Scarlet Letter' was, among other 
things, a very grim comment on the doctrine of self-reliance; and 'The 
Blithedale Romance ' as well. 

If in this sense Hawthorne was the only commentator on transcendental 
individualism, and the one analyst and chronicler of the final phases of 
the evolution of the Puritan passion for freedom of conscience, he was 
also the only link between the Concord group and the writer who carried 
farthest and deepest that perilous frontier of mystic consciousness which 
had always been the Puritan's fiercest concern: Herman Melville. 'Moby 
Dick ' was dedicated to Hawthorne, and it was written while Hawthorne 
and Melville were neighbors in Pittsfield. Without any question the 
greatest book which has come out of New England, and one of the very 
greatest works of prose fiction ever written in any language, it is also the 
final and perfect finial to the Puritan's desperate three-century-long 
struggle with the problem of evil. Hunted from consciousness into the 
unconscious, and in effect beyond space and time, magnificently sub- 
limated so that it becomes not one issue but all issues, a superb and al- 
most unanalyzable matrix of universal symbolism, the white whale is 
the Puritan's central dream of delight and terror, the all-hating and all- 
loving, all-creating and all-destroying implacable god, whose magnetism 
none can escape, and who must be faced and fought with on the frontier 
of awareness with the last shred of one's moral courage and one's moral 
despair. Man against God? Is the principle of things, at last, to be seen 
as essentially evil? And redeemable only by war a outrance? Impossible, 
at any rate, to surrender; one's freedom to feel toward it what one will, 
whether hatred or love, must be preciously preserved. One must grapple 
with it, and alone, and in darkness, no matter whether it lead to a death 
throe or to an all-consuming love. 

98 Massachusetts: The General Background 

Melville, writing to Hawthorne about this extraordinary book, which 
was destined for half a century to be considered just a good romance for 
boys, likened himself to one who strips off the layers of consciousness as 
one might strip off the layers of an onion, and added that he had come at 
last to the central core. And indeed to all intents he had; when a year 
later, at the age of thirty-three, he published 'Pierre,' he had really 
finished his voyage. And he had carried William Blackstone with him to 
such strange borderlands as that bold explorer of Rhode Island never 
dreamed of. Perhaps it is worth noting that Melville himself denied 
that ' Moby Dick ' had any allegorical intention if only to point out 
that the denial can really have no meaning. * Mardi ' was quite obviously 
allegorical; allegory and parable came almost instinctively to the hands 
of a group so vitally concerned with moral and religious matters, and as 
a 'form' it very likely seemed no more artificial or unusual to Hawthorne 
or Melville than that, say, of a poem: it was something which played with 
meaning and which gave out meanings on many different levels, and that 
was the end of it. 

And indeed 'Moby Dick' may be said to have been the great poem, 
the epic of the Puritan civilization, and to have marked a turning-point 
in its evolution, if not quite its end. There could not again be any such 
violent imaginative projection of the problem; the problem itself was 
beginning to dissipate and break up, to disappear in the dishevelment of 
analysis: individualism was to turn outward again. It could receive in 
the hands of Henry James a fine symphonic abstraction, or in the hands 
of William James a bold social and scientific externalization and analysis, 
but the creative poisons were all but drained from it. The worlds around 
were changing, new winds of doctrine brought new seeds and spores, and 
in 'The Education of Henry Adams' one has almost the spectacle of a 
dead civilization performing an autopsy on itself. The note of retrospect, 
the backward-looking eye this could have only one meaning, that the 
Puritan struggle was at last, in all important senses, over. One genius 
remained yet to be heard from, and this the most exquisitely character- 
istic of all Emily Dickinson. In her life of hushed and mystic and 
self-absorbed sequestration, no less than in her work, where we watch 
the lonely soul alembicating itself that it may test its own essence, 
we have the very mayflower of the Puritan passion for privacy and 
freedom. How strict was that soul with itself, when there was none to 
watch ! Was it not her own epitaph that she wrote or can we say 
that it was an epitaph for a whole phase of the human soul in the 

Literature 99 

Lay this laurel on the one 
Too intrinsic for renown. 
Laurel! veil your deathless tree 
Him you chasten, that is he! 

This wonderful pride and immense strength in solitude which could give 
up as worth nothing any notion of fame or acclaim if only its soul's 
house be in order and its accounts straight with heaven perfectly 
content, and serenely self-sufficient, so long as the windows which looked 
on the Eternal were kept clear this was the final rededication of the 
spirit of William Blackstone, who had come to Boston when it was still 
a wilderness, was found there by the first settlers ' watching the growth 
of some apple trees,' and moved on to another wilderness and another 
privacy when the 'lord brethren,' his neighbors, came too close. 

Emily Dickinson was the last of her line, the last of the great Massa- 
chusetts frontiersmen; and with her it may be said that the literature of 
Puritanism, as a purely local phenomenon, came to an end. Henceforth 
its heirs were to be sought farther afield, dispersed inconspicuously, but 
perhaps none the less indestructibly, in the consciousness of the country 
at large. Amy Lowell had little of this temper in her; and if in the con- 
temporary scene it has any ambassadors, they are Robert Frost and 
T. S. Eliot. But the movement itself is complete and at an end. 


THE tendency among writers to form groups around political, social, or 
literary ideas began very early in Massachusetts. The voluminous re- 
ligious tracts of the seventeenth century concealed, under a garb of godly 
language, the warring concepts of two opposed groups the advocates 
of theocracy and the champions of democracy. The theocrats were vic- 
torious, and for nearly one hundred years the clergy dominated the press. 
Not until the founding of the Hell Fire Club and the publication of the 
first number of The New England C our ant by James Franklin in 1721 did 
secular ideas have currency. In the exciting decade of 1760-70 a battle 
of the books took place between two political factions, a battle which 
enlisted Tories like Thomas Hutchinson on one side and revolutionaries 
such as James Otis on the other. 

Even those ardent individualists, the writers of the literary renaissance 
of the i84o's, betrayed a decided affinity for the society of their peers, and 
together they organized literary clubs, publishing ventures, and Utopias. 
The informal group generally known as the Transcendental Club in- 
cluded at one time or another Emerson, James Freeman Clarke, Amos 
Bronson Alcott, George Ripley, Theodore Parker, Margaret Fuller, 
Orestes Brownson, Thoreau, Hawthorne, Charles T. Follen, William 
H. Channing, and that complete mystic and arch-individualist, Jones 
Very. An early literary magazine, The Monthly Anthology (1803-11), was 
carried on as the organ of 'a society of gentlemen,' the Anthology Club 
of Boston. The North American Review was established by a group which 
had for its purpose the emancipation of American literature from sub- 
servience to England. The Dial (1840-44), although proclaiming itself 
'A Magazine for Literature, Philosophy, and Religion,' was notable for 
expressing, under the editorship of Margaret Fuller, the ideas of the 
Transcendentalists, as The Harbinger (1845-49) expressed those of the 
co-operativists. Such group expression was strongly characteristic of 
early magazines: they were oriented, not as most magazines are today, 
toward their readers or their advertisers, but toward their writers. Even 
as late as the 1 850*5, Atlantic Monthly dinners ranked in importance with 

Literary Groups and Movements 101 

Atlantic pages, and younger writers outside New England bitterly accused 
the magazine of being a kind of closed club. Hawthorne had founded the 
'Potato Club,' a literary society, at Bowdoin while still an undergraduate. 
Thoreau, so anti-social as to get himself jailed for non-payment of taxes, 
may be said to have betrayed a certain longing for society when he re- 
proached Emerson for not sharing his cell; and Whittier said flatly, 'I set 
a higher value on my name as appended to the Anti-Slavery Declaration 
of 1833 than on the title-page of any book.' 

After the Civil War, literature in Massachusetts for the first tune since 
the eighteenth century was motivated and reinforced by scientific method 
and invigorated by new political currents. Realism and the Anti-Poverty 
Society made a simultaneous appearance, and reading Boston was di- 
vided into those who admired William Dean Howells's novels and those 
who despised them. Again, during the brief renaissance of 1912-16, cut 
short by the war, Massachusetts poets revolved around a brilliant if not 
fixed star, Amy Lowell. 

Certain distinguished authors remained aloof from their fellow writers 
notably Herman Melville and Emily Dickinson. But with few excep- 
tions it can be said that the history of literature in Massachusetts is the 
history of its diverse and divergent literary groups and movements. 

When the Puritans, who desired a theocratic hierarchy, arrived in 
Massachusetts, they found the Plymouth congregation, a group of demo- 
cratic dissenters, before them; and to their alarm the Salem church 
shortly fell under this radical influence. In the resulting battle of words 
the conservatives were represented by John Cotton; Nathaniel Ward, 
author of 'The Simple Cobler of Aggawam' (1647); the ingenuous apos- 
tle to the Indians, John Eliot; Samuel Sewall, the diarist; Cotton Mather, 
harsh and dogmatic in religion, progressive in natural science and medi- 
cine; and subtle-minded Increase Mather. The democrats counted fewer 
but on the whole more trenchant writers: Hugh Peter, Nathaniel Morton, 
Edward Johnson (author of ' Wonder- Working Providence,' 1654), Roger 
Williams, John Wheelwright. 

The first press to be set up in the new country was that of Stephen 
Daye in Cambridge, under the control of clerical Harvard College. The 
Daye press issued the 'Bay Psalm Book,' that monument to early print- 
ing and bad rhyme, in 1640. Daye was succeeded by Samuel Green, who 
printed John Eliot's Indian New Testament in 1661 and the entire Bible 
in 1663. In 1669 Green issued Morton's 'New England's Memorial,' 
noteworthy for having not only a printer but a publisher, ( H. Usher of 

IO2 Massachusetts: The General Background 

Boston,' the latter probably a bookseller, in the days when booksellers 
combined the functions of importer and publisher. John Dunton, Scots 
bookseller, remarked in 1686 that there were eight bookshops in 'Boston 
village.' Not until 1675 was Boston's first press established, by John 

Not only theological tracts and sermons by Massachusetts writers 
were published during the seventeenth century. Mary Rowlandson's 
account of her captivity among the Indians, written in a vivid style 
without literary pretense, appeared in a second edition in 1682 (no copy 
of the first edition has survived). The anonymous * Relation,' descriptive 
of Plymouth and its settlement, appeared in 1622; and two years later 
was published Edward Winslow's 'Good News from New England,' 
simply written, like a letter home describing the wonders of the new 
country. William Bradford, governor from 1621 to 1657 save for five 
years, wrote a 'History of Plymouth Plantation' in 1630-46, the manu- 
script of which was lost for two hundred years, finally turning up to be 
published by the Massachusetts Historical Society in 1856. But Captain 
Nathaniel Morton had access to the manuscript, for he used much of it in 
his 'New England's Memorial' (1669). Verse flourished no less than 
prose: Peter Folger's satire, 'A Looking-Glass for the Times,' appeared 
in 1677; Benjamin Tompson's 650-line epic on King Philip's War, 'New 
England's Crisis,' in 1676; Anne Bradstreet's 'The Tenth Muse, Lately 
Sprung up in America,' in London in 1650 and in Boston in 1678; and 
Michael Wigglesworth's 'Day of Doom' (1662), an epic of the last judg- 
ment, was widely read for a hundred years. 

Many of the products of these first presses, as well as some priceless 
manuscripts, were in the library of the Reverend Thomas Prince of Bos- 
ton, which, stored in the tower of the Old South Church, was dispersed 
and partly destroyed when British troops were quartered in the church 
during the American Revolution. Among these manuscripts was William 
Bradford's 'History of Plymouth Plantation.' Prince published in 1736 
the first volume of his 'Chronological History of New England in the 
Form of Annals,' which he unsuccessfully endeavored to continue in six- 
penny serial parts. His careful use of sources makes him the first trust- 
worthy American historian: 'I cite my vouchers to every passage,' he 
said and did. 

For almost one hundred years, before a Massachusetts printer dared 
publish a book he had to secure what practically amounted to an im- 
primatur; and if an author wrote a book with an heretical taint, he pub- 
lished it, if at all, in England. This condition existed until the first quar- 

Literary Groups and Movements 103 

ter of the eighteenth century, when Benjamin Franklin's brother James 
founded the lively New England C our ant (1721) with the aid of the Hell 
Fire Club, hardly a clerical organization. Benjamin Franklin, while em- 
ployed in his brother's printshop, contributed the satiric ' Silence Dog- 
wood' papers to the C our ant, slipping the first of them anonymously 
under the door. The Courant was a sort of American Spectator, differing 
in its liveliness and its literary tone from the Boston Gazette, already estab- 
lished in 1719. Two years after the Courant first appeared, Benjamin 
went to Philadelphia, and his direct connection with Massachusetts 

The editors of the Courant continually jeered at the dullness of its 
contemporaries, their staleness, their lack of American news and political 
comment. In self-defense, perhaps, The New England Weekly Journal 
was founded by a more sober group. The Journal had something of the 
liveliness of the Courant, but it was conservative in tone, and endeavored 
to offset the damage to faith, morals, and politics being worked by the 
Franklins' paper. 

During the brave times of 1770-76 Isaiah Thomas published The 
Massachusetts Spy, which pleaded the cause of revolution. This enter- 
prising publisher, founder of the American Antiquarian Society, later 
became the publisher of The Royal American Magazine (1774-75), chiefly 
remembered for containing engravings by Paul Revere; The Worcester 
Magazine (1786-88); and The Massachusetts Magazine (1789-96). Other 
early Massachusetts magazines were The American Magazine and His- 
torical Chronicle (1743-46) and The New England Magazine (1758-60). 

During this period of political pamphleteering, every agitator was an 
author and every author an agitator. James Otis the younger, advocate- 
general, was the most brilliant of these; 'The Rights of the British Colo- 
nies Asserted and Proved' (1764) and the 'Letter to a Noble Lord' (1765) 
are perhaps the best known of his writings. Oxenbridge Thacher, John 
Adams, and Josiah Quincy all produced political pamphlets, as did Noah 
Webster, author of the dictionary and the blue-backed speller, who 
proved to be as radical in politics as he was later to be in spelling. Samuel 
Adams, with his Committees of Correspondence, his 'Massachusetts 
Circular Letter' (1768), is the prototype of them all. 

A new note among Colonial historians appeared with the publication 
of the first volume of the * History of the Colony of Massachusetts-Bay ' 
in 1764. Its author, Thomas Hutchinson, was a descendant of Anne, and 
as unpopular as the latter, though for different reasons. He was a mer- 
chant, with conservative leanings, and the rising revolutionary temper of 

104 Massachusetts: The General Background 

the people made Bostonians actively mistrust him as a Tory. His history 
was the first account of the Colony to be written without theological bias, 
and notwithstanding its conservative tone, it displays a considerable 
political sense. The Reverend William Gordon of Roxbury wrote a his- 
tory of the Revolution in 1788; and Mercy Otis Warren, sister of James 
Otis, produced a popular history of the same period in 1805. George 
Richard Minot's 'History of the Insurrection in Massachusetts' (1788) 
dealt with Shays's Rebellion of 1786, and Minot also continued Hutchin- 
son's history. 

The North American Review was founded in 1815. The short-lived 
Pioneer, whose three issues included contributions by Poe and Haw- 
thorne, was published in 1843 by James Russell Lowell, who became the 
first editor of The Atlantic Monthly in 1857. With the establishing of The 
North American Review and of two great publishing houses, Ticknor and 
Company (1833), later Ticknor and Fields, the direct predecessors of 
Hough ton Mifnin Company and of Little and Brown (1837), literature 
in Massachusetts had a firm underpinning. In 1837, the year in which 
Charles C. Little and James Brown put up their sign, William Lloyd 
Garrison was publishing The Liberator (1831-65). 'Poems' by William 
Cullen Bryant had appeared sixteen years before; Ralph Waldo Emerson 
had recently moved to Concord and had just published 'The American 
Scholar'; Whittier was an agent of the Anti-Slavery Society; R. H. Dana, 
Jr., and Henry David Thoreau had just graduated from Harvard, where 
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow had begun to teach and James Russell 
Lowell was an unruly undergraduate; Hawthorne was struggling at Con- 
cord; Oliver Wendell Holmes had just begun to practice medicine; Pres- 
cott was about to publish his 'Ferdinand and Isabella'; the Saturday 
Club was eleven months old; Ticknor's Old Corner Bookstore was a liter- 
ary gathering place; and Annie Fields's literary salon had not yet begun. 

Until the first third of the nineteenth century, authorship was the 
avocation of amateurs and gentlemen of means. As late as 1842 Chan- 
ning remarked that Hawthorne was the only American who supported 
himself by writing. Channing was mistaken, although not very much so. 
Jedidiah Morse (1761-1826) of Charlestown, America's first geographer, 
had been one of the few writers in America to make writing pay, al- 
though his school geographies and gazetteers scarcely rank as literature. 
In 1790, Congress passed a law designed to protect literary property. 
But in the absence of substantial publishing houses or magazines that 
paid for contributions, and in view of the continual pirating of books by 
English and American authors on both sides of the Atlantic, authorship 

Literary Groups and Movements 105 

was a poor enough business. Even after the great Boston magazines and 
publishing houses were established, Bryant had to edit anthologies and a 
newspaper; Whittier struggled desperately until the publication of 
'Snow-Bound'; Mrs. Stowe made less than a living from her books until 
the phenomenal success of ' Uncle Tom's Cabin'; and Prescott was the 
first historian to achieve financial success from his writings. None of these 
authors received any income from the European editions of their works. 
It was not until writers organized in the American Copyright League 
(1883) and publishers in the American Publishers' Copyright League 
(1887) that international piracy was halted by the copyright agreement 
of 1891. 

Mrs. Fields tells the story of Dr. Holmes's indignant exclamation, one 
morning when hearing the doorbell ring, that he was afraid it was 'the 
man Emerson.' Holmes, driving the twin horses of medicine and essay- 
writing, had learned to guard himself from intrusion. But it is significant 
that most of the writers responsible for the New England renaissance of 
the i84o's and i85o's not only called upon one another, but formed inter- 
locking circles of friendship, and embarked together in publishing 
schemes, in literary cenacles, and in such ventures as Fruitlands and the 
Brook Farm Institute of Agriculture and Education. Amos Bronson 
Alcott, ostracized by proper folk for teaching young children in his school 
the plain facts about birth and for refusing to dismiss a Negro pupil, was 
stoutly defended by his fellow transcendentalists, who, tolerating his 
orphic doings and sayings, yet recognized his progressive attempt to 
bring modern educational methods to New England. One of the sources 
of strength of the New England movement, in fact, was its awareness of 
contemporary European culture. Emerson, for example, brought Car- 
lyle, and through him German currents of thought, to American atten- 
tion; Prescott and Motley made Spain and the Netherlands homegrounds 
to Yankees; and Longfellow devotedly presented to his contemporaries 
the best of European literature, from the Finnish saga through Dante to 
Lamartine and Victor Hugo. In addition, established writers encouraged 
younger writers. Two of many examples are familiar: Whittier's encour- 
agement of a Lowell mill operative, Lucy Larcom, whose poetry is prop- 
erly forgotten, but whose 'A New England Girlhood' survives as a valua- 
ble social document; and Thomas Wentworth Higginson's careful foster- 
ing, however inept, of Emily Dickinson's brittle genius. 

With Richard Hildreth (1807-65) and his 'History of the United 
States, 1492-1821,' nineteenth-century historical writing began. Hildreth 
was followed by John Gorham Palfrey (1798-1881), one of the editors of 

io6 Massachusetts: The General Background 

the North American Review, who defended the old regime in his 'History 
of New England.' George Bancroft (1800-91), an historian of enormous 
patience and learning despite his bias, made careful use of sources now 
available in the Massachusetts Historical Society, founded by Jeremy 
Belknap, an historian of New Hampshire, in 1791. Jared Sparks (1789- 
1866), also an editor of the North American Review, edited Franklin's and 
Washington's writings, and inaugurated the 'American Biography Se- 
ries.' In preparing Washington's letters for the press, Sparks altered them, 
as he thought for the better, and the resulting hot discussion among 
scholars as to the necessity for accurate textual presentation of docu- 
ments probably had a wholesome effect on contemporary historical edit- 

William Hickling Prescott (1796-1859), published his 'Ferdinand and 
Isabella' in 1838, his 'Conquest of Mexico' in 1843, and his 'Conquest of 
Peru' in 1847; John Lothrop Motley (1814-77) made the United Nether- 
lands his life study; and Francis Parkman (1823-93) concentrated on the 
history of Colonial United States. With these three authors, American 
historical writing came of age. Justin Winsor (1831-97), in his 'Narrative 
and Critical History of America,' published 1886-89, was the first to offer 
full bibliographical and source material to the reader of American history. 
Francis Parkman and John Fiske (1842-1901) belonged to a youngei 
generation, as did Charles Francis Adams's three sons, all historians 
Charles Francis, Jr., Brooks, and the brilliant Henry. 

Four bright philosophical planets had orbits which centered in Harvard 
University. Two of these were Massachusetts men, William James (1842- 
1910), psychologist and stylist, and Charles S. Pierce (1840-1914), a re- 
markable scientific realist. Two others were not Yankees, but have come 
to be identified with Massachusetts: Josiah Royce (1855-1916) and 
George Santayana (b. 1863). Louis Agassiz (1807-73), nourished on 
idealistic philosophy, remained during twenty-five professorial years at 
Harvard the storm center of opposition to the shockingly novel ideas of 
Darwin, and was accused by his skeptical European contemporaries of 
trading his scientific birthright for a mess of Puritan pottage. His stu- 
dents became evolutionists to a man. 

After the Civil War and the economic depression which followed, a 
different tone came into Massachusetts letters. The precursors of this 
new spirit were perhaps Harriet Beecher Stowe's 'Uncle Tom's Cabin,' 
the poems of Whittier and of Lucy Larcom, and the novels and tales of 
Herman Melville that powerful realist who warned himself of the fate 
of those who 'fell into Plato's honey head and sweetly perished there.' 

Literary Groups and Movements 107 

Barrett Wendell, lecturing on literature at Harvard, and popularly sup- 
posed to base his critical estimates on the family trees of authors rather 
than on their writings, solemnly warned a generation of Harvard students 
against 'democracy overpowering excellence.' Yet, despite Wendell, cur- 
rents of the Populist movement, of industrial unrest, of new social doc- 
trines, were flowing into Massachusetts. 

In 1885 a shabby traveler emerged from the old Hoosac Station in 
Boston and, clutching an imitation-leather valise, turned his face, brown 
from the Dakota sun, toward the Common. This was Hamlin Garland, 
come (like Ravignac to another city) to capture Boston, the cradle of 
liberty, the home of literature. Alas, Emerson, Thoreau, and Hawthorne 
were dead, and the Reverend Doctor Cyrus Augustus Bartol, of the 
old West Meeting House, remained the sole survivor of the Concord 
school. Undaunted, young Garland sought out the literary giants of 
the day. Holmes, Whittier, and Lowell were still living, but none of 
these did he contrive to meet. Living on forty cents a day, battling the 
cockroaches in his six-dollar-a-month room, he consoled himself with 
reading 'Progress and Poverty,' 'at times experiencing a feeling that was 
almost despair.' 

Garland's ingenuous narrative, 'A Son of the Middle Border,' contains 
many valuable indications of intellectual currents of the i88o's in Mas- 
sachusetts. He soaked himself in the writings of the evolutionists 
Darwin, Spencer, Fiske, Haeckel. In the reading-room of the Boston 
Public Library the universe resolved itself into harmony and secular 
order, as it had done a generation before for the European realists, as 
it was doing for the new generation of American writers. Literature in 
Massachusetts during the i88o's, for the first time since the eighteenth 
century, was motivated by science and invigorated by political revolt. 
This new temper was expressed directly and artlessly by Edward Bellamy 
in 'Looking Backward,' which, published in 1888, had sold more than 
370,000 copies by 1891; realistically by William Dean Howells; triply- 
distilled in Henry James's cerebral novels. 

Howells was a transplanted Bostonian, born in Ohio in 1837. 'The most 
vital literary man in all America at this time,' Garland thought him, 
adding that Boston was divided as to the worth of this American disciple 
of Balzac, Zola, and Tolstoi. Howells turned the minds of his contem- 
poraries from Europe back upon America, satirizing the worship of 
European places and ideas so common among the middle class, indicating 
in his novels that America was a land of new hopes a country with 
a greater future than Europe. He cut through the sentimental treacle 

io8 Massachusetts: The General Background 

in which the 'golden age' was now immersed, turning Massachusetts 
into the stream of the new realism which answered the readers' sudden 
cry, 'Give us people and places as they are!' Half of Boston stood 
aghast at this coarse new literature, but the other half applauded. The 
West was coming East, and the old traditions were finally shattered 
when in 1871 Howells became editor-in-chief of the organ of New Eng- 
land Brahmanism, The Atlantic Monthly. Yet with all his democratic 
ideas, Howells stood for careful art, and his own style was finished and 

Realism brought forth regionalism which again Mrs. Stowe had 
foreshadowed, in 'Poganuc People' and 'Old town Folks.' Her approach 
was sentimental, however, while the regionalist's was scientific. Bred 
in a generation which exalted scientific method, the regionalists applied 
science in a special way. The novel was conceived of, though not always 
consciously, as a scientific experiment, and an experiment to be scien- 
tific must be controlled in all its particulars. Hence the deliberate 
narrowness of range, the careful naturalism of style, the absence of 
vagueness, fancy, or mysticism, the conscientious documentation. A 
regionalist chooses a narrow geographical sector, as Henry James chose a 
narrow stratum of society; he revives his memories of that sector, checks 
his memories with facts, employs real characters rather than invented 
ones, and never once allows his tale to stray from under the bell-glass. 
Mary E. Wilkins (1852-1930), Sarah Orne Jewett (1849-1909), and Alice 
Brown (b. 1857), are representatives of this school in the novel, as James 
Herne (1839-1901), the author of 'Shore Acres,' is its representative in 
the drama. All of them were careful recorders of New England's decline. 

The rather large body of persons who have always believed, in the face 
of much evidence to the contrary, that virtue is inevitably rewarded 
and that poverty can always be conquered, found an exponent in one 
of Massachusetts' most widely read authors. Horatio Alger, Jr., born 
in 1834, the son of a clergyman of Revere, was known throughout his 
boyhood as 'holy Horatio.' After attending Harvard Divinity School 
he spent a season in Paris, where he performed some naughty deed, 
never divulged, for which he was sorry all his life. He never married. 
In all, he produced some one hundred and nineteen boys' books, among 
them 'Ragged Dick,' 'Luck and Pluck,' 'Tattered Tom,' 'From Canal 
Boy to President,' 'From Farm Boy to Senator.' Like the heroes of 
his books, he acquired riches; unlike them, he died in poverty. 

The revolt against the genteel tradition, 1912-16, had its seeds in the 
'muck-raking era.' Massachusetts furnished one muck-raker Thomas 

Literary Groups and Movements 109 

W. Lawson, who made and lost a fortune on the stock market, then 
pilloried the market in ' Frenzied Finance' (1902). To the poetry renais- 
sance which began in Chicago about 1912 Massachusetts contributed 
several poets T. S. Eliot, S. Foster Damon, Conrad Aiken, Robert 
Hillyer, among others who were at first encouraged by Amy Lowell 
(1874-1925) and then satirized in 'A Critical Fable/ patterned after 
her great-uncle James Russell Lowell's satire. Miss Lowell introduced 
to young American poets the French symbolists and impressionists of 
the i89o's along with the Imagists, and her free verse and polyphonic 
prose forms had direct influence on many of them. The entire move- 
ment of 1912-16, so promising in its inception, was fatally cut off by the 
World War. 

In 1937, literary prognosticators in Massachusetts were wetting their 
fingers and testing the wind. Some faint signs of a literary revival were 
evident in the air. Massachusetts writers again began to preoccupy 
themselves with contemporary Massachusetts material an encourag- 
ing sign. Impressive gains of organization among industrial workers 
offered a hint of a new audience of hundreds of thousands. The New 
England renaissance of the i84o's had coincided with an upsurge of 
organization among workers, and in the social, economic, and political 
ferment of that decade many writers of the 'golden age' were directly 
concerned. The direction of the Massachusetts labor movement in 1937 
was perhaps symptomatic of what might occur in literature not as 
cause and effect, but as twin manifestations of the same forces. Critics 
dared predict a new literary renaissance in New England unless war 
again intervened to blast it at the roots. 


WHEN one considers the early evolution of the fine arts in New England 
and especially music and the drama it is essential to remember that 
whereas in England Puritanism was never wholly without opposition, 
in the New England Colonies it very early established a pseudo-theocracy 
which in its fundamentals was to remain unshaken for nearly two hundred 
years. With the Restoration, the opposition came back to power in 
England, and with it the enormous release of energies which was to pro- 
duce the second great period of English drama. In Massachusetts, on 
the other hand, no such development was even remotely possible. When 
Henry Vane failed of re-election as Governor in 1637 and returned to 
England, defeated in his struggle with Winthrop and the town fathers for 
a more liberal policy, it was really the end of any chances there might still 
have been for a gentler and more humanistic New England culture. The 
decision of the General Court in the same year l that none should be re- 
ceived to inhabite within this Jurisdiction but such as should be allowed 
by some of the magistrates ' which was tantamount to saying that 
they could exclude or banish anyone whose customs or opinions they dis- 
liked became exactly what it was intended to be : a drastically effective 
social filter. The little Puritan community was henceforth to be on one 
pattern, heresy was to be a crime, and liberalism was to go underground 
for a hundred and fifty years. 

Small wonder, therefore, that the Restoration could export little of its 
brilliance and gaiety to a shore so inhospitable. Music, the theater 
these reached the ears of the Bostonians only as rumors of dreadful un- 
bridled license. In 1686, Increase Mather, stern upholder of the pro- 
prieties and decorums, published a ' Testimony Against Profane and 
Superstitious Customs,' in the course of which he bemoaned the fact that 
there 'is much discourse now of beginning Stage Plays in New England/ 
He need not have worried; the 'much discourse' came to nothing; and 
the drama, like music and dancing ' gynecandrial' dancing was their 
wonderfully contemptuous word for dancing between the sexes re- 
mained an alien and unknown quantity. The truth is, of course, that our 
admirable forefathers knew nothing whatever about the arts, cared little 
for them, and brought into the world children who 'had but an imperfect 

Music and the Theater ill 

idea of their bearing, and in their ignorance deemed the theater the abode 
of a species of devil, who, if once allowed to exist, would speedily make 
converts.' In such a situation, any liberalizing influences from without 
had perforce to wait on the Puritans' gradual self-liberalization from 
within; and the few early attempts to import stage plays into Massa- 
chusetts even after the theater had begun to make headway in New 
York, Philadelphia, and Providence served only to enforce the re- 
strictions against them. Plays were occasionally given in the first half 
of the eighteenth century, but only privately, and seldom; and perhaps 
with a fear that they might, if indulged in too often, lead to the building 
of a playhouse an outcome too terrible to think of. 

It was probably some such consideration which led, in 1750, to the 
passage of 'An Act to Prevent Stage Plays and Other Theatrical Enter- 
tainments,' as likely to 'occasion great and unnecessary expense, and 
discourage industry and frugality,' and as also tending to 'increase im- 
morality, impiety, and a contempt for religion.' The occasion for this 
was a performance of Otway's 'Orphan, or Unhappy Marriage' at a 
coffee house in State Street, Boston, by two enterprising young English 
actors, 'assisted by some volunteer comrades from the town.' The 
General Court, fearing this might be the entering wedge, made the 
provisions of the act extremely stringent. Twenty pounds was the fine 
to be paid by anyone who let or permitted the use of his premises for 
such a purpose. And any actor or spectator present 'where a greater 
number of persons than twenty shall be assembled together ' was subject 
to a fine of five pounds. The law was effective, and effectively enforced; 
and on the whole it was supported by public sentiment. The more so, 
perhaps, as it did not make strictly 'private' performances, or very un- 
remunerative ones, absolutely impossible. 

But the tide of public opinion was steadily if imperceptibly rising. 
The more liberal elements in the community, and those whose business 
took them occasionally to New York, where the theater was already well 
established, pressed for the repeal of the act many times in the latter half 
of the eighteenth century. Such an attempt failed in 1767; and more 
daunting still was the resolve of the Continental Congress, in 1778, that 
any officeholder under the United States who should be so neglectful of 
his duties as to attend a play should at once lose his position. Despite 
this, however, and despite the fact that in 1784 the an ti- theater act of 
1750 was re-enacted in Massachusetts, the moment was at hand when 
the law was simply to be allowed to become a dead letter. As a test case, 
the New Exhibition Room a theater in everything but name was 

112 Massachusetts: The General Background 

opened in what is now Hawley Street, Boston, in 1792, with a performance 
in the nature of a variety show. ' Monsieur Placide will dance a hornpipe 
on a Tight-Rope, play the Violin in various attitudes, and jump over a 
cane backwards and forwards.' This was followed by Garrick's 'Lethe/ 
and that by Otway's 'Venice Preserved,' which was announced, with the 
customary bland hypocrisy of the times, as 'A Moral Lecture in Five 
Parts.' And subsequent performances were given likewise billed as 
'moral lectures' of 'Romeo and Juliet,' 'Hamlet,' and 'Othello.' 
Rhymed couplets, in the handbills, drove home the moral lessons, lest 
they be missed: from the bill of 'Othello', for example: 

Of jealousy, the being's bane, 

Mark the small cause and the most dreaded pain. 

With these performances, and with the consequent arrest and discharge 
on a technicality of the manager, Joseph Harper, the real history 
of the theater as such in Massachusetts may be said to have begun. 
The worthy citizens of Boston were now well persuaded that the drama 
was actually of great social benefit; and accordingly many of the most in- 
fluential people took an active part in the financing, planning, and build- 
ing with Bulfinch as architect of the Boston Theatre, which was 
completed at the corner of Federal and Franklin Streets in 1794. They 
must, presumably, have closed their eyes to such unedifying sights as 
were billed at Mr. Bryant's Hall, a temporary theater during this period, 
where one might see, for example, Mr. Manly ' balance his whole body on 
the edge of a candlestick, pick up two pins with his eyes, and a dollar at 
the same time with his mouth ' all the while, moreover, rolling like a 
whale in the sea. Culture was to be the thing; and they pursued it with 
characteristic zeal. Despite the bankruptcy of the Boston Theatre at 
the end of its first season, a second theater, the Haymarket, was built a 
year later; and until 1803, when the Haymarket was torn down, a lethal 
competition made prosperity impossible for either. 

And in fact it is hardly an exaggeration to say that the theater was 
never destined, in Boston, to very great prosperity, and that in a sense 
Boston has never been really a ' theater ' city. The Boston Theatre did 
moderately well for a quarter of a century with a very fine stock 
company to play around such visiting stars as Kean, Macready, Forrest, 
and Junius Booth and later in the century, from 1860 to 1880, the 
Boston Museum, in Tremont Street, maintained one of the finest stock 
companies in the country. But the 'star' system, lamented as early as 
1880 by William Clapp, one of the leading dramatic critics of the period, 

Music and the Theater 113 

was gradually to make Boston what it is today, a theatrical dependency 
of New York. And attempts in the present century to run stock com- 
panies in Boston, despite the temporary successes of John Craig and 
Mary Young at the Castle Square, and of Leon Gordon, Edmund Clive, 
and Henry Jewett, have invariably ended in failure. More interesting to 
record, in an otherwise somewhat drab history, is the vigor of the Little 
Theater movement in Massachusetts, with the famous Provincetown 
Players and the People's Theater of Northampton conspicuous for their 
contribution; and the very great influence of Professor George Pierce 
Baker's '47 Workshop' on the American theater at large. Of Massachu- 
setts playwrights, it is perhaps sufficient, if melancholy, to quote William 
Clapp, who fifty years ago remarked that ' no Boston author has as yet 
written a play which is likely to keep the stage.' 


If music has fared better in Massachusetts and especially in the past 
fifty years, when Boston has deservedly taken its place as one of the fore- 
most musical centers of the world its early history in the State was 
quite as humble as that of the drama, and if anything even more in- 
conspicuous. Music had, and could have, no place in a strictly Puritan 
community even its controversial value was less considerable than 
that of the drama, for it was clearly less of a ' temptation.' Copies of 
Henry Ainsworth's psalter, published in 1612, were aboard the ' May- 
flower,' and the first book to be printed in America the 'Bay Psalm 
Book' (Cambridge, 1640) was to go through eight editions before 1698; 
but neither of these actually contained any music. The psalms were 
sung by rote, to one of the five or six tunes then in use, the precentor 
chanting the psalm line by line, the congregation echoing him a dreary 
business at best. And this literally was all the music the Puritan 
fathers knew. 

So dreadful, however, did this rote-singing finally become that a move- 
ment arose in the Church itself not without furious opposition to 
introduce singing by note; and in 1698 the ninth edition of the 'Bay 
Psalm Book ' contained thirteen tunes in two-part harmony the 
'oldest existing music of American imprint.' A year later, 1699, the 
Brattle Street Church voted unanimously 'that ye psalms in our public 
Worship be sung without reading line by line.' In 1714 or 1715 appeared 
what may be described as the first musical textbook to come out of 

114 Massachusetts: The General Background 

America ' A very plain and easy Introduction to the Art of Singing 
Psalm Tunes: With the Cantus, or Trebles, of Twenty-eight Psalm Tunes 
contrived in such a manner as that the Learner may attain the Skill of 
Singing with the greatest Ease and Speed imaginable,' by the Reverend 
John Tufts. This book was published in Boston; and ran through ten 
editions by 1 744. It was the forerunner of other such instruction books, 
and coincided with the formation of the first singing schools one such 
is said to have existed as early as 1717. 

Thus far, the psalm-singing was unaccompanied. But in 1714, when 
the first pipe-organ in America was installed in King's Chapel, the 
organist, Edward Enstone, just arrived from England, brought with him 
a 'choice Collection, of Musickal Instruments, consisting of Flageolets, 
Flutes, Hautboys, Bass- Viols, Violins, Bows, Strings, Reads for Haut- 
boys, Books of Instruction for all these Instruments, Books of ruled 
paper.' Clearly, there was already a definite interest in instrumental 
music, and it was not long before the first concerts began to be given 
usually for the benefit of the poor. The first advertisement of a concert 
in America seems to have been that in the Boston News-Letter, December 
16-23, I 73 i: 'There will be a Concert of Music on sundry instruments 
at Mr. Pelham's great Room, being the House of the late Doctor Noyes 
near the Sun Tavern.' In 1732 the New England Weekly Journal ad- 
vertised 'Conserts of Musick performed on sundry instruments at the 
Concert Room in Wing's Lane near the Town Dock ' a room in the 
George Tavern, in what is now Elm Street. In 1744 a vocal and instru- 
mental concert was given in the newly built Faneuil Hall; and from this 
time on concerts became frequent, and instrumental music began to take 
a natural place in the home. 

Perhaps the opening of the theaters, in the last decade of the eighteenth 
century, did much to stimulate the public interest in music, and to im- 
prove its taste at all events, it is not without significance that there 
was on the program for the opening night of the Boston Theatre, Feb- 
ruary 3, 1794, 'to precede the drawing up of the curtain,' a 'grand sym- 
phony by Signer Haydn,' amongst other pieces. Here, too, the custom 
was introduced of 'allowing the audience to call upon the orchestra for 
such pieces of music as suited the popular taste,' a custom which pre- 
vailed for many years. Obviously, the Puritan terror of music had at last 
broken down, music was beginning to come out of the church, and all 
that now was needed was organization a creative discipline and 

For this, some of the spade-work had already been done by the gradual 

Music and the Theater 115 

formation and training of the church choirs, the founding of singing 
schools, partly to the same end, and the development of musical societies. 
Among the latter may be mentioned one of the earliest, still in existence, 
the Stoughton Musical Society, 1786, founded by America's first native 
composer, William Billings. Billings's 'New England Psalm Singer' 
(1770), and subsequent collections, may be said to be the beginning of 
American composition; and his spirited 'fuguing' style did much to free 
church music from the everlasting Puritan drone. 

But these were modest beginnings at best, and it was really with the 
nineteenth century that things began to happen. In 1808 a group of 
students at Harvard founded the Pierian Sodality, and with it 'an un- 
broken chain of cause and effect' which was to lead, via the Harvard 
Musical Association founded by graduates of the Pierian in 1837 to 
the Boston Symphony Orchestra. This little society, for the encourage- 
ment of instrumental music, may be said to have been of the profoundest 
significance in the development of music, not only at Harvard, but 
throughout the country. Two years later came a similar venture, though 
not so lasting, when Gottlieb Graupner, music publisher and engraver, 
ex-oboist in Haydn's Orchestra in London, formed a group of professional 
musicians, together with a few amateurs, for weekly concerts of an in- 
formal character. This, the Philharmonic Society, lasted till 1824, thus 
overlapping the Handel and Haydn Society, 1815, in the founding of 
which Graupner again had a hand. 

With the Philharmonic Society playing the symphonies of Haydn and 
Mozart, and the Handel and Haydn giving a performance of the whole 
of Handel's 'Messiah' as early as 1818, progress was clearly being made; 
but the discipline and training for precision-playing was to come a good 
deal later. A further step in this direction came with the establishment 
of the Boston Academy of Music, in 1833, by Lowell Mason. This ad- 
mirable institution long since defunct gave free vocal instruction 
to upwards of a thousand children, and five hundred adults, a year; and 
in 1837 it succeeded in introducing music into the Boston public schools. 
Its services to the teaching of music were inestimable, but perhaps even 
more fraught with consequence was its decision, in 1840, under the 
leadership of Samuel A. Eliot, its president, then Mayor of Boston, to 
give up teaching and l to engage the best orchestra it can afford and give 
classical instrumental concerts.' The immediate result was the first 
hearing of Beethoven in Boston, the First and Fifth Symphonies being 
performed by the Academy of Music Orchestra in its first season of eight 
concerts. The orchestra was small twenty-five to forty and by no 

n6 Massachusetts: The General Background 

means perfect; but its seven-year existence made the coming of the 
Boston Symphony Orchestra inevitable. 

Other stages were to intervene the visits of the Germania Orchestra, 
from 1848 to 1854; the foundation of the Harvard Musical Association 
in 1837, and its seventeen years of symphony concerts, from 1865 onward, 
under Carl Zerrahn; the popularization of chamber music by the Men- 
delssohn Quintette Club but everything now tended obviously to the 
obvious thing, the foundation of a Boston Symphony Orchestra. This, 
finally made possible by the generosity and unflagging devotion of Henry 
Lee Higginson, began in 1881 the career which was to make it for many 
years the finest orchestra in the United States, and to make Boston 
famous for its music. Its history, under such leaders as Nikisch, Gericke, 
Muck, Rabaud, Monteux, and Serge Koussevitzky, is a story in itself, 
beyond the scope of these pages; it must be sufficient to note that out of 
it have come such notable institutions as the Kneisel Quartet, the Longy 
Club and Longy School of Music, and the Flute-Players' Club, and that 
as a great orchestra it continues to give Boston precisely the creative 
focus for music that it needs. 

It remains simply to note that in the New England Conservatory of 
Music founded in 1867 by Doctor Eben Tourjee Massachusetts 
possesses one of the most famous schools of music in the country, and that 
in the field of musical composition the State stands almost alone. Among 
those born in the State or resident there have been such composers as 
George Chad wick, C. M. Loefifler, F. S. Converse, Arthur Foote, Edward 
Burlingame Hill, Walter Piston, Carl Ruggles, Bainbridge Crist, and 
Roger Sessions, to mention but a few. As a creative musical center, 
Boston is today in many respects unrivaled. 


MASSACHUSETTS is rich in the substance of the arts. It has a good 
tradition in handicraft; it was once the stronghold of eminent Colonial 
portrait-painters; it counts among its residents renowned scholars in art 
and discerning collectors. Within its boundaries are treasures of enviable 
importance. The number of art museums is exceptional, and the State 
is honeycombed with historic houses fitted with Colonial furnishings. 
The early history of Massachusetts was virtually the history of art in 
the United States, for many of the outstanding painters and sculptors 
were either born in the State or had a foothold here. The people of Mas- 
sachusetts in their enthusiasm or indifference, their Puritanism or limited 
taste, are as responsible for the peculiarities of native art as the crafts- 
men themselves. 

In the ways in which scholarly research can enrich understanding of 
the arts, Massachusetts is at an advantage. Museums are outwitting 
each other in acquisition of rarities and in publication of researches. 
While museums show increasing range of interest, each in its way has a 
splendid collection or a department in which it excels. The Boston 
Museum of Fine Arts is particularly notable for superb Far Eastern 
treasure, while the Worcester Art Museum draws attention by its mag- 
nificent mosaics of the Middle Ages. The Smith College Art Museum has 
concentrated on modern French pictures, and at the Fogg Art Museum, 
Harvard, there is an exceptional display of Italian primitives. The 
Addison Gallery of American Art at Andover is one of the most important 
specialized collections of American art in the land. The latter and the 
Germanic Museum at Harvard show a marked interest in living art 
through exhibition and purchase. Other museums specialize in the 
historic, remaining comparatively indifferent to the problems of the 
living artist. 

Since its earliest days, Massachusetts has not been a particularly 
hospitable environment for the living artist. Restraints of economic 
necessity and puritanic bias prevented a free expression in the arts from 
the very beginning. Colonial handicraft was directed toward articles of 
household use, furniture, utensils, pewter, silver, textiles, and in some 
solemn likenesses of early worthies. Based upon English prototypes, the 

Ii8 Massachusetts: The General Background 

articles were made to conform to local needs and, viewed today in the 
historic houses or museums, they show good taste and adaptation of 
materials. Puritanism was opposed in principle to art, and there was 
not the impulse of native taste or the urgency of demand to propel the 
imagination of artists. Years later, it was personal pride, luxurious in- 
dulgence, a, forgivable conceit which prompted Americans to have their 
portraits painted, revealing unmistakably their forceful characteristics 
and newly acquired finery. It was a painting of form and feature, flounce 
and frill, with rarely a sidelong glance at nature, or critical observation 
of society. The early limners held forth with reserve, as artisans who 
had branched from the more useful calling of coach or sign painting, and 
some, in the well-known matter-of-fact manner, peddled their wares from 
house to house. They carried portraits painted completely except for 
the face, to be bargained for by the impending client. 

The early portraits are flat and descriptive, lacking the lifelike char- 
acter and subtle handling of European portraiture of the time; possessing, 
on the other hand, the decorative beauty which to present-day taste is so 
appealing in provincial art. Some most interesting early portraits are to 
be seen in the Worcester Art Museum. On loan for many years has been 
' Mrs. Freake and Baby Jane/ one of the handsomest and most touching 
of seventeenth-century portraits. 'John Freake' is there too, an imposing 
likeness in which particular attention has been paid to ornate costume. 
Not far from the Worcester Art Museum, in the American Antiquarian 
Society, are portrayals of Samuel and Increase and Cotton Mather (the 
latter painted by Peter Pelham about 1695-1751). Portraiture de- 
veloped in the eighteenth century into a specialty. John Smibert (1688- 
1751) came from Scotland to Boston to paint, and incidentally designed 
Faneuil Hall in Boston. Joseph Blackburn (flourished 1753-1763), 
Robert Feke (about 1705-1750), Ralph Earle (flourished 1751-1761) 
were among the early exponents, and their portrayals are on exhibition 
at Harvard University and in the museums in Boston, Worcester, and 
Andover. The art of portraiture attained a notable height in the canvases 
of John Singleton Copley (1738-1815). In the opinion of many, Copley 
executed his finest pictures here at home, before he departed in what 
was to become a too common practice among Massachusetts artists 
to England to live. There was something in the native environment, in 
the types of personages he portrayed, in the limited tradition out of 
which his style developed that proved salutary to Copley. In England 
he lost individuality, acquired suaver traits. Colonial personalities, 
humble, smug, forceful, are clearly characterized in the Copleys shown 
throughout Massachusetts. 

Art 1 19 

Gilbert Stuart (1755-1828) settled in Boston, where he painted out- 
standing Americans of the early republican days. The Athenaeum por- 
traits of George and Martha Washington hang in the Boston Museum 
among other portraits by Stuart, which differ from the Copleys in the 
swift summary handling and the emphasis upon facial features and ex- 
pression, with comparative indifference to costume. Portraits in smaller 
dimension are scattered throughout the State. Besides its three hundred 
painted portraits, Essex Institute in Salem possesses a fine collection of 
silhouettes. Miniatures by Edward Greene Malbone (1777-1807) are in 
the Worcester and Boston Museums. W T ax miniatures are displayed here 
and there in historic collections. 

During the same period the household arts surpassed by far the pictorial 
arts. Cotton Mather had written that within a dozen years after the 
granting of the charter to the Massachusetts Bay, Colony 'artificers to 
the number of some thousands came to New England.' Among early 
silversmiths of Boston were such notables as Robert Sanderson (1608- 
1693), who instructed many in the art, Jeremiah Dummer (1645-1718), 
John Coney (1655-1722), and, in the eighteenth century, the versatile 
Paul Revere (1735-1818), who, in addition to tankards, punchbowls, and 
candlesticks, made silver dental plates which he advertised as 'of real 
Use in Speaking and Eating.' The first articles of furniture of artistic 
significance to be made in the State were carved oak chests, which slowly 
evolved into highboys and writing-desks. John Goddard (1723-1785), 
who produced stately pieces in Santo Domingo mahogany, was born in 
Massachusetts but practiced his craft in Rhode Island. As early as 1638 
crude glass lamps and bottles were being manufactured in Peabody, but 
Deming Jarves (1790-1868), head of the Boston and Sandwich glass 
works, revolutionized the glass industry with his new methods of furnace 
construction, his rediscovery of the method of manufacturing red lead, 
and his inventions in color-mixing. The Decorative Arts Wing of the 
Boston Museum has many interesting period rooms. The historic houses 
throughout the State give evidence of excellent handiwork, indicating 
the changes in taste from the early days of rigorous thrift to later luxury 
and finesse. Objects of folk-interest samplers, coverlets, mourning 
pictures, painted Bible pictures reveal imaginative qualities which 
painters in a more formidable craft lacked. 

The art of carving found a particularly touching expression in grave- 
stones, which apparently deserved special attention in the solemn judg- 
ment of Colonials. Such memorials are extant in burying grounds of 
Deerfield, Salem, Concord, Boston, and towns on Cape Cod. They bear 

120 Massachusetts: The General Background 

indications of an authentic talent for carving in decorative borders, 
sacred symbols, and ruminative epitaphs. It was an original and ap- 
propriate manner of commemoration, with far more vitality in design and 
feeling for the craft than was revealed in native plastic art of later 

The demand for portraiture continued in the early days of the Re- 
public. Painters went abroad for study and stimulus. Massachusetts, 
which had such a favorable atmosphere for the ripening of Copley's style, 
could not hold its painters. They would wander afar, to London and 
Paris, and they were not shrewd enough to ally themselves with the best 
teachers, but contented themselves with the guidance of lesser lights. 
Benjamin West (1728-1820) took young Americans under his wing. 
Samuel F. B. Morse (1791-1872), seeking instruction abroad, boasted of 
having studied with Washington Allston (1779-1843), whose unfinished 
masterpiece, ' Belshazzar's Feast,' is in the Boston Museum. Massachu- 
setts artists were eager, but they lacked taste and tenacity. Abroad they 
responded to the official and obvious, and when they painted compositions 
they seemed to favor the literary and rhetorical. Morse gave up painting, 
as there was no market, no recognition, and turned to inventing, where 
his successes never consoled him for his failure as an artist. His 'Self 
Portrait' hangs in the Addison Gallery in Andover. Chester Harding 
(1792-1866) carried the portraiture tradition well into the nineteenth 
century, when changes were taking place with the rapid growth of the 
Republic and there were reverberations of political and industrial up- 
heaval abroad. 

James Abbott McNeill Whistler (1834-1903) and Winslow Homer 
(1836-1910) were both born in Massachusetts. There was little at home 
to foster the talents of a painter. One escaped to the solace and enhance- 
ment of European life; the other withdrew to solitude at Prout's Neck 
on the coast of Maine. Whistler possessed skill and wit. He had far 
better taste than most Americans, and his pictures are an odd mixture of 
influences from Turner to Degas, from the Pre-Raphaelites to the Japa- 
nese. Whistler did not follow his fellow countrymen to the academy; 
not for him the sleek and photographic and artificial. He had a fine 
decorative sense, and a taste for the diffuse and atmospheric. His etch- 
ings give him rank with masters in that medium. Nevertheless he re- 
mained a wanderer, lacked a mooring, and fell short of greatness as a 
painter. Winslow Homer went abroad, but he did not stay for long. He 
found water color a more responsive medium for his direct, decisive re- 
action to the outdoors. He painted what he saw with the impact of the 

Art 121 

first fresh impression. It was straightforward, realistic portrayal, and it 
marks him one of the first Massachusetts painters with a dynamic style. 
Homer furnishes the moral to escaping artists. He helped to deliver the 
artists of New England from a sense of inferiority, from the uncontro- 
verted domination of foreign ideas which were not too well selected, not 
too thoroughly assimilated. Homer has risen in esteem, especially in 
recent years, for his peculiarly native qualities, and for the fact that he 
found his vigorous style through self -disco very. 

Albert Pinkham Ryder (1847-1917), born in New Bedford, also painted 
the sea, but his portrayal was veiled in poetry, shaded with mysticism, 
softened with sentiment. Ryder also avoided the American scene, not as 
Homer or Whistler had chosen to do, but by withdrawing into himself, 
painting from personal resource, inner feeling. In Deerfield dwelt an- 
other native artist who painted in a gentle sentiment, George Fuller 
(1822-1884). Boston-born Abbott H. Thayer (1849-1921) lavished 
tenderness upon his canvases of womanhood. 

William Morris Hunt (1824-1879) exercised considerable influence 
upon Bostonians through his great interest in the Barbizon school in 
France, especially F. D. Millet. The atmosphere at home seemed un- 
sympathetic to him, too, and he longed for what was lacking: an impetus 
to paint. An entire gallery of his paintings is in the Boston Museum. His 
pupil and friend, John La Farge (1835-1910), was commissioned by 
Henry Richardson, architect, to paint murals in Trinity Church on 
Copley Square. On the same square stands the Boston Public Library, 
where murals cover the walls on the second and third floors. There is 
one series by the French neo-classicist, Puvis de Chavannes (1824-1898), 
the illustrative 'Quest of the Holy Grail' series by Edwin Abbey (1852- 
1911), and the elaborately wrought theological sequence by John Singer 
Sargent (1856-1925), to some his greatest performance. The Boston 
Public Library murals are very interesting and very provocative. All 
three differ in treatment, color, effect; they also differ greatly from the 
mural painting which has come rather suddenly into prominence in recent 
years with emphasis on scenes in history, social forces, and daily life. 

Sculptors of Massachusetts have worked under a handicap that is 
more universal, for their special craft struggles to survive in a world 
which seems to find no urgent need of it. That native Americans enjoyed 
whittling and carving is apparent in their early houses, furniture, ship 
figureheads, gravestones, weather-vanes, wild fowl decoys, scrimshaw 
(there is an interesting collection in the Whaling Museum in New Bed- 
ford) ; but when they applied their gift to the formal art of portraiture, 

122 Massachusetts: The General Background 

they showed little taste and insufficient vitality. Samuel Mclntire 
(1757-1811) had a peculiar gift for carving portals and architectural 
decorations with the wholesome application of craft to function. That 
peculiar attribute of functionalism in style which is so often discussed 
today is rooted in the craft of Massachusetts. The most classical example 
is that of the Shaker workshops, which provided a variety of articles for 
daily use, admonishing the maker to do the job as efficiently as possible, 
with an eye to simplicity and usefulness. 

Horatio Greenough (1805-1852) was one of the native sculptors who 
went to Italy to assimilate neo-classical ideas. But such ideas could not 
somehow be redirected with conviction by a native of Massachusetts. 
The sculptors, like so many painters, possessed enthusiasm and eagerness, 
but no commensurate creative imagination. Artistically they lacked 
roots. There were sculptors like Henry Kirke Brown (1814-1886), Har- 
riet Hosmer (1830-1908), Thomas Ball (1819-1911), who did an eques- 
trian statue of George Washington that stands in the Public Garden in 
Boston. Many pieces are on view throughout the State, generally Ital- 
ianate or official in character. Most native are the diminutive groups ex- 
ecuted by John Rogers (1829-1904) of Salem, ingenuous portrayals of 
everyday life of Americans and realistic scenes of the Civil War, a de- 
scriptive sculpture, illustrating life in America, and true to life and 
aspirations in Massachusetts. At Essex Institute there is a very large 
collection of Rogers groups. 

Counted among outstanding sculptures in Massachusetts are the 
'Shaw Memorial,' a high relief in bronze by Augustus Saint-Gaudens 
opposite the State House in Boston, and 'Dean Chapin' by the same 
sculptor in Springfield. The 'Minuteman' in Concord and 'John Har- 
vard' in Cambridge were executed by Daniel Chester French, who had 
studied sculpture under a Boston teacher. Cyrus Dallin, sympathetic 
portray er of the American Indian, is the sculptor of 'Appeal to the Great 
Spirit,' which stands in front of the Boston Museum of Fine Arts. 

In Massachusetts until recent years a conservatism has prevailed, 
which resists stubbornly the experimental methods practiced in the 
world of art. The arbiters of taste have clung to Victorianism, or have 
released their energies in the study of art of remote times and remote 
places. The State has avoided the rapids of the main stream of con- 
temporary art, and has thus been safeguarded against the attendant risk 
and deprived of the inevitable exhilaration. Exhibition places, such as 
the Boston Art Club, the Copley Society, the Guild of Boston Artists, 
have been rather inflexible, showing works of acceptable stamp, often 

Art 123 

capably wrought, depictions in a conventional or photographic manner, 
softened renderings of Hals or Manet, with reminiscences of Munich, 
Pre-Raphaelitism, and the French Academy. Pictures there are in 
abundance of the pursuit of wild fowl, clippers at full sail, swelling surf, 
flowers and fruits and bric-a-brac in a rose-gold ambience, the New Eng- 
land countryside, woodland retreats, pools and freshets and marshlands, 
and pleasant people. Boston has had its special style, its exponents. 
Sargent set the pace in portraiture, brisk painting of texture, fleet, skillful 
rendering of features. Among members of the Boston group may be 
counted today Frank Benson, Edward Tarbell, Marian Sloane, Herman 
D. Murphy, Laura Coombs Hills, John Lavalle, Margaret Fitzhugh 

Ideas are blowing across the boundaries. Resourceful and probing 
performers have infused a new spirit into the atmosphere. Art schools are 
altering their point of view; museums are enlivened by new and enter- 
prising directors. During the summer American painters have gravitated 
toward Provincetown and Gloucester, where the weather-beaten shacks 
and fisheries and townsfolk and dunes and surf and old-fashioned gardens 
provide choice subject matter. At Provincetown some talented artists 
live throughout the winter, among whom are Karl Knaths, Oliver Chaffee, 
Agnes Weinrich. 

Among painters of the State, water color has been a popular medium. 
Winslow Homer, John Singer Sargent, and Dodge Macknight are ad- 
mired and emulated Homer for realism, Sargent for skilled grasp of 
surface texture, Macknight for bold, translucent color. Macknight pro- 
voked Bostonians to well-known vituperation when he sent his brightly 
colored aquarelles from France in the 1890*5. The reaction paralleled 
that of the French middle class at the Impressionist Exhibition of 1874 
in Paris. There is a Bostonian water-color style based upon these fore- 
bears, rarely, however, as powerful or as concentrated as the originals. 
John Whorf is the most successful and most popular exponent of this 
local inherited style. Other aquarellistes of more independent spirit 
should be noted for peculiarly expressive handling of pigment, and for 
some engaging theories which they have invented. Among them are 
Carl Gordon Cutler, Harley Perkins, Katherine Sturgis, and Charles 
Hopkinson. The latter is interesting as a sort of dual personality, for he 
does able official portraits in a manner which is highly acceptable, then 
turns to water color apparently as a release for his fancy, to indulge an 
insatiable devotion to color, and to work out some tricky compositions. 

The Boston Athenaeum, founded in 1807, initiated in the community 

124 Massachusetts: The General Background 

the policy of having annual exhibitions of pictures painted by local 
artists, or borrowed from local collectors. An Athenaeum catalogue of 
1831 lists with exceeding pride the 'Head of a Madonna' by Carlo Dolci. 
Taste in Boston today runs to early rather than late Renaissance pictures. 
In 1855 the Boston Art Club was organized with the purpose of promot- 
ing social intercourse among artists and for the general advancement of art. 
Today, there are many art centers and schools. There are clubs of hobby 
artists; there is the Society of Independent Artists. There is furthermore 
the energetic group of artists in the Federal Art Project. But the range 
of interest in art is no longer a local matter. Some of our best craftsmen 
are young and not yet known; some are newcomers to the State with 
fresh points of view. The pace today is set by leadership elsewhere, in 
sources which have been more harmonious with present-day tendencies. 
Massachusetts is losing its peculiar qualifications, for better, for worse, 
in the broadening scope of taste and of activity in cosmopolitan art 


Some cities and towns could not be conveniently described among the tours in 
Section III because of the amount of historical matter and the number of 
points of interest. For that reason, though appearing on the tours, they are 
described here, as well as all municipalities of 35,000 population or over, all 
seats of colleges, a number of historic shrines, and a few centers of varied 

The altitude is usually that of the municipal center, sometimes, if the former 
was not available, that of the railway station. Population is according to the 
1935 State census. If you find a date of settlement twenty years earlier or 
later than one given here, yours is probably right, too. The same dates 
and data often dijfer in half-a-dozen reference books, and the Oldest In- 
habitant's memory can rarely be trusted. When sources differed too widely to 
be reconciled, the editors made a reasonable choice, or took refuge in such a 
phrase as 'the mid-nineteenth century.' 

Brief general information is listed at the beginning of each town: railroads, 
inter-State bus service, piers and boat service, airports, accommodations, and 
information centers. Local information centers, each happily situated, like 
Anatole France 7 s dog, in the exact center of the universe, are equipped to 
answer more specific questions. 

A tour has been arranged for each city or town, starting at the municipal 
center except where, as in Boston and Cambridge, some other starting point 
was considered to be more convenient. Points of interest which are con- 
centrated or easy to find are merely numbered and listed with street addresses; 
otherwise driving directions are given. If the inordinate length of some of the 
tours within towns or cities appals you (Pitts field's motor tour is over 30 
miles long) , console yourself, as you halt on a country road to shoo a flock of 
geese, that you are still 'in town,' as townships were abolished in Massachu- 
setts by an Act of the General Court on August 23, 1775. 

AMHERST.^w Adventure in Quietude 

Town: Alt. 302, pop. 6473, sett. 1703, incorp. 1775. 
Railroad Station: Main St., opposite Gray St., for Central Vermont R.R. 
Accommodations: Four hotels and several tourist houses. 
Information: Hotel Lord Jeffrey, Bottwood Ave., cor. Spring St. 

AMHERST, on its pleasant valley plateau within a circle of hills, is a 
dignified college town, the seat of two institutions of higher learning. 
Its quiet dwellings, elm-shaded streets, and general air of academic calm 
make it attractive and individual. It was named for Lord Jeffrey Am- 
herst, a British general in the French and Indian War. The town was 
originally a part of Hadley. Farming was the exclusive occupation of the 
community for three quarters of a century. 

Later its two streams furnished water-power for a diversity of small and 
in general ephemeral industries. Shortly after the Revolution, a paper 
factory made its appearance, followed by three others in the next seventy 
years. About 1809, an abortive effort was made to spin yarn by machin- 
ery. Twenty-eight years later, improved processes made it possible to 
operate two woolen mills successfully. The fabrication of palmleaf hats 
and the temporarily popular ' Shaker ' hoods for women marked the 
high-spot of Amherst's mass-production. Miscellaneous items such as 
sleds, baby-carriages, and rifles complete the catalogue of the town's 
manufactured goods. 

The agrarian skill of the inhabitants and the lusty health of their 
cattle as shown in annual fairs attracted State-wide interest which 
culminated, in 1864, in the founding of Massachusetts Agricultural 
College, which later, with a broadened curriculum, became Massachusetts 
State College. The college was established as a result of the Morrill 
Land Grant Act of 1862, which allotted to Massachusetts the sum of 
$208,464 realized from the sale of 360,000 acres of land granted by the 
Federal Government. From a perpetual fund set up for the promotion 
of education in agriculture and the 'mechanic arts,' one third was 
to be given to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and two thirds 
to the Agricultural College. 

Today this institution possesses a perfectly equipped dairy farm known 
as the Flint Laboratory, a model for the whole country, and an out- 
standing entomological collection. Since. 1882 the State Agricultural 
Experiment Station has been located on forty-eight acres of land leased 
from the college. 

More than forty years before the founding of the Agricultural College, 
a purely academic institution had chosen Amherst as its site. Founded 

128 Main Street and Village Green 

in 1821, with the simple ideal of educating 'promising but needy youths 
who wished to enter the Ministry/ Amherst College had an initial 
enrollment of forty-seven pupils, with a teaching staff of two professors 
.and the president. For many years emphasis was placed on missionary 
work and Amherst sent many graduates to the home and foreign fields. 

Shortly after 1830, the slavery question nearly split its academic ranks. 
.Financial stringency threatened to complete the ruin, but by heroic 
effort the college weathered this crisis and succeeded in establishing 
itself on a firm basis. Liberal education instead of mere vocational 
training has been the steadfast aim. Amherst was the first institution 
in the land to adopt student-government. 

It is one of the most noted of the smaller colleges for men in the United 
States^ and its standards of plain living and high thinking are well 
illustrated by the characters of two of its best-known graduates, Henry 
Ward freecher and Calvin Coolidge. Noah Webster, Helen Hunt Jackson, 
Emily Dickinson, Eugene Field, and Ray Stannard Baker ('David 
Gray-son') all lived at one time or another in Amherst. Their presence 
fostered a literary atmosphere very congenial to the college, enhanced 
in later years by the addition of Robert Frost, the poet, to its faculty. 

TOUR 3 m. 

S.from Amherst Common on Pleasant St. (State 116). 

i. The Amherst College Campus crowns an elm-shaded knoll at the center 
of the town. The college buildings are of brick, stone, or wood, in a variety 
of architectural modes reflecting its growth. Their grouping is spacious 
.and dignified, and considerable beauty is achieved by wide lawns shaded 
by ancient trees and outlined by barberry hedges. 

College Hall (open), at the west end of the Common, resembles a New England 
Colonial church, with yellow-painted brick walls, a white-pillared portico, and 
a low octagonal belfry. 

North aiid South College (private), are the oldest dormitories, resembling army 
barracks, but much beloved by reason of tradition and long, honorable service. 
Between these two dormitories stands the brick Johnson Chapel (open}, another 
time-honored landmark, with three-story white-pillared portico and square white 

Morgan Library (open), next door to College Hall, is a gray-stone building now 
an Art and Historical Museum. Exhibits include an exquisite Delia Robbia 
Madonna from the study of Clyde Fitch, noted playwright, Class of 1886; Henry 
Ward Beecher's Chair; Lord Jeffrey Amherst's Chair; and the immortal 'Sabrina,' 
a semi-nude statue donated to the college in 1857 to adorn a fountain, and for 
many years the prize of the Freshman and Sophomore battle. The trustees, at 
length wearying of these Homeric contests, fastened Sabrina into the structural 
walls of Morgan Library with such heavy masonry that only dynamite could now 
dislodge her. 

The Babbott Room (open), occupies the tower of The Octagon, a stucco building 
on the campus. In this room Robert Frost talks informally to the students. 

Amherst 129 

The Natural Science Museum designed by McKim, Mead and White, houses the 
biological and geological laboratories in a large building on the southern end of 
the campus overlooking Hitchcock Field. In the Biological Museum is a large 
collection of shells and a celebrated Audubon Collection of birds. The Geological 
Museum contains minerals collected throughout Europe and America and a col- 
lection of fossils and vertebrates. Adjoining is a large room containing the famous 
Hitchcock ichthyological collection of fossil footprints. 

2. The Helen Hunt Jackson House (private), 83 Pleasant St., a two-and-a- 
half-story yellow frame dwelling with white pilasters and a gabled roof, 
was the home of 'H. H.,' the pseudonym under which Mrs. Jackson wrote 
* Ramona ' and other popular novels. 

Retrace Pleasant St.; R. from Pleasant St. on Spring St. at the Common. 

3 . The Lord Jeffrey Inn (open) , is a charming replica of a Colonial brick 
tavern, white-painted, with 4o-paned windows on the lower story. It 
houses the Plimpton Collection of French and Indian War prints, maps, 
and autographed letters and papers of Jeffrey Amherst, George Washing- 
ton, William Pitt, General Wolfe, George II and Louis XV. 

L. from Spring St. on College Ave.; R. from College Ave. on Main St. 

4. The Home of Emily Dickinson (not open for public inspection; those 
interested in Emily Dickinson memorabilia may consult the collection next 
door) stands above Main Street, behind a high evergreen hedge. It was 
the first brick dwelling-house in Amherst, and was built about 1813 by 
her grandfather, Samuel Fowler Dickinson, one of the chief founders of 
Amherst College. Here was born in 1830, lived her life apart, and died in 
1886, the poet and mystic who, after her death, was acclaimed as one of 
the very few great American poets and one of the leading women poets 
of all time. Her gradual withdrawal from the world, following a youthful 
renunciation of love, became almost complete during her later years as 
she devoted herself to a life of thought and the writing of the hundreds 
of poems she was to leave to the world. With the exception of two or 
three, none of these was published during her lifetime, it remaining for 
her sister Lavinia, and then for her niece and heir, Martha Dickinson 
Bianchi, to make her work available to the public. More than nine hun- 
dred of her poems are now collected in one volume. Nothing relating to 
the Dickinsons now remains in the old family mansion, but the Emily 
Dickinson memorabilia are preserved at The Evergreens, the home of the 
poet's only brother, the late William Austin Dickinson, just across the 
lawn, which is now the home of her niece and biographer, where during 
the summer months they may be seen by those especially interested in 
Emily Dickinson's work. 

Retrace on Main St.; straight ahead on Amity St. 

5. Jones Library (open: summer, weekdays 9-6; winter, Tues., Thurs., 
Sat. afternoons and evenings. Sun. afternoons) is a gambrel-roofed field- 
stone building recognized as one of the most luxurious small public 
libraries in the United States. The interior is divided into twelve large 
rooms and sixteen smaller ones in the manner of a private mansion. All 
are paneled in Philippine white mahogany or walnut. Many have Oriental 

130 Main Street and Village Green 

rugs and comfortable chairs and divans; many are hung with valuable 
paintings. In the Room of Amherst Authors are representative and exten- 
sive editions of the works of Emily Dickinson, Robert Frost, Eugene 
Field, Helen Hunt Jackson, Noah Webster, and others. 

6. The Strong House (open Tues. and Sat. 2-5; adm. free), corner of 
Amity and North Prospect Sts., is a three-and-a-half-story gambrel- 
roofed brownish frame dwelling of 1744, now the home of the Amherst 
Historical Society. It is the oldest house in town, and was built by local 
craftsmen of entirely hand-hewn timber and hand-wrought hardware. 

Retrace Amity St.; L. from Amity on N. Pleasant St. 

7. Massachusetts State College, fondly known as ' Aggie,' a contraction of 
its former title of Massachusetts Agricultural School, occupies a large 
open campus, on the edge of farming country. Its brick buildings, utili- 
tarian rather than decorative, are grouped in a long semicircle, at the 
center of which stands Goodell Library (open}, with high white Ionic 
portico, giving access to 100,000 reference works. 

The State College Science Museum in Fernald Hall, headquarters of the geology 
and entomology departments, contains unusual specimens of insect life, and one 
of the most interesting existing collections of insects injurious to cultivated plants 
and trees. It was started early in the history of the college by Professor Fernald, 
one of the first presidents and head of this department. 

The Veterinary Science Museum is in the Veterinary Science Building on the 
western side of the campus. It contains interesting specimens of abnormal animal 

ARLINGTON. History and Homes 

Town: Alt. 30, pop. 38,539, sett, about 1630, incorp. 1867. 
Railroad Station: B. & M. R.R., Mystic and Mass. Ave. 
Bus Station: Arlington Center for B. & M. Transportation Co., Champ lain 
Coach Lines, and Frontier Coach Lines. 

Accommodations: Boarding and rooming houses. 
Information: Robbins Memorial (Town) Hall, Mass. Ave. 

VICTIM of a series of industrial and agricultural frustrations, never 
quite fulfilling its destiny as a producing center, Arlington is a residential 

The story of Arlington begins just after the Revolution. Industrial 
development started with the establishment of William Whittemore and 
Company (1799), card manufacturers, founded on the invention of Amos 
Whittemore of a machine for the manufacture of cotton and wool cards. 

Arlington 131 

Prosperity was blighted in 1812 by the general wartime depression, 
culminating in the sale of the Whittemore plant to a New York firm, 
and Arlington lost its main industry. In 1827, after the expiration of the 
original patents, card manufacturing was revived, but never regained its 
vigor, and when the factory burned down in 1862, it was never rebuilt. 

In 1832, James Schouler, a calico printer, moved from Lynn to Arlington. 
Other lesser enterprises combined to give the town a sense of industrial 
importance which temporarily seemed justified. By 1850 the Wood Ice 
Tool Company and Gage, Hittinger and Company, ice-cutters who 
shipped Spy Pond Ice to various parts of the world, were established. 
Arlington's industrial importance was at its crest. 

Agriculture developed parallel to industry, but was accompanied by far 
less acclaim. Natural conditions and proximity to Boston markets made 
truck gardening the chief gainful occupation, and by 1850 Arlington 
produce became famous along the North Atlantic seaboard. 

Just as industrial development reached a climax and then declined, so 
did agriculture. Farms were broken up into house lots as the increasing 
residential value of the land, coupled with proportionate increases in tax 
assessments, made it unprofitable for market-gardening. 

The early city fathers had been faced with such knotty problems as the 
purchase of a town hearse, or the installation of a public bathtub 'for 
the use of the inhabitants, but to be in the custody of the treasurer/ 
Their successors had to gird themselves for a different sort of task 
a struggle against outside turnpike companies seeking franchises through 
Arlington along routes considered inimical to the town. Hardly was the 
battle won, and hardly were the roads established along routes agreeable 
to all, when the victory crumbled to dust. Business men of Arlington 
and Lexington built a railroad to Cambridge in 1846 and turnpikes lost 
their significance. Horsecar lines (1859) and electric lines (1897) followed, 
and Arlington developed into a residential suburb. 

TOUR 6 m. 

S. from Massachusetts Ave. into Pleasant St. 

1. The Ancient Burying Ground is at the rear of the Unitarian Church. 
Toward the farther side of the cemetery, close to the main path, is a 
Monument over the graves of 12 Americans killed on the retreat from 
Concord and Lexington, and buried 'without coffins, in the clothes they 
had worn when they fell.' 

2. Spy Pond was so christened, says tradition, when a company of white 
men, seeking Fresh Pond to procure water, 'spied' this instead. It 
acquired some reflected glory later on from the fact that old Mother 
Batherick was digging dandelions on its bank on April 19, 1775, when six 
British grenadiers came along, fleeing from the 'old men of Menotomy,' 


Arlington 133 

as Arlington was originally (1637-1732) called. The brave old woman 
took them off guard, captured them, and marched them to prison. 
Retrace Pleasant St.; R. from Pleasant St. into Massachusetts Ave. 

3. The Site of Cooper Tavern, corner of Medford St., Arlington Center, is 
identified by a tablet. In the Tavern, two aged men, Jabez Wyman and 
Jason Winship, sitting over their toddy, were killed on April 19, when the 
Redcoats, rushing through the town, fired blindly through the windows. 

4. The Site of the Black Horse Tavern is opposite Linwood St. Here the 
Committee of Safety and Supplies of the Provincial Congress convened 
on April 18, 1775. The following day a British searching party surprised 
Vice-President Gerry and Colonels Leo and Orne, who escaped by making 
a hasty exit and concealing themselves in a near-by field. 

Retrace on Massachusetts Ave.; R.from Massachusetts Ave. on Medford St.; 
L. from Medford St. into Mystic Valley Parkway. 

5. The Mystic Lakes are popular as a resort for swimming and boating in 
summer and skating and ice-boating in winter. 

L. from the Parkway on Mystic St. 

6. Russell Park is one of the recreational areas of Arlington. A tablet at 
the rear of the school records the exploits and longevity of Samuel Whitte- 
more, the hero who survived a bullet and a bayonet wound and very 
nearly lived to see his hundredth birthday. 

R. from Mystic St. into Massachusetts Ave. 

7. A marker on the Green identifies the Site of the John Adams House 
(1652), which served as a hospital for the Provincial soldiers during the 
siege of Boston. 

8. In front of the Unitarian Church (L) is a tablet which recalls the 
Arlington Minutemen. It reads as follows: 'At this spot, April 19, 1775, 
the old men of Menotomy captured a convoy of 18 men with supplies 
on the way to join the British at Lexington.' When word came that 
a British supply train was coming through with only a small guard, the 
' old men ' made ready for its capture. Crouching behind a wall, they arose 
as the British approached, covered them with leveled muskets, and forced 
a surrender; the contents of the supply wagon were distributed to the 


1. Ancient Burying Ground 9. Arlington Public Library 

2. Spy Pond 10. Whittemore-Robbins Mansion 

3. Site of Cooper Tavern n. Arlington Town Hall 

4. Site of Black Horse Tavern 12. Jason Russell House 

5. Mystic Lakes 13. Site of Deacon Joseph Adams 

6. Russell Park House 

7. Site of John Adams House 14. Benjamin Locke House 

8. Minute Men Tablet 

134 Main Street and Village Green 

9. The Arlington Public Library (open weekdays 10-9), known as the 
Robbins Memorial Library, erected in 1892 from the designs of Gay 

6 Proctor, is constructed of Ohio limestone in Italian Renaissance style. 
Engaged Corinthian columns support the arches over the windows. The 
entrance is similar in style to the main door of the Cancellaria Palace in 

The Indian Hunter, by Cyrus E. Dallin (see below), stands in the park 
between the library and the Town Hall. 

10. The Whittemore-Robbins Mansion, behind the library, is a Federal 
three-story building with a hip roof, a cupola or watch-tower, and four 

n. The Town Hall designed by R. Clipston Sturgis and built about 1914, 
is a contemporary adaptation of Colonial design. Two stories in height, 
the 'great hall' is surrounded on three sides by administrative offices. 

L. from Massachusetts Ave. on Jason St. 

12. The Jason Russell House (open weekdays except Mon. 2-5, Apr. -Oct.), 

7 Jason St., a wooden two-story dwelling with pitched roof and central 
chimney, was built in 1680. A number of Minutemen, almost surrounded 
by the British on that memorable April 19, dashed into it for cover. A few 
who fled to the cellar were unharmed, but Jason Russell and 1 1 others who 
hid upstairs were killed. The house was occupied by descendants of the 
Russell family until 1890. It is now the headquarters of the Arlington 
Historical Society. 

Retrace Jason St.; L. from Jason St. on Massachusetts Ave. 

13. A tablet at 840 Massachusetts Ave. identifies the Site of the Deacon 
Joseph Adams House, from which British soldiers stole the communion 
service of the First Parish during their retreat from Lexington and 

L. from Massachusetts Ave. on Appleton St. 

14. The Benjamin Locke House (private), 21 Appleton St., was built 
(1726) by a captain of the militia. When the British passed by, about 
two o'clock on the morning of April 19, Captain Locke was awakened 
and rushed out to arouse his neighbors. In a short time he was able 
to muster 26 men. By the afternoon the band grew to 52, which, with 
companies from surrounding towns, joined in harassing the rear of Percy's 
retreating column. 

15. St. Anne's Chapel (open), between Hillside and Claremont Aves., was 
designed by Cram and Ferguson and completed in 1916. It is built in 
Romanesque style, the interior and exterior being of local field-stone. 
It is furnished with ancient ecclesiastical furniture, most of which came 
from Spain and Italy. 

L. from Appleton St. into Claremont Ave.; L. from Claremont Ave. into 
Florence Ave.; R. from Florence Ave. into Cliff St.; R. from Cliff St. into 
Oakland Ave. 

Boston 135 

1 6. The Home of Cyrus E. Dallin (private), 69 Oakland Ave., also serves 
as the eminent sculptor's studio. Mr. Dallin (1861- ), a native of 
Utah, is well known for his understanding portrayals of the American 
Indian. Among his most noted works are i Appeal to the Great Spirit,' 
which stands before the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston, and ' Medicine 
Man,' in Fairmount Park, Philadelphia. 

L. from Oakland Ave. into Park Ave. 

17. The Water Stand pipe (open to visitors each second Sun.) rises 50 feet 
above the loftiest point on Arlington Heights, emphasizing the great 
difference between the lowest and highest altitude of this town. From 
a balcony near the top, Boston and the harbor are visible to the east; to 
the west Mt. Monadnock and Mt. Wachusett are dim blue shapes on the 

B O S T O N . The Hub of the Universe 

City: Alt. 8, pop. 781,188, sett. 1625, incorp. town 1630, city 1822. 

Railroad Stations: North Station, 120 Causeway St., for B. & M. R.R., Rutland, 
Central Vermont, and Canadian Pacific R.R.s.; South Station, Atlantic Ave. 
corner of Summer St., for N.Y., N.H. & H. and B. & A. R.R.s.; Back Bay Sta- 
tion, 145 Dartmouth St., for N.Y., N.H. & H. R.R.; Trinity Place Station, 
Trinity Place and Dartmouth St., for B. & A. R.R. 

Bus Stations: 8 Broadway for Berkshire Motor Coach Lines, Inc., and Victoria 
Coach Line, Inc.; 2 Park Square for Blue Way Trail Ways, Inc., Granite Stages, 
and Quaker Stages Co.; Hotel Brunswick, 520 Boylston St., for Gray Line Inc. 
and Royal Blue Line, Inc.; 51 Scollay Square for Black Hawk Lines, Inc.; 36 
Park Square for B. & M. Transportation Co. and New England Transportation 
Co.; 222 Boylston St. for Greyhound Lines; 30 Boylston St. for I. R.R. Co., Inc.; 
620 Atlantic Ave. for Rawding Lines, Inc.; 10 Park Square for Capitol Stages. 
Piers: Commonwealth Pier No. 5, South Boston; B. & A. Docks, East Boston; 
Pier 3 for Cunard-White Star Line; Pier 4 for Anchor and U.S. Lines; N.Y., 
N.H. & H. Piers, South Boston; Pier 2 for M.M.T. Co.; Hoosac Docks, Charles- 
town; Pier 42 for Ocean S.S. Line and Pier 44 for Dollar Line; Mystic Docks, 
Charlestown; Pier 46 for Furness-Withy Line; India Wharf and Central Wharf, 
Atlantic Ave., Boston, for Eastern S.S. Co. ; Long Wharf, Atlantic Ave., Boston, 
for United Fruit Co. and Cape Cod S.S. Co. 

Airports: Boston Airport, East Boston, 2 m. from city; American Air Lines, 
B. & M. Airways, Mayflower Line (Boston & Cape Cod, summers); taxi fare 
85^, plus 15^f toll fare for East Boston Tunnel. 

Accommodations: Thirteen large hotels and many small ones. 

Information Service: Chamber of Commerce, 80 Federal St.; New England 
Council, Statler Bldg., 20 Providence St. 

136 Main Street and Village Green 

BOSTON during its three hundred-odd years of existence has become so 
encrusted with legends that the true Boston of today is almost completely 
obscured by them. According to time-honored tradition, this city is the 
Hub of the Universe, its intellectual center, its cultural center, populated 
by superior persons all of whom have at least one ancestor who came over 
in the 'Mayflower' or the 'Arabella,' a closed society of 'Brahmins. ' 

Visitors arriving in Boston with such preconceived notions are likely to 
have them confirmed for all time by the sight of a gentleman crossing the 
Common carrying a green bag, or a lady emerging from the New England 
Historical and Genealogical Society with her Transcript under her arm. 

Nothing could be farther from the truth. Boston has its share of intellec- 
tuals, its share of culture, its share of 'old families'; it still plays its part 
in world affairs and fills an important role in national politics. By no 
means do all its citizens, however, live serenely on the waterside of 
Beacon Street or the sunny side of Commonwealth Avenue, nor do they 
all read the Atlantic Monthly, or spend their summers with relatives on the 
North Shore and eternity with their ancestors in Mount Auburn Cem- 

As for the legend of ethnic homogeneity, that is so much pernicious 
twaddle. Boston has greatly changed from the city of which President 
Timothy Dwight of Yale wrote in 1796: 'The Bostonians, almost without 
an exception, are derived from one country and a single stock. They are 
all descendants of Englishmen and, of course, are united by all the great 
bonds of society language, religion, government, manners and interest.' 

Today five minutes' walk from the State House will take the visitor to 
any one of several sections of the city where English is a foreign language. 
A social statistician has said that every third person whom you meet on 
the street in Boston today is foreign-born and three out of every four are 
of other than English descent. The old New England stock still largely 
controls leading banks, numerous business enterprises, museums, hos- 
pitals, and universities, but numerically it is insignificant. The con- 
temporary scene is decidedly more cosmopolitan than Calvinistic. The 
' New Canaan ' of the English founders is now a political new Canaan for 
the Irish. Celt outnumbers Saxon. 

The modern fable, however, that Boston is an 'Irish city' is no better 
founded than the Puritan myth. The largest number of Boston's 229,356 
foreign-born come from Canada (45,558). Three groups closely follow the 
Canadians: the Irish Free State (43,932), Italy (36,274), and Russia, 
chiefly Jews (31,359). Great Britain and Ireland have contributed 
22,653, an d Poland, Norway and Denmark, Germany and Lithuania have 
sent sizable quotas in the order named, with many Jews in the Polish and 
German groups. There are also in Boston 20,574 Negroes. 

Equally without foundation is the frequent impression that Boston is 
still the old peninsula plus the Back Bay; bounded on the north by the 
North Station, on the south by the South Station, on the east by the 

Boston 137 

Atlantic Avenue wharves, and on the west by Copley Square with an 
extension along the Esplanade. This area, which the visitor usually 
thinks of as 'Boston' contains, it is true, Boston Common, the Public 
Garden, Beacon Hill and both State Houses, the old graveyards, the 
waterfront, the market, the business district, the main shopping area, and 
most of Boston's historic houses and shrines, but it shelters actually less 
than one-sixth of Boston's residents. Outside its confines Beacon Street 
and Commonwealth Avenue stretch along parallel to the Charles River to 
the vast Brighton- Allston area (annexed in 1874) in whose modern hive 
of apartment houses and small homes live Boston's professional and 
clerical workers to the number of 67,000 a fair-sized city in itself. 
East Boston, an island across Boston Harbor to the northeast, has been a 
part of the city since 1636 and houses about 62,000 persons. South 
Boston has a population of more than 55,000. Charlestown, north across 
the inlet where the Charles River and Boston Harbor meet (annexed in 
1874), contains the United States Navy Yard, Mystic Wharves, Bunker 
Hill, and the residences of about 30,000 Bostonians. Roxbury (annexed 
in 1868), West Roxbury, Jamaica Plain (annexed in 1874), and Dorchester 
to the south (annexed in 1874) have a combined population of approxi- 
mately 450,000, a large majority of them Boston's less well-paid workers. 
Hyde Park has over 25,000 and 'The Islands' have 2663 inhabitants. 

Bearing these facts in mind, it is a mistake for the visitor to think of 
Boston in any single term. Boston is a composite. It is a composite of 
Silas Lapham's Boston southerly Beacon Hill, the Charles River Em- 
bankment, Beacon Street and Commonwealth Avenue, all of which 
William Dean Ho wells knew so well and the Boston symbolized by 
what was once Ward 8, the kingdom of Boss Martin Lomasney, densely 
populated, scornfully ignorant of the proprieties of the prunes-and-prisms 
school, but vigorously alive. It is the paradoxical city which has inspired 
twenty novels of the Boston scene in the past twenty-five years. It is the 
Boston of wide streets overarched by spreading elms, of crooked narrow 
streets called * quaint,'' of magnificent parks, fine public buildings, hand- 
some residences, and a general air of well-scrubbed propriety and gracious 
leisure. It is the Boston where acres of ugly wooden tenement houses 
line the drab streets; where ten dollars a month rents a three-room flat 
in a wooden fire trap without heat, lighting, running water, or indoor 
toilet; where along Mile End Road, on the dump, are the melancholy 
shacks of men who can pay no rent at all. It is the Boston of the music- 
lovers, centered about Symphony Hall, the Opera House, the New Eng- 
land Conservatory of Music; the Boston of the art-lovers, centered about 
the Museum of Fine Arts, the Gardner Museum, the Public Library; the 
Boston of the well-to-do churches and the prosperous universities. It is 
the Boston that produces eighteen per cent of the total goods manu- 
factured in Massachusetts by the toil of fourteen per cent of the workers in 
the State; the Boston of 2104 manufacturing establishments (1934), 
representing a capital investment of $227,315,188 and a total value of 
manufactured products to the amount of $332,176,950; the Boston en- 
grossed in printing and publishing, clothing manufacture, sugar refining, 

138 Main Street and Village Green 

boots and shoes, bread and pastries, confectionery, cutlery, foundry and 
machine-shop products, malt liquors and wholesale meat-packing. 

Note: Because of space limitations, duplication of statement has had to be 
minimized. For a complete picture, the historical account of Boston which 
follows should be read in conjunction with the essays in Section I, Massa- 
chusetts: The General Background. 

Boston's first settler was William Blackstone, a recluse of scholarly and 
probably misanthropic mental cast, formerly a clergyman of the Church 
of England. He had built himself a hut on the western slope of what is 
now Beacon Hill, planting his orchard on what later became Boston 
Common. At that time the wilderness occupied the peninsula, which was 
about one-third the size of the present Boston peninsula. Almost an 
island, it jutted out into the bay, joined to the mainland by a long narrow 
neck like the handle of a ladle. It was a mile wide at its widest, three 
miles long, and the neck was so narrow and so low that at times it was 
submerged by the ocean. Blackstone 's realm was bounded on the west 
by a mud flat (the Back Bay) ; on the north by a deep cove (later dammed 
off to make a mill pond) ; on the east by a small river which cut off the 
North End and made an island of it, and by a deep cove (later known as 
the 'Town Cove'); and on the south by another deep cove. Here the 
disillusioned clergyman read his books, farmed a little, traded a bit with 
the Indians, and breathed air uncontaminated by any other white man. 

His idyllic solitude was rudely shattered after four or five years, however, 
by the arrival of John Winthrop with a company of some eight hundred 
souls who settled in what is now Charlestown, just across from his para- 
dise. Their miseries were many. The water at Charlestown was brackish ; 
and their settlement could not easily be defended against Indian raids. 
Blackstone visited them and was melted by the spectacle of their plight. 
He invited them to come across to his peninsula and the company eagerly 
accepted his hospitality. 

Thus in 1630 Boston actually began. Winthrop's settlers called it 'Tri- 
mountain,' possibly because of three hills later known as Beacon Hill, 
Copp's Hill, and Fort Hill (now razed), or possibly because of the three 
mounded peaks of Beacon Hill (later shaved down) . 

The first year acquainted the Englishmen and their families with the 
rigors of the New England climate, and as it was too late to plant crops, 
more than two hundred died of starvation and exposure. The following 
spring a ship laden with provisions, long overdue, dropped anchor in the 
bay, and famine was averted. The freshly tilled soil later yielded a good 
crop and the Colony survived and grew. 

Fisheries were established. Fir and lumber created an export market. 
The foundation of trade and agriculture were early laid. Within four 
years more than four thousand Englishmen had emigrated to Boston 
and its vicinity. Twenty villages ramified out of the peninsula town to 
form a definite Puritan Commonwealth. 

Boston 139 

The early Bostonians spent their days in labor from which the Sabbath 
alone released them. Women, with spinning, weaving, and all the family 
clothes to make, with large numbers of children to rear, had little time to 
cultivate the amenities of social intercourse. Pioneer life was hard, drab, 
and offered few comforts. Wood, for example, was the only source of fuel, 
and as late as 1720 Cotton Mather complained, ' Tis dredful cold, my ink 
glass in my stand is froze.' 

Divines were preoccupied with dismal theological abstractions, but the 
statute books reveal the fact that there were secular souls who displayed 
a wholesome proclivity for life. 'Tobacco drinking' (smoking) tippling, 
card-playing, dancing, and bowling identified the colonists with their 
Elizabethan forbears, but caused the town fathers much alarm. Sunday 
strolls or street kissing even when legitimate were subject to heavy 
fine, and an attempt was made to legislate 'sweets' out of existence. 
Christmas, reminiscent of 'popery,' was immediately placed under the 
ban and the elders often boasted that none of the holidays of old England 
survived the Atlantic passage. 

A breach of these regulations resulted in punishment which was based 
upon the theory that ridicule was more effective than the isolation of 
imprisonment. Market squares were embellished by the erection of 
punitive apparatus bilboes, stocks, pillories, and ducking stools. 
Public floggings were common and offenders were often forced to display 
on their persons the initial letter of the crime committed. 

Offenses against Puritan theology were severely punished. Boston, 
dedicated to Calvin, neither understood nor admired toleration. Quakers 
and other non-conformists were ruthlessly persecuted and martyrdom 
became a commonplace in the Puritan town. Roger Williams was ban- 
ished for having 'broached and divulged diverse new and dangerous 
opinions against the authority of the magistrates.' Mistress Anne Hutch- 
inson, a 'heretic,' followed Roger Williams into banishment. Mary Dyer, 
a Quaker, was hanged on old Boston Common in 1660; Mary Jones, Mary 
Parsons, and Ann Hibbins were hanged as witches. The town fathers 
were content to sacrifice freedom in their attempt to achieve unity. The 
Reverend Nathaniel Ward, speaking for all good Puritans, remarked, 
' All Familists, Anabaptists, and other Enthusiasts shall have free liberty 
to keepe away from us.' 

In spite of a narrow religious and moral outlook, her commerce insured 
Boston's future greatness. Scarcely a year after the Puritans had invaded 
the splendid isolation of Mr. Blackstone, Governor Winthrop launched 
the 'Blessing of the Bay.' The Puritan 'Rebecca' sailed to Narragansett 
and purchased corn from the Indians. Vessels called at the Bermudas 
and returned to Boston with cargoes of oranges, limes, and the equally 
exotic potato. They traveled up the Delaware in search of pelts. Fre- 
quently they put in at New Amsterdam to traffic with Dutch burghers, 
and twelve years after the founding (1642) ships laden with pipe staves 
and other products tied up safely at English docks. Thus began the 

140 Main Street and Village Green 

maritime history of Massachusetts with Boston as its center. Shipbuild- 
ing, fishing, whaling, industry and exchange made the Colony a bustling 
outpost of imperial Britain. 

From 1630 to about 1680, Great Britain was so absorbed in troubles at 
home that, notwithstanding the Navigation Act of 1651, she gave little 
attention to regulating the enterprise of her infant Colonies. In 1691 
a royal governor was sent; in 1733 the Molasses Act was passed; but the 
Colonial merchants had virtually free trade until 1764 when Grenville 
began the vigorous enforcement of the mercantilistic measures. From 
then on friction increased rapidly and the Colonies developed a burning 
sense of grievance. 

The American Revolution resulted from a series of bewildering subtleties, 
but many dramatic episodes, seemingly reflecting the broad issues of the 
controversy but actually telescoping them, took place in Boston's crooked 
streets. The Boston Massacre (1770) on King Street (now State) occurred 
in the shadow of the Old State House. News of the British advance on 
Lexington and Concord was semaphored to Paul Revere by the glimmer 
of a lamp which swung from the belfry of the Old North Church. The 
rafters of Faneuil Hall rang with the impassioned oratory of the champions 
of liberty. The Old South Meeting House was the point from which fifty 
men disguised as Indians rushed to Griffin's Wharf where British mer- 
chantmen rocked idly in the harbor, their holds crammed with East 
Indian tea (1773). It was the Boston Tea Party which confronted the 
British Cabinet with the choice of capitulation or force, replied to by the 
Port Act, which marked the beginning of a policy of coercion and led 
swiftly to open warfare. The battle of Bunker Hill in near-by Charles- 
town was one of the early engagements of the war. Boston was regarded 
by the British as a most important objective, and the failure of the siege 
and the evacuation of the city by the Redcoats was the first serious blow 
to Tory confidence. 

Commerce suffered a temporary eclipse in the depression of the post-war 
years, but the discovery of new trading possibilities in the Orient offered 
an opportunity which enterprising Yankee merchants were quick to 
perceive. The development of the China trade and the exploitation of 
the Oregon coast rich in sea otters restored Boston to its former eminence. 
Wealth poured into the coffers of merchants, traders, and shipmasters. 
In 1780, 455 ships from every quarter of the globe docked in Boston 
Harbor, while 1200 vessels engaged in coastwise traffic out of Boston. 
During a single year (1791), seventy Yankee merchantmen cleared Boston 
for Europe, the Indies, and Canton. 

Boston's maritime prosperity was stimulated by the wars between Eng- 
land and France which followed the accession of Napoleon. In 1807 the 
shipping of Boston totaled 310,309 tons or more than one-third of the 
mercantile marine of the United States. The Jefferson Embargo and the 
War of 1812 seriously crippled the city's maritime development. Al- 
though she recovered, and although the era of the clipper made Massa- 

Boston 141 

chusetts famous throughout the world, and although the 'Sovereign of 
the Seas,' built by Donald McKay in East Boston (1852), was the envy 
of the British Admiralty, the War of 1812 really marked the beginning of 
the end of Boston's maritime supremacy. Thereafter manufacturing and 
industry gradually supplanted commercial interests. 

In 1822, Boston became a city; railroads were being built from 1830 on 
and played an important part in urban development; the first horsecar 
line, connecting Cambridge and Boston, was built in 1853. Between 1824 
and 1858, the Boston peninsula was enlarged from 783 acres to 1801 acres 
by cutting down the hills and filling in the Back Bay and the great coves 
with the excavated gravel as a basis for reclamation. The Neck, which 
William Blackstone could not always cross on foot because of the tide- 
water, was raised and broadened, so that what was once the narrowest 
part of Boston proper is now the widest. 

During the era between the War of Independence and the Civil War, 
Boston ideas underwent a parallel transformation from the provincial 
to the urban. Stimulated by European currents of thought and the 
philosophy of the frontier, Boston began to revolt against the theology of 
Calvin, a revolt typical of the democratic spirit of the nineteenth century. 
Unitarianism under the leadership of William Ellery Channing threatened 
to dissolve the entire system of Puritan Congregationalism (1825). The 
new doctrines were embraced by Harvard and the fashion of Boston, but 
hardly had the rebellion subsided when new dissension broke out within 
Unitarian ranks. Ralph Waldo Emerson shocked his parishioners of the 
Second Church (1832) by tendering his resignation and retiring to Concord 
to ponder the mysteries of Transcendentalism. Theodore Parker, another 
Unitarian minister, immersed in German philosophy, Biblical criticism, 
and evolutionary geology, began to preach a new variety of natural 
religion which rejected conventional theological forms and banished the 

Coinciding with the democratic movement and partly as a result of it, 
a flurry of philanthropy and reform arose. John Lowell, Jr., bequeathed 
a fortune to establish Lowell Institute (1839) in order to provide the 
people of Boston with free lectures by 'foremost scholars and thinkers of 
the English-speaking world.' This democratization of education was 
supplemented by the creation of the Boston Public Library (1852). 
Horace Mann devoted his reforming spirit to the development of formal 
education. Dr. Samuel Gridley Howe dedicated his efforts to the emanci- 
pation of the deaf and blind. With the financial assistance of Thomas 
H. Perkins, the Perkins Institution and Massachusetts School for the 
Blind (first located in South Boston, later removed to Watertown) was 
founded, a unique institution for its day (1832). The first public surgical 
operation which made use of ether as an anesthetic was performed (1846) 
at the Massachusetts General Hospital. A controversy between the two 
claimants of discovery, William Thomas Green Morton and Charles 
T. Jackson (the claim of a country doctor in Georgia had not yet been 
advanced), was temporarily settled by a tactful verdict of the French 

142 Main Street and Village Green 

Academy which awarded each claimant a similar amount, one for the 
discovery of ether and the other for its application. 

Nowhere was the reforming spirit more active than in the anti-slavery 
movement. William Lloyd Garrison had no respect for the interests of 
cotton, whether expounded by planters or manufacturers. He invaded 
Boston and founded the Liberator (1831) and was rewarded in 1835 with 
physical violence at the hands of a mob partly composed of Boston 
gentility. The development of cotton manufacture in Lawrence and 
Lowell was not without its effect on State Street and Beacon Hill. Re- 
spectable elements of society thought best to refrain from emotional 
language or harsh criticism after Southern statesmen began to ask perti- 
nent questions concerning workers in Lowell and Lawrence mills. Garri- 
son attacked the Constitution because it recognized slavery as legal, and 
Boston patriots could hardly suffer so sacred a document to be disparaged; 
but Garrison's fervor attracted Wendell Phillips, a brilliant orator whose 
lineage was almost as old as Boston, and he became an equally zealous 
advocate of the cause. Other converts were enlisted Channing, Parker, 
Lowell, Longfellow, Dana and under the championship of such ultra- 
respectable persons, the anti-slavery crusade gained ground rapidly. 

Boston played a less important role in the Civil War than in events 
preceding it. Unable to meet the prescribed quota of soldiers by voluntary 
enlistment, the city fathers first employed the draft in 1863, precipitating 
the Boston Draft Riots. The poorer classes, irritated when their rich 
neighbors purchased immunity from compulsory service for the sum of 
three hundred dollars, objected so strenuously that the militia was called 
out to quell the disorders. Among the regiments which did march South 
to uphold the honor of Boston, one of the most famous was commanded 
by Colonel Robert Gould Shaw, an abolitionist 'of gentle birth and breed- 
ing. 3 Composed of Negroes, this regiment led the attack on Fort Wagner 
where Colonel Shaw and nearly half of his followers fell. 

Although some Bostonians had indicated a reluctance to support the 
Northern cause during the war, the celebration of peace left little to be 
desired. The moving spirit of the great Peace Jubilee held in June, 1869, 
was Patrick S. Gilmore, an exuberant Irish bandmaster, whose grandiose 
plans for this occasion made P. T. Barnum seem a novice by comparison. 
A coliseum seating 30,000 people was erected near the site of the present 
Copley Plaza Hotel housing an Angel of Peace, thirteen feet high, to- 
gether with an extinguished torch of war, frescoes, doves and angels, 
medallions, emblems and flags, as well as the largest bass drum in the 
world, constructed for the occasion, and four organs that required relays 
of twelve men to pump. Ten thousand choral singers combined with an 
orchestra of 84 trombones, 83 tubas, 83 cornets, 75 drums, 330 strings, and 
119 woodwinds, produced an awe-inspiring 'Niagara of harmony.' At 
one stage of the celebration, a hundred members of the Fire Department, 
clad in red shirts, blue pants, and white caps, suddenly appeared and beat 
upon a hundred anvils in what was doubtless the loudest performance of 
the Anvil Chorus from 'II Trovatore' ever given. President Ulysses S. 

Boston H3 

Grant, who attended, appeared unimpressed, and John S. D wight, fore- 
most music critic of the day, fled to Nahant in order to escape the din. 

This amazing exhibition reflected the American adoration of size as well 
as the immaturity of the new wealth which the rise of industry was 
bringing to Boston. The proud and graceful clippers that had sailed from 
Boston Harbor had been displaced by smoke-belching steamships which 
were largely of British ownership. Says Samuel Eliot Morison, in his 
'Maritime History of Massachusetts': 

The maritime history of Massachusetts . . . ends with the passing of the 
clipper. 'Twas a glorious ending! Never, in these United States, has the 
brain of man conceived, or the hand of man fashioned, so perfect a thing 
as the clipper ship. In her, the long-suppressed artistic impulse of a practi- 
cal, hard-worked race burst into flower. The 'Flying Cloud' was our 
Rheims, the 'Sovereign of the Seas' our Parthenon, the 'Lightning' our 
Amiens; but they were monuments carved from snow. For a few brief 
moments of time they flashed their splendor around the world, then dis- 
appeared with the sudden completeness of the wild pigeon. One by one 
they sailed out of Boston, to return no more. A tragic or mysterious end 
was the final privilege of many, favored by the gods. Others, with lofty 
rig cut down to cautious dimensions, with glistening decks and topsides 
scarred and neglected, limped about the seas under foreign flags, like faded 
beauties forced upon the street. 

Money formerly invested in shipping now flowed into the mills and 
factories that sprang up in large numbers in Boston and its suburbs. The 
shoe and textile industries, which had boomed with the artificial demand 
of wartime conditions, continued their advance under the stimulus of 
capital released from maritime pursuits. Other manufacturing estab- 
lishments followed the trail to Boston, and by the turn of the twentieth 
century, the intellectual 'Hub of the Universe ' had become the industrial 
hub of New England. 

A new commerce grew from this new industry. It was neither so ro- 
mantic nor so important as that of pre-Civil War days, but it sufficed 
to establish Boston as one of the leading ports on the Atlantic seaboard. 
Shipping became an adjunct of manufacturing plants; raw materials, 
such as cotton and wool for textiles and leather for shoes, were brought 
to the factories and the finished products carried to the remotest markets 
of the world. In 1901 ships sailing out of Boston Harbor carried goods 
valued at $143, 708,000, while imports in that year amounted to $80,000,000. 

By the end of the nineteenth century, Bostonians could (and did) boast 
of other things in addition to a thriving industry and commerce. Boston 
had at least two much-touted claims to fame: John L. Sullivan, the great- 
est fighter of his time, and the first passenger-car subway in America, 
a two-mile stretch from Arlington and Boylston Streets to the North 
Station. The last horsecar was discarded in 1910, and while bicycles, 
drays, and carriages were still dashing along at the reckless speed of eight 
or ten miles an hour, electric surface lines were being built in every 
section of the city. An elevated railroad (begun in 1909) pushed into 

144 Main Street and Village Green 

the suburb of Forest Hills; downtown Boston was transformed by steel, 
cut stone, and marble; the National Shawmut Bank, the buildings of 
William Filene's Sons Co., and Jordan Marsh Company, all erected 
shortly after 1907, set a pattern of utilitarian beauty which changed the 
external character of the city. 

The growth of industry was paralleled by the growing consciousness of 
labor. One of the most spectacular strikes in the history of the labor 
movement was the Boston police strike of 1919, based on the formal 
complaint of an organization of 1290 Boston patrolmen, that their wages 
had failed to keep pace with living costs, that the police stations were 
unsanitary, and that they worked overtime without compensation. 

A number of factors defeated the policemen and they voted to return 
to work. Governor Coolidge, however, disclaimed the power to reinstate 
the strikers, stating that he was opposed to 'the public safety again 
being placed in the hands of these same policemen.' Mayor Peters 
worked all during September 1 5 on a revised wage scale for the new 

Hardly had the excitement of the police strike subsided when Boston 
became the storm center of another crisis, concerning the arrest, trial, 
conviction, and execution of two obscure Italian laborers. The affair 
dragged out over seven years and was debated in every civilized quarter 
of the globe. The entire machinery of justice was smeared with suspicion 
and petitions flooded the office of Governor Alvan T. Fuller in an effort 
to stay the execution and obtain a new trial. The men were executed 
in Boston on August 23, 1927. The authorities no doubt breathed easier 
when the affair was safely over though, as it turned out, the affair was 
far from over; Sacco and Vanzetti had become, for a new generation to 
whom ' Haymarket ' was scarcely more than a word, the classic example 
of the administering of justice to members of unpopular political mi- 

For twenty years Boston, stimulated by an exposition ambitiously an- 
nouncing as its goal, 'Boston 1915 the Finest City in the World,' had 
been consciously building its physical self into a fine, clean, and beautiful 
city. Shortly before the nation-wide depression overtook it, it became 
obsessed also by a desire to put its spiritual house in order. Celestial 
roundsmen under the aegis of the 'New England Watch and Ward 
Society' inaugurated a virulent campaign against 'lewd and indecent' 
books and plays. What is salacity? It was like the time-honored stickler : 
How old is Ann? Other cities indulged in loud guffaws over the antics 
of the Boston censors as the latter grew hotter and hotter and more and 
more bothered over the perplexing problem. 'Banned in Boston' came 
to be the novelist's and dramatist's dream of successful publicity ' a 
natural ' in advertising. The greatest furore was occasioned by the refusal 
of the authorities to permit the Boston production of Eugene O'Neill's 
'Strange Interlude.' The producers promptly moved their company to 
Quincy, where the play had a tremendous run, playing to audiences 
packed with Boston residents. 

Boston 145 

The Sacco and Vanzetti case, with its echoes still reverberating, censor- 
ship with all its trail of Rabelaisian mirth, the police strike, though it 
made Calvin Coolidge Vice-President and subsequently President all 
were temporarily forgotten in the great Tercentenary Celebration which 
ushered in the third decade of the century. Even the cloud of the ap- 
proaching depression, considerably larger already on the horizon than a 
man's hand, cast no shadow on gala preparations. 

The Boston Tercentenary Committee, in conjunction with State- wide 
subcommittees, mapped out a gigantic program. The ceremonies, con- 
ducted with considerable pomp, were formally opened by a * Great 
Meeting' held on Boston Common, where the chief address was delivered 
by the Right Honorable H. A. L. Fisher, Warden of New College, Oxford. 
1 Little did the founders reckon,' said Professor Fisher in his oration, 
1 that a time would come when ... in the fullness of years, their New 
England would be followed by a New Ireland, a New Italy, a New 
Germany, a New Poland, and a New Greece, all destined to be merged 
into a great and harmonious Commonwealth.' 

The story of the economic collapse, which followed hard upon the very 
celebration itself, is better not written except where it may be dissected 
and analyzed. Boston, for all its rigidity of pattern and form, continues 
to be a paradox. In spite of the depression, which affected it with the 
utmost seriousness, it is today still the metropolis of New England, the 
commercial, financial, and industrial center of a densely populated area, 
second to none in the diversity of its manufactures and the skill of its 
labor. And in spite of censorship it is still a cultural center, maintained 
so by the perennial optimism and courage of its artists, and the warm 
support of a great body of art-loving citizens. And in spite of its un- 
deniable intolerance, it is still the home of militant liberalism. Here 
Unitarianism and Universalism make their home; here liberal education 
waged a spectacular fight against the Teachers' Oath Bill; and Boston 
liberals picketed the very State House one dramatic afternoon in cham- 
pionship of the Child Labor Law. Boston is still the Boston of the Lowells, 
the Lodges, the Cabots, but it is from newer stocks that it derives much 
of its color, its hope, and its unquenchable vitality. 

FOOT TOUR 1 (Back Bay and Beacon Hill) 3m. 

W. from Clarendon St. on Boylston St. 

Copley Square is more photographed than any other plaza in Boston, 
owing to the stately architectural beauty of two sides of its triangular 
green, which is now marred by the contrasting stretch of shops, banks, 
and offices on its third side. 

i. Trinity Church (Episcopal) (open daily] faces west on Copley Square. 
At the time it was built, in 1877, American architecture had for twenty 

146 Main Street and Village Green 

years languished in an unprecedented state of decadence. To the per- 
versions of the then prevalent Victorian Gothic the genius of Henry 
Hobson Richardson vigorously superimposed, and with his Trinity 
Church began the emancipation of American architecture. 

The shape of the lot, triangular in form, bounded by three streets, made 
impossible the usual long nave and dominant entrance front, and invited 
the defiance of tradition. Richardson found in the Romanesque of south- 
ern France a medium well suited to the problem. He turned also to the 
nth-century work of the cities of Auvergne in central France where the 
central tower was developed to such proportion as to become the main 
portion of the structure. The resultant plan was compact and cruciform 
with all its limbs nearly equal apse, nave, transepts, and chapel form- 
ing the base of the tower obelisk. The massive tower is the dominant 
feature of the design and the composition as a whole is a romantic and 
picturesque mass studied for its effectiveness from all angles. For the 
tower design, Richardson was inspired by the cathedral of Salamanca, 
in Spain. 

The architect early decided that Trinity should be a 'color church.' 
The walls are of yellowish Dedham granite laid up in rock-faced ashler 
with trim of reddish-brown Longmeadow freestone. Cut stone, in alter- 
nating patterns of light and dark, decorates some of the walls. Through- 
out, the building is animated by rich and powerful carvings, the best 
of which are seen in the West Porch, a posthumous work completed in 
1897, from Richardson's designs, by Evans and Tombs of Boston. 

Richardson entrusted the decoration of the interior to John La Farge 
under whose direction the great barrel vaults came to glow with some of 
the fire of San Marco. The dominant color of the interior walls is red, 
the great piers a dark bronze green with gilded capitals and bases. The 
best of the windows were by Sir Edward Burne- Jones, executed by Wil- 
liam Morris, John La Farge, and by Clayton and Bill of London. Trinity 
stands as the masterpiece of the ' Richardsonian Romanesque' which 
gave rise to a new though short-lived school, which nevertheless formed 
the first milestone in the radical school of architecture of today. 

Adjoining the church outside, on the Huntington Avenue side, is the 
Saint-Gaudens statue of Phillips Brooks and Christ, still adversely 
criticized in Boston. By optical illusion the placing of the pastor in front 
of a slender figure of Christ, and on a lower level, suggests a short, stocky 
man, whereas Phillips Brooks was six feet four inches tall, a fact which 
undoubtedly added to his singularly magnetic personality. The union 
of symbolism and realism is also regarded as unhappy by many critics. 
Ninety-five thousand dollars had poured in in voluntary public contribu- 
tions for this statue, and the disappointment of the donors was keen. 

2. The Boston Public Library (open weekdays 9-10; Sun. 2-9; June 15- 
Sept. 15, 9-9; closed holidays) faces east on Copley Square. The strong 
tide of classicism that emanated from the Chicago Exposition of 1893 
found its first important expression in this Albertian building finished in 

Boston 147 

1895 from plans by McKim, Mead and White. For inspiration, Charles 
Follen McKim turned to the bold lines of Labrouste's Italian Renais- 
sance masterpiece, the Bibliotheque Sainte Genevieve in Paris. Not 
content, he fused with this influence, the more robust character of Al- 
berti's San Francesco at Rimini. The interior court, one of the finest 
features, is an almost servile adaptation of the Palazzo delta Cancelleria 
in Rome. 

Situated at the west end of Copley Square the ' great palace of books' 
stands upon a granite platform elevated by six broad steps above the 
level of the Square. The facade consists of thirteen deep raked arches, 
separated by massive piers. The entrance or central motif is composed 
of three lofty and deeply revealed arches, above which are exquisitely 
sculptured panels by Saint-Gaudens illustrating the seals of the Library, 
the City, and the Commonwealth. 

The structure's salient function being to house one of the largest collec- 
tions of books in the world, its plan shows a directness and general sim- 
plicity of arrangement. The walls of the vestibule are of unpolished Ten- 
nessee marble. The three doorways leading into the Entrance Hall are 
copies from the Erechtheum at Athens. The double bronze doors, which 
contain graceful, allegorical figures in low relief, were designed by Daniel 
Chester French. The Entrance Hall itself, with its low mosaic-covered 
vaults and arches supported by walls and massive square columns of 
Iowa sandstone, is Roman in design. The walls of the Stair Hall are of 
rich-veined yellow Siena marble and the steps of French Echaillon 
marble lead to the Main Corridor. The upper walls of the stair hall are 
divided into eight arched panels and within these spaces and on one wall 
of the Main Corridor are symbolic murals by Puvis de Chavannes. Bates 
Hall, the main reading-room, has a rich barrel vault with half domes at 
the ends, and stretches the full breadth of the facade, 218 feet. Abbey's 
large frieze, ' The Quest of the Holy Grail, ' occupies the upper portion of 
the walls of the Delivery Room. On the upper or special libraries floor is a 
corridor known as Sargent Hall and on its walls are Sargent's murals 
depicting 'The Triumph of Religion.' 

Besides its vast collection of volumes for circulation or reference, the 
Boston Public Library houses special collections of particular significance. 
Outstanding among these is the Sabbatier collection, an unusual assort- 
ment of books dealing with Saint Francis of Assisi. Likewise important is 
its remarkable newspaper collection, covering every city of importance 
in the world. Of note also are the libraries of John Adams, Nathaniel 
Bowditch, George Ticknor, and the Reverend Thomas Prince (which 
includes the first book printed in the English Colonies of America the 
'Bay Psalm Book'); a comprehensive assortment of manuscript letters 
relating to the anti-slavery movement in the United States; Webster's 
'Reply to Hayne,' in manuscript; Bentley's collection of accounting 
books before 1900; the Lewissohn collection of Washingtoniana; and a 
collection of Benjamin Franklin's books and engravings. The unique 
Trent Defoe collection and the collection of incunabula are especially 

148 Main Street and Village Green 

3. The Old South Church (Third), 645 Boylston St., corner of Dartmouth 
St., built in 1875 from the plans of Cummings and Sears, is probably the 
least distressing example of the Ruskinian or Victorian Gothic trend that 
corrupted taste in the late nineteenth century. The campanile, which 
soars to a height of 248 feet, was for many years the 'leaning tower of 
Copley Square.' Built on filled ground and entirely of massive masonry 
work, the tower sank out of plumb. When, in 1932, it was in danger of 
toppling, it was removed, each stone catalogued and stored away. In 
1937, steel skeleton anchored to deep-sunk piles chased the superficial 
form and the original masonry followed its course. So now, the ' leaning 
tower ' its spine once more erect serves as an effective companion 
piece to the Library Building. 

4. Boston University, 688 Boylston St., founded in 1869 by Lee Claflin, 
Isaac Rich, and Jacob Sleeper, with its first department the Boston 
Theological Seminary, has grown to be one of the largest universities in 
the United States. Despite its name, it is not a city college, but is sup- 
ported, like any other private institution, by endowments and tuition 
fees. Its present student body numbers about fifteen thousand, re- 
presenting every State and thirty-two foreign countries. The three found- 
ers were religious men, but the noteworthy thing is that, although all 
were Methodists, they showed themselves broader, more tolerant, and 
more liberal than the founders of almost any other privately endowed 
institution in the State; for from the very beginning they prescribed that 
the University should never discriminate on denominational or sectarian 
lines. To these liberal tendencies which still endure may be attributed the 
rapid growth of the University. 

Boston University is co-educational, with the exception of the College of 
Practical Arts and Letters and the Sargent College of Physical Education, 
which last was transferred to Boston University in 1929. Both are ex- 
clusively for women. 

The proposed site for a new building to house the entire University except 
the Law and Medical Schools is on the banks of the Charles River where 
Alexander Graham Bell, a professor at Boston University, will be signally 
honored by a memorial tower 375 feet high. 

In 1937 the University had no definite campus. The different schools were housed 
in various parts of the city as follows: 

College of Liberal Arts, 688 Boylston Street. 

College of Business Administration, 525 Boylston Street. 

College of Practical Arts and Letters, 27 Garrison Street. 

College of Music, 178 Newbury Street. 

Sargent College of Physical Education, 6 Everett Street, Cambridge, Mass. 

School of Theology, 72 Mt. Vernon Street. 

School of Law, n Ashburton Place. 

School of Medicine, So East Concord Street. 

School of Education, 84 Exeter Street. 

School of Religions and Social Work, 28 Mt. Vernon Street. 

Graduate School, 688 Boylston Street. 

Retrace Boylston St.; L. from Boylston St. on Dartmouth St. 


FOR a flashback on the Massachusetts scene prior to photog- 
raphy we are indebted to early artists, engravers, and 
lithographers. The prints that follow afford a fair prospect of 
old Boston that has all but disappeared, and make pictorial 
historical events that we still celebrate. The Remick drawing 
recalls the provision of 1643 by which Governor Winthrop set 
the Common aside for a ' trayning field and pasture for cattell.' 
The house beyond the fence on the top of the hill is the 
Hancock Mansion; the wooden tower back of it is the old 
beacon which for a century and a half surmounted the hill. In 
the picture of forty years later, the Bulfinch State House 
stands on the land where Hancock's cows grazed, while the old 
beacon has been replaced by a monument. 

As shown in the Bird's-Eye View of the city, a water-line still 
existed in 1850 along Charles Street below the Common. Here 
in 1775, before the extension of Beacon Street blocked the 
way, the British soldiers boarded their boats and rowed 
across to Cambridge on the eve of their battle in Concord. 

Less than a century after the settlement of the Bay Colony, an 
Englishman, describing the activity in Boston Harbor, said 
the masts of the ships here ' made a kind of wood of trees.' The 
city grew with its commerce, gradually encroaching on the 
harbor as well as on the back bay. Water Street in Post 
Office Square was the original shore-line. One of the prints 
shows a dock just below Quincy Market and Faneuil Hall; 
the market was built on made land in 1825. 

The set of four prints of the Old State House reveals the 
changes this building underwent and the variety of its 
architectural expressions. Today the lion and the unicorn up- 
hold their corners of the roof as they did in the Paul Revere 
picture of 1770. 

Engraving from one of America's earliest historical paintings, by Earle-in i 



From a Renick water co 





OLD STATE HOUSE FIRE, 1832. Note new balconies and chimneys 




Lithograph after the Price engrav 


Lithograph by WhiteJ 



^ : "?^ 

HtfWtF I ~;^ 

" ^- . /-' A 

"ilf ;' ; 


Lithograph by Sarony and Majt 

Lithograph by Pendleton 



Lithograph by Pendleton 

Boston 149 

5. The Boston Art Club Gallery (open to the public during exhibitions), 
corner of Dartmouth and Newbury Sts., features exhibitions of con- 
temporary painting and sculpture of New England artists. 

L. from Dartmouth St. on Commonwealth Ave. (central gravel mall). 

Commonwealth Ave., Marlborough St., and Beacon St., parallel thorough- 
fares, are 'The Three Streets' of Boston impeccable residential ad- 
dresses in their lower numbers. 

6. The Statue of William Lloyd Garrison in the center of the walk, memo- 
rialized (1886) the celebrated Abolitionist. The declaration inscribed 
beneath his statue is dynamic: I am in earnest. I will not equivocate. I will 
not excuse. I will not retreat a single inch, and I will be heard. Yet the 
seated figure by Olin L. Warner shows him as a kindly deacon. It was 
James Russell Lowell who said : 

There's Garrison, his features very- 
Benign for an incendiary. 

Retrace on Commonwealth Ave. 

7. The First Baptist Church (formerly New Brattle Square Church), 
corner of Clarendon St., designed by H. H. Richardson and built in 1870- 
72, marks the beginning of the architect's professional maturity. The 
exigencies of the corner site resulted in an asymmetrical composition, 
with the entrance located on a side street and the tower placed on the 
corner. The first Richardsonian work definitely Romanesque rather than 
Victorian Gothic, its style is still far from true Romanesque and not typi- 
cally ' Richardsonian Romanesque.' Once vacated because of its failure 
acoustically, the church is notable mainly for its tower, with the heavy 
frieze by Bartholdi, a fellow student of Richardson at the Ecole des Beaux 
Arts. This frieze of trumpeting angels is responsible for the irreverent but 
affectionate name: 'The Church of the Holy Beanblowers.' Bostonians 
like their Beanblower tower so well that a group of them have purchased it 
privately, so that it can never be torn down without their consent. 

L. from Commonwealth Ave. on Berkeley St. 

8. The First Church in Boston (Unitarian) (open daily 9-5, through Marl- 
borough St. entrance, or on Sunday by main entrance on Berkeley St.) , corner 
of Marlborough St., originally Congregational, was formed by Governor 
Winthrop in 1630 as the first parish. A bronze Statue of Winthrop, by 
R. S. Greenough, stands on the lawn at the side. 

Retrace Berkeley St.; L. from Berkeley St. on the Commonwealth Ave. mall. 

9. The Statue of Alexander Hamilton, is a nine-foot, full-length granite 
carving by William Rimmer, a self-taught Boston sculptor and teacher of 
Daniel Chester French. Rimmer had a theory, ahead of his time, of 
working impressionistically without models. Though contemporary 
criticism was violently adverse, the statue was admired by Hamilton's 
own family for its graceful and somewhat aloof pose, characteristic of its 
subject. Its ultra-modern qualities receive present-day recognition. 

150 Main Street and Village Green 

Straight ahead into the Public Garden; L. from entrance on first path within 
the Garden. 

10. The Public Garden, with its academically labeled trees of rare vari- 
eties, its formal flower beds and its celebrated swan boats, has been a 
treasured feature of Boston ever since it was laid out in the middle of the 
nineteenth century on the 'made land' along the Charles. All the newer 
fashionable residential district west of this point was once a broad 
marshy tidal basin: this region is still called 'the Back Bay.' 

11. The Ether Monument (1867), is not an artistic masterpiece, but none 
commemorates a greater humanitarian achievement than ' the discovery 
that the inhaling of ether causes insensibility to pain, first proved to the 
world at 1 the Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston, October, 1846.' 

12. The George R. White Memorial Fountain, by Daniel Chester French, 
is a tribute to a citizen who bequeathed a large fund to the city for use in 
health education. 

L. from the Public Garden path on Beacon St.; R. from Beacon St. on Em- 
bankment Rd. 

13. The Esplanade is a grassy promenade along the Charles River where 
in an open shell summer evening concerts are given by members of the 
Boston Symphony Orchestra. 

R. on Chestnut St. 

Beacon Hill is a conservative residential section where new buildings are 
considered extremely regrettable, though occasionally necessary. The 
correct building material is plain red brick. 

This level end of Chestnut St. was once popularly known as Horse- 
Chestnut St. because the stables of the wealthy householders of the Hill 
were here. Some of these stables may still be seen, converted into 
studios. Crossing Chestnut St. is Charles St., once the home of Boston's 
literati, but now widened and lined with small markets and antique shops. 

L. from Chestnut St. on Charles St. 

14. Charles Street Church, at the corner of Charles and Mt. Vernon Sts., 
was built in 1807. The red-brick Federal structure with well-designed 
facade and low cupola was designed by Asher Benjamin, who, as author 
of 'The Country Builder's Assistant' and other preceptorial works on 
architecture, propagated the mode set by Bulfinch and Mclntire. 

Retrace on Charles St.; L. from Charles St. on Chestnut St. 

15. Francis Parkman's House (private}, 50 Chestnut St., with its arched 
recessed doorway, slate hip roof, and high flues, was built in 1824 and was 
for many years the home of the noted historian. 

1 6. The Home of Edwin Booth (private), 2gA Chestnut St., has a few of 
the original purple window-panes once favored in this district, which sun 
and time have transformed to a lilac hue, the despair of imitators. To 
have a house with original purple panes is practically to have a patent of 
Bostonian aristocracy. This house has the small, wrought-iron second- 

Boston 151 

story balconies introduced by Bulfinch and Benjamin. It is the only 
house on the street with a main entrance at the side, facing a small lawn. 
The arched Georgian doorway with Corinthian portico is beautiful, and 
the entire house has a princely, brooding air suggestive of 'Hamlet/ 
Booth's most famous role. 

17. The Home of Julia Ward Howe and later of John Singer Sargent 
(private), 13 Chestnut St., is attributed to Bulfinch. It is a four-story 
brick structure, with a delicate-columned Georgian doorway, ivory-color, 
and second-story long windows with wrought-iron balconies. Such win- 
dows indicate a second-story drawing room, a hallmark of fashion in 
Boston. For many years this house was the meeting-place of the Radical 
Club that succeeded the noted Transcendental Club. 

L. from Chestnut St. on Walnut St. 

18. The Ellery Sedgwick House (private), 14 Walnut St., the home of the 
recently retired editor of the Atlantic Monthly, built in 1805, is the most 
individualistic house on the Hill. It has three stories and gray-painted 
brick ends, with black blinds, the south side wall being of wood painted 
gray. On that side is a large tree-shaded garden, which, owing to the 
slope of the Hill, is elevated high above the street and buttressed by a 
base- wall of hand-hewn granite blocks. 

R. from Walnut St. on Mt. Vernon St. 

19. Thomas Bailey Aldrich's House (private), 59 Mt. Vernon St., is dis- 
tinguished by its white marble portico and a white marble band between 
the second and third stories. 

20. The Home of Charles Francis Adams, Sr. (private), 57 Mt. Vernon St., 
is of a conservative elegance to be expected of the Civil War Ambassador 
to England, son of John Quincy Adams, and father of the author of ' The 
Education of Henry Adams.' Its four substantial stories face a trim lawn. 
The white doorway has an unusual richly carved lintel. There are tall 
second-story windows, the one over the door distinguished by a covered 

Retrace Mt. Vernon St. 

21. The Sears House (Second Harrison Gray Otis House, 1800) (private), 
85 Mt. Vernon St., is a good example of Bulfinch's domestic design, some- 
what resembling his notable group on Franklin Crescent. The square 
house with roof balustrade is excellently proportioned and has the typical 
Bulfinch arched recesses surrounding the lower windows. The upper 
stories are enlivened by four Corinthian pilasters. Although somewhat 
altered, the architecture of this dignified Federal mansion remains im- 

R. from Mt. Vernon St. into Louisburg Square. 

22. Louisburg Square, looking much like some square in London's May- 
fair, is the epitome of Beacon Hill style. Noted residents have included 
William Dean Howells, Louisa May Alcott and her father, Amos Bronson 
Alcott, Jenny Lind, and Minnie Maddern Fiske. The houses, inhabited by 

152 Main Street and Village Green 

elderly and ultra-conservative families, are large three- or four-story 
brick dwellings, mostly with bow-fronts and plain doorways, the whole in 
synchronous monotone. The central green, enclosed by an iron fence 
with no gate, belongs to the proprietors of the Square. The small statue 
of Aristides the Just, at the south end, and that of Columbus at the north, 
have been adopted affectionately by the residents through many years of 
custom, but when their donor, Joseph lasigi, a wealthy Greek living at 
No. 3, included also a fountain, it was hastily removed. 

At Christmas each year the Square echoes with Christmas carols, sung 
by trained voices usually selected from musical groups with sufficient 
social prestige to be asked to contribute carolers. Bellringing and the 
keeping of open house are additional features of the program. 

R. from Louisburg Square on Pinckney St. 

Pinckney St. was named for South Carolina's Charles Cotesworth Pinck- 
ney, famous for his reply to Talleyrand: 'Millions for defense, but not 
one cent for tribute.' The street is the border-line between wealth and 
poverty and beyond it a less proud district slopes down the back of the 

L. from Pinckney St. on Joy St.; R. from Joy St. on Cambridge St. 

23. The Harrison Gray Otis House (open, 10-5, fee 25 f), 141 Cambridge 
St., built in 1795, has been since 1916 the headquarters of the Society for 
the Preservation of New England Antiquities. The interior has not been 
greatly altered, and the Society has restored the exterior to its former 
beauty by replacing on the facade the semi-circular porch, Palladian 
window, and third-story fan window that are the main decorative fea- 
tures. This square hip-roofed mansion has an interior finished with 
unusual refinement and delicacy. It is attributed to Bulfinch. 

24. The Old West Church (West End Church) was built in 1806 from 
designs by Asher Benjamin, architect-writer. Characteristic of his work, 
it is of well-studied proportions, but more solid and masculine than the 
work of his contemporaries, Bulfinch and Mclntire. Its facade, with 
stepped gable and lofty tower, is capped by a square gilt-domed cupola. 
The church has for some time been converted to the uses of a branch 

Retrace Cambridge St.; L. from Cambridge St. on Joy St.; R. from Joy St. 
on Beacon St. 

25. The Women's City Club (open by permission), 40 Beacon St., although 
built in 1818, is believed to be a Bulfinch work. Today, beautifully pre- 
served, it exemplifies the gracious tradition of Post-Colonial architecture. 
Its beautiful spiral stairway is as fine as any in New England. 

26. The Wadsworth House (Third Harrison Gray Otis House) (private}, 
45 Beacon St., built in 1807, reveals the influence of Bulfinch's sojourn 
in France by his use of an oval drawing-room on the garden side and 
perhaps also by his placing the entrance at ground level and the important 

Boston 153 

rooms on the story above. The facade shows a uniform range of five 
windows, with a novel departure from Colonial precedent in the type of 
enframement. The entrance, too, is unusually handled, a rectangular 
portico with four columns coupled columns and coupled pilasters 
behind being used as the door enframement. The house is a fine 
example of an aristocratic city mansion of the Federal period. 

Retrace Beacon St. 

27. The Robert Gould Shaw Memorial, facing the State House from the 
edge of the Common, is a notable group statue in high relief, by Augustus 
Saint-Gaudens. Colonel Shaw, his horse, and the Negro troopers are all 
sculptured with remarkable sensitivity to the medium and the subject. 
Charles F. McKim designed the frame, a wide pink granite exedra with 
crouching eagles, Greek urns, and low benches, shadowed by two enor- 
mous English elms. 

28. The State House (open weekdays 9-5), with its golden dome, crowns 
the Hill. Built in 1795, the 'Bulfinch Front' of the State House stands as 
a monument to the architectural genius of Charles Bulfinch and as an ex- 
pression of classicism in American design. Unhappily, this original portion 
of the present State House is now sandwiched between huge, inept wings. 
The 'Bulfinch Front' cannot be seen merely as a unit of the structure; 
its quality sets it apart as a thing to be known and revered independent 
of its setting. Bulfinch was the first professional architect of the Republic. 
The State House was his greatest work. He spread across its front a 
colossal portico; he topped it with a high and dominant gilded dome. 
The Corinthian colonnade that surmounts the projecting arcade of the 
first story, the arched windows with classical enframement, the pediment 
that breaks the line of the dome, the sweep and lift of the dome itself, 
contribute to the classicism vibrant in Bulfinch 's work, strongly in- 
fluenced at this period by that of Sir William Chambers, an older London 

The entrance hall contains portraits of the Massachusetts Governors. 
Just beyond is a more imposing white marble hall with historical murals. 
The Hall of Flags opening from this displays State regimental flags of the 
Civil and World Wars. The stained-glass dome bears the seals of the 
Thirteen Original States. In the Hall of Representatives (second floor 
rear, left) hangs the Sacred Cod, the State emblem symbolizing a his- 
toric basic industry. 

At the front of the lower floor, a left turn down a passage leads to a 
unique memorial very characteristic of Boston, always appreciative of 
its 'dumb animal' friends, the Dog and Horse Tablet (in the through 
corridor from the Hooker Statue to Mt. Vernon St.), a tribute to the 
dogs and horses that served in the World War. 

Traverse the corridor from Beacon St. to Mt. Vernon St., passing into the 
greensward square behind the State House. Straight ahead on Ashburton 

154 Main Street and Village Green 

29. Ford Hall, which houses the Ford Hall Forum, 15 Ashburton Place, 
in a tall office building, is a modern stronghold of Boston liberalism, 
entrenched in the very shadow of the State House. 

FOOT TOUR 2 (The Old City) 2m. 

E. from Park St. on Beacon St. 

30. The Boston Athen&um (open to scholars by guest card obtained at the 
desk), is at lojhz Beacon St. The building (1847-49) was designed by 
Edward C. Cabot a minor Renaissance gesture in the Palladian style 
that seemed significant then. The Athenaeum, which contains one of 
the most famous private libraries in the country, is a descendant of the 
'Anthology Club' formed in 1807 by the father of. Ralph Waldo Emerson. 
Among its 200,000 volumes are rare collections of news on international 
law, of State papers and historical documents, of books published in 
the South during the Civil War, and most of George Washington's 
private library. 

Retrace Beacon St.; L. from Beacon St. on Park St. 

31. The Park Street Church (Congregational), corner Tremont St., was 
built in 1809 and was the only building designed by Peter Banner. It 
bears little evidence of the Classic Revival felt in contemporaneous work; 
it maintains closely the character of earlier work. An unusual feature 
is the use of the semi-circular porches between the tower base and the 
body of the main building. The tower proper is probably as fine as any 
extant. The church originally housed a Trinitarian congregation formed 
in protest to the spreading Unitarian movement. It stands on the site of 
the Granary where the sails of the ' Constitution ' were made. This site 
is known as 'Brimstone Corner,' because in the War of 1812 gunpowder 
was stored in the basement. When Henry Ward Beecher, a believer in a 
literal Hell, preached vigorous guest sermons there, the Unitarians slyly 
said that the corner was well named. 

L. from Park St. on Tremont St. 

32. The Old Granary Burial Ground (open), hemmed in by business 
blocks and Tremont St., contains the graves of three signers of the 
Declaration of Independence (John Hancock, Samuel Adams, and Robert 
Treat Paine), Paul Revere, Peter Faneuil, the parents of Benjamin 
Franklin, the victims of the Boston Massacre, nine early Governors of 
the State, and Mother Goose (a real person actually named Mary Goose). 

33. Tremont Temple (Baptist), 82 Tremont St., stands on the site of an 
earlier temple in which Jenny Lind sang (1850-52). Founded in 1839 
because the Charles Street Church, then Baptist, decreed that any 
member bringing a Negro into his pew would be expelled, it is one of 
the most popular evangelical congregations in Greater Boston. 

Boston 155 

34. King's Chapel (Unitarian) (open daily 9-5), corner of School St., 
built in 1749, was designed by Peter Harrison, who had been a student 
of Sir John Vanbrugh, a younger contemporary of Sir Christopher Wren. 
It was from this intimacy with the mode set by Wren and his successor, 
Gibbs, that the architecture of King's Chapel is derived. But the New- 
port gentleman-architect possessed too much native genius for his design 
to be a servile copy of the British masters. The bold and somewhat cold 
masonry exterior is headed by a low, squat base intended to support a 
tower which was never built. The interior, replete with aberrations 
characteristic of its designer, is perhaps the finest Colonial church interior 
extant. Its rich sobriety, its repose and studied suavity of proportion 
proclaim it a work of genius. It ranks in historic fame with the Old 
South Meeting House and the Old North Church, for King's Chapel is 
both the first Episcopal church in New England and the first Unitarian 
church in America; and its establishment in both faiths was accompanied 
by storm. The present building was built in 1754 around a wooden build- 
ing which was then dismantled. 

35. King's Chapel Burial Ground (1630), adjoining the church, is the 
oldest burial ground in Boston. Here lie Governor Winthrop, John 
Cotton, and Mary Chilton Winslow. 

Retrace Tremont St.; L. from Tremont St. on School St. 

36. The Boston Public Latin School Tablet on the wall of the Parker 
House marks the site of the first Public Latin School (1635) in America. 

37. The Old Corner Bookstore Building (1712), at the corner of School 
and Washington Sts., is an ancient three-and-a-half -story brick building 
with gambrel roof. From 1828 to 1903, it housed the most famous book- 
store in Boston, and at one time the offices of Ticknor and Fields, who 
published the early works of all major New England poets. Through its 
doors strolled Hawthorne, Emerson, Longfellow, Lowell, and Holmes, as 
well as Whittier, the latter rarely, for he was shy and confused by the roar 
of nineteenth-century traffic. 

R. from School St. on Washington St. 

38. The Old South Meeting House (1729) (open daily, summer 9-5, winter 
9^1; adm. 25), corner of Milk St., shared with Faneuil Hall the most 
fervid and momentous oratory of Revolutionary days, and an Old South 
meeting was always a danger signal to Burke and Pitt. It is still used 
for public meetings of civic or social protest. The church building, de- 
signed by Robert Twelve, has a simple mass with severely plain exterior 
of brick laid in Flemish bond. The wooden steeple rising 180 feet is of 
conventional design, more impressive than that of its predecessor, the 
'Old North Church.' Its double row of arched windows is especially 
effective in the interior, where interest centers in the great arched recess 
above the altar. The Old South greatly influenced later ecclesiastical 
design in the Colonies. 

The interior with its gate-pews was restored after the British had used 
it for a riding-school during the Siege; in 1876 the pews were again 

156 Main Street and Village Green 

removed when the building ceased to be used as a church. The only 
remaining parts of the original building are the walls and their frame- 
work, including the windows and doors, and the double tier of white 
galleries, in the topmost of which sat Negro slaves. The high broad 
white pulpit is a replica of the one which resounded to the voices of Otis, 
Samuel Adams, Quincy, Warren, and Hancock. Here began the line of 
march of the Boston Tea Party, and here General Warren, prevented by 
the British from entering the pulpit by the stairs, climbed into it through 
the window at the rear. The beautiful gilded Gallery Clock, surmounted 
by a spread eagle bearing in his beak a double string of gilded balls, is a 
reproduction of a famous pattern designed by Simon Willard, a Boston 
clockmaker (1753-1848). The women of Massachusetts purchased and 
thus saved this noted landmark from destruction in 1876, when it was 
proposed to sell it, because of the great increase in value of the land. 
The parish, formed in 1669 (Congregational), worships at the 'Old South 
Third' in Copley Square. 

L. from Washington St. on Milk St.; L. from Milk St. on Congress St. 

39. The United States Post Office and Federal Office Building is a massive 
new granite building in modern style designed by Cram and Ferguson. 
It occupies the entire block between Devonshire, Congress, Water, and 
Milk Sts. A tablet on the Milk St. frontage of the former Post-Office 
block commemorates the fact that the great Boston fire of 1872, that 
raged November 9-10, sweeping 60 acres and destroying $60,000,000 
worth of property, was halted here. 

L. from Congress St. on State St. 

40. The Site of the Boston Massacre, 30 State St., is marked by a brass 
arrow pointing into the street where a cobblestone circle indicates the 
exact spot where the first patriots fell when fired upon by British soldiers. 

41. The Old State House (open daily except Sun. and Holidays, 9-4.30; 
Sat. 9-1), Washington and State Sts., built in 1713 on the site of its 
predecessor, has been restored to its original robust appearance after 
successive alterations. Its steeply pitched roof with stepped gables at 
either end, its tower with gracefully telescoped members finished by a 
fine cupola rising from the middle of the building, are enhanced by the 
aloof position of the building. Upon the stepped gables, strangely enough 
Dutch in derivation, ramp the British lion and unicorn. Classic details 
in doors, windows, and cupola are a new note in this period. The famous 
building, the identity of whose architect is a mystery, is markedly im- 
portant as an influence upon the architecture of its time. 

This was the State House of the British in the eighteenth century, until 
the Revolution, and thereafter of the Commonwealth until the new State 
House was ready in 1798. In 1881, it was proposed to demolish the Old 
State House, because the land was valued at $1,500,000. At this junc- 
ture, Chicago offered to transfer the building to Lincoln Park on Lake 
Michigan and take care of it, paying all the expense of removal and 
reassembly. The offer stung Boston so sharply that the City Fathers 

Boston 157 

agreed to stand the loss on the land in perpetuity, and never again to 
threaten the building with removal or destruction. 

Within, the spiral stairway is the best architectural feature, but is not 
coeval with the original structure. The building is the headquarters of 
the Bostonian Society and houses intimate historical relics and a fine 
marine museum. 

Straight ahead from State St. on Court St. 

42. The Ames Building, corner of Washington St., Boston's first sky- 
scraper, 13 stories high, was erected in 1891 from plans made by Shepley, 
Rutan and Coolidge, successors of Richardson. It is among the rare 
instances of skillful adaptation of the Richardson Romanesque to com- 
mercial purposes. 

43. The Site of the Franklin Printing Press is marked by a tablet on the 
Franklin Ave. frontage of the building at No. 17 Court St. Here Ben- 
jamin Franklin learned the printer's trade from his brother and composed 
ballads that he later disparaged. 

Retrace Court St.; L. from Court St. on Washington St. 

44. The Site of Paul Revere* s Goldsmith Shop, 175 Washington St., is 
marked by a bas-relief tablet. The patriot who rode to Lexington to 
give his memorable alarm was a great artist in gold and silverware. Any 
of his work now commands fabulous prices. Examples are at the Museum 
of Fine Arts (see below). 

R. from Washington St. into Dock Square. 

45. Dock Square, so named because the docks of the present Atlantic 
Ave. waterfront once extended here, is now the market district of Boston. 
From earliest dawn till dusk it is in constant turmoil, with huge vans 
unloading whole carcasses of meats, and crates of fruits and vegetables 
piled over the sidewalks. The predominant human type is the market- 
man, in soiled apron and inevitable straw hat, but many a humble shopper 
is also here, bargain-hunting. 

46. Faneuil (Fan'l) Hall (open daily 9-5, Sat. 9-12, closed Sun.) was 
called the ' Cradle of Liberty ' because many important meetings of pro- 
test were held here before the Revolution. It was the first Colonial 
attempt at academic design, completed in 1742 from the plans of John 
Smibert, the Colonial portrait-painter, and given by Peter Faneuil, a 
Boston merchant. It contained a town hall above and a public market 
below. The original structure, two stories and a half of brick, with open 
arches below and a bell- tower above, was considered impressive and or- 
nate. When fire destroyed the building in 1762, it was promptly rebuilt 
on the original plan. In 1805, Charles Bulfinch added a third story and 
doubled the original 40-foot width, but retained the original style of the 
building. Its weathervane, a grasshopper, is the most noted steeple adorn- 
ment in Boston, modeled by Shem Drowne of Hawthorne's story, 
'Browne's Wooden Image.' The leading Faneuil historian says that 

158 Main Street and Village Green 

-Drowne chose a grasshopper because while chasing one as a small boy 
he met the man who started him on the road to success. An American 
consul once tested those claiming Boston citizenship by asking them what 
is on top of Faneuil Hall. Its chief present treasure is G. P. A. Healy's 
gigantic painting of 'Webster's Reply to Hayne.' 

Faneuil Hall is protected by a charter against sale or leasing. It is never 
rented, but is open to any group upon request of a required number of 
citizens agreeing to abide by certain prescribed regulations. The lower 
floor is occupied by market stalls handling all sorts of produce, a busy 
and fascinating spectacle. 

Two flights upstairs from the hall are the rooms (open weekdays 10-4, 
Sat. 10-12) of the Ancient and Honourable Artillery Company, oldest 
military organization "in America (1638), which still parades in Boston 
on important occasions, dressed in elaborate historical uniforms. 

47. Quincy Market (open), adjacent to Faneuil Hall and sometimes called 
New Faneuil Hall, is architecturally a product of the Greek Revival, 
designed in 1826 by Alexander Parris. 

L. from Dock Square on Union St. 

48. The Union Oyster House, 41 Union St., Boston's renowned sea-food 
restaurant, has been situated for the past 1 10 years in this low, angular 
three-story brick tavern with the small-paned windows, all of 200 years 
old. The lower floor contains very old semi-private eating-booths, and a 
small bar at which Daniel Webster used to drop in for a toddy on cold 
days. Several other excellent restaurants in the vicinity are located in 
less historic buildings. 

R. from Union St. on Marshall St. 

49. The Boston Stone is embedded in the back wall of the last building 
on the right, just around the corner of the side alley. It is a granite 
block (1737), surmounted by a spherical granite paint-grinder about the 
size and shape of a cannon ball. The block and the ball constituted a 
hand paint mill for Thomas Child from 1693 to 1706. The stone was 
later used as the starting-point for the measurement of mileages from 

R. from Marshall St. on Hanover St. 

Hanover St., now the main thoroughfare of the Italian North End, was 
once favored by wealthy sea captains and leading patriots of the Revolu- 
tion. The finest houses are gone, but here and there are old wooden 
dwellings, flush with the street between cheap modern brick tenements, 
Italian food stores, and clothing shops. The North End is one of the 
most congested sections in any major American city. 

R. from Hanover St. on Prince St.; R. from Prince St. into North Square. 

50. Paul Revere' s House (open daily 10-4, adm. 25^), 19 North Square, 
which was a century old when it became the home of the famous patriot 

Boston 159 

and silversmith, is the only 17th-century structure now standing in 
downtown Boston. Claimed by some to have been built in 1660, there is 
more proof that it stands on the plot once occupied by the Increase 
Mather Parsonage that burned in the great fire of 1676, so it is likely that 
it was built within the next year. During its long life it has undergone 
many changes, but in 1908 it was rescued from the encroachments of 
progress by the Paul Revere Memorial Association and restored to its 
original condition. Characteristic of the medieval influence which domi- 
nated all seventeenth-century architecture in Massachusetts, it has the 
overhanging second story with ornamental drops or pendrils, the small 
casements with diamond-shaped panes, and a simple floor plan with 
massive end chimney. 

The house has only four rooms and an attic, and contains some beautiful 
old furniture and china (not much of it Revere's); two enormous fire- 
places with brick ovens and ancient utensils; portions of wallpaper of 
1750, depicting in block pattern the Church of Saint Mary le Bow in 
London; and some of Revere's etchings and manuscript letters. 

Retrace North Square; L. from North Square on Prince Si.; R. from Prince 
St. on Salem St. 

Salem Street, narrow at best, is so crowded with pushcarts laden with 
fruits and vegetables that locomotion is difficult. Here is the heart of 
the Italian quarter, noisy, garrulous, good-natured, and vital. 

51. The Old North Church (Christ Church, Episcopal) (open daily 9-5; 
voluntary contributions; Sun. services 10.45), 193 Salem St., had a belfry 
known to every American child by Longfellow's lines: 'One if by land 
and two if by sea, and I on the opposite shore will be.' The eight melo- 
dious bells in the tower are inscribed : ' We are the first ring of bells cast 
for the British Empire in North America.' 

The church was built in 1723. The design of this historic building was 
made by William Price, a Boston print-seller and draftsman who, while 
in London, made a study of Christopher Wren churches. During a 
violent gale in 1804 the steeple was blown down, and in 1808 a new one, 
built after a model by Charles Bulfinch, replaced the old. Although fol- 
lowing closely the design of the original, the new tower was lowered in 
height by 1 6 feet. The interior, although obviously the product of an 
untrained man, is modeled after the designs by Wren. The galleries are 
supported by square columns carried through to the roof. The pews 
carry small brass plates inscribed with the names of eighteenth-century 
merchant-prince owners. Some are still held by descendants; others 
have become prized possessions of old Boston families. 

160 Main Street and Village Green 

FOOT TOUR 3 (Waterfront) 1.5 m. 

S. from Salem St. on Charter St.; L. from Charter St. on Hanover St.; R. 
from Hanover St. on Commercial St. 

This tour covers the old waterfront, once the port for all ships, now 
devoted to coastwise shipping and fishing boats. Vessels from European 
ports now dock in East or South Boston. 

52. Constitution Wharf, 409 Commercial St., at the foot of Hanover St., 
is occupied chiefly by a high brick warehouse which cuts off the harbor 
view. A bas-relief tablet on the Commercial St. wall commemorates 
the launching (1797) of the famous U.S. Frigate 'Constitution' ('Old 
Ironsides') the Queen of the Navy, which made history in the War with 
Tripoli and the War of 1812. 

Straight ahead on Atlantic Ave., Commercial St. having slipped unobtru- 
sively off to the right, after the manner of Boston streets. 

Just beyond Lewis's Wharf, 32 Atlantic Ave., is the first delightful glimpse 
of the actual waterfront, with freighters using the same slips as the 
humble power-boats of small fishermen. Along the quays are marine 
hardware shops and numerous lunchrooms for sailors. On the hottest 
summer day, the air has a cool salty tang, becoming definitely fishy as 
one passes the brief row of fish-markets. 

53. T Wharf, 178 Atlantic Ave., is one of the most famous and picturesque 
fishing piers in the country. The entrance, obscure and poorly marked, 
is just beyond the huge brick warehouse of the Quincy Cold Storage 
Plant. Suddenly the gaudy small trawlers of Italian and Portuguese 
fishermen appear, outlined against the long, low yellow shed of the pier 

- a shed with many small-paned windows, which give upon fish- 
brokerages and small restaurants specializing in New England fish dinners. 

This is the center of the 'Little man's fishing industry,' for the larger 
boats go to the modern great Fish Pier at South Boston. Knots of 
Latin fishermen are always gathered here mending nets, repairing buoys, 
or baiting Unes, and animatedly discussing the weather, the catch, and 
current prices. 

54. Long Wharf (1710), 202 Atlantic Ave., was once a great deal longer, 
beginning in fact up by the present Custom House which now soars in 
the background. From here a century and a half ago the British em- 
barked for home (March 17, 1776), and from here today hundreds of 
summer tourists embark daily for Provincetown. In the late eighteenth 
century, the wharf, then privately owned, was a center for fashionable 
smugglers, said to have included Governor Hancock. 

R. from Atlantic Ave. on State St. 

55. The United States Custom House (open 9-5 daily}, (1847) designed 

Boston 161 

by Ammi B. Young and Isaiah Rogers, was among the last monuments 
of the Greek Revival. A dome with which it was originally crowned 
is concealed within the tall shaft of floors which in 1915 transformed the 
building into a 5oo-foot skyscraper and a fitting mausoleum to the era 
of Greek affectation. The tower shows a similarity to that of the Metro- 
politan Building in New York, although on a much smaller scale. Peabody 
and Stearns were the architects of the super-structure. A balcony near 
the top offers a splendid panorama of Boston. 

Retrace State St.; R. from State St. on Atlantic Ave. 

56. India Wharf, which begins at 288 Atlantic Ave. and continues for 
four piers, now serves the Eastern Steamship Lines. The ancient lofts 
of the two middle piers were once occupied by riggers and sail makers. 

57. Rowe's Wharf, 344 Atlantic Ave., a small but busy railroad terminal, 
was the scene of the seizure and deposition of Governor Andros (1689). 
The Nantasket steamer, which sails from here and offers a good view of 
the harbor islands, is a Boston institution. 

58. The Boston Tea Party (Dec. 16, 1773) took place at the northeast 
corner of Atlantic Ave. and Pearl St., then Griffin's Wharf, when a group 
of patriots disguised as Indians boarded British tea-ships and threw the 
cargo overboard. A tablet on the Atlantic Ave. wall of the commercial 
building now occupying the site gives the Boston version of the party. 

FOOT TOUR 4 (Downtown] 2.5 m. 

N.E. from Atlantic Ave., at South Station, on Federal St. 

59. The Shoe Museum of the United Shoe Machinery Corporation (open 
weekdays 9-5), 140 Federal St., exhibits 1500 pairs of shoes of all periods, 
styles, and countries; Egyptian sandals dating back to 2000 B.C.; boots 
worn by Henry IV of France; postilion boots weighing 12 pounds each; 
Spanish shoes made especially to protect against snakebite. Pictures and 
models illustrate the many stages and varied machinery involved today 
in making a single pair of shoes. 

Retrace on Federal St.; R. from Federal St. on High St.; R. from High 
St. on Summer St.; straight ahead from Summer St. into Winter St.; L. 
from Winter St. on Tremont St. 

60. Saint Paul's Cathedral (1819-20), opposite the Common, the seat of 
the Episcopal Bishops of Massachusetts, is Boston's earliest example of 
the Greek Revival. The architects were Alexander Parris, who later 
built the Quincy Market, and Solomon Willard. The Ionic capitals were 
carved by Willard. The white interior is severely plain, with high stall- 
like pews and no stained glass. Daniel Webster, a pewholder, was on the 
building committee. The dome of the present chancel is a reproduction 
of that in Saint Paul's, London. 

1 62 Main Street and Village Green 

61. Boston Common, part of a tract set aside by Governor Winthrop as 
a cow pasture and training field, retains as paved walks the casual 
paths worn by grazing cattle. Here stocks and pillory once stood, as 
well as a pen where those who desecrated the Sabbath were imprisoned. 
Several Quakers are thought to have been hanged and buried on the 
Common. Both British and Massachusetts regiments were mustered on 
it, and it is still used on occasion as a drill ground. 

Free speech has always been a privilege on the Common. Group argu- 
ments on social and economic problems are in daily progress around the 
Grecian Parkman Bandstand and orators address the public along the 
Charles Street Mall. The Frog Pond in the center is now a shallow arti- 
ficial pool patronized during hot weather by little boys in various stages 
of undress. 

62. The Crispus Attucks Monument (set back on lawn) commemorates 
the 'Boston Massacre' (1770), which John Adams and Daniel Webster 
united in calling the origin of the Revolution. Crispus Attucks, a Negro, 
was one of several persons killed when soldiers, taunted by a group of 
excited citizens, fired on the crowd. 

L. from Tremont St. into Boylston St. 

63. The Liberty Tree Site, facing Boylston St. on Washington St., is 
covered by a business block, bearing on its wall a carved tree commemo- 
rating this Revolutionary landmark, scene of Stamp Act meetings and 
frequent hangings in efiigy of well-known Tories. 

L. from Boylston St., diagonally across Washington St. into Essex St.; R. 
from Essex St. on Harrison Ave.; L. from Harrison Ave. on Beach St. 

64. Chinatown begins at Harrison Ave. and Beach St. with a group of 
small native shops, principally markets, the latter displaying in their 
windows strings of strange-looking sausages and small wire hanging 
baskets of ancient eggs. At the corner of Oxford St. (L) is the Chinese 
Bulletin, a news sheet in native characters, posted daily. 

R. from Beach St. on Hudson St. 

Near-by is a district crowded with Chinese restaurants and Oriental 
curio shops. 

R. from Hudson St. on Kneeland St. 

Kneeland Street is the center of the ready-made dress business of New 
England. Wholesale houses and workshops crowd the district, and on 
warm days the hum of hundreds of sewing machines can be heard through 
the open windows. 

Straight ahead on Stuart St.; L. from Stuart St. on Tremont St. 

65. The Wilbur Theatre, built in 1913 from plans by Blackall, Clapp and 
Whittemore, is an adaptation of late Georgian Colonial architecture. It 
is one of the first auditoriums to be designed with scientific knowledge of 
acoustics, Professor Sabine of Harvard, pioneer in the field, being the 

Boston 163 

Retrace Tremont St.; L. from Tremont St. on Stuart St.; straight ahead into 
Eliot St.; R. from Eliot St. through Park Sq.; L. from Park Sq. on Boylston 

66. Statues along Boylston Street Mall are: (i) Wendell Phillips, ' Cham- 
pion of the Slave' (1811-84), done in bronze by Daniel Chester French; 

(2) Theo Alice Ruggles Kitson's handsome young Thaddeus Kosciuszko 
(1746-1817), the popular Polish patriot who served under Washington; 

(3) Charles Sumner, one of the leading abolitionist senators, by Thomas 

67. Boylston Street Subway (1897), its streetcar entrance opposite the 
Sumner statue, was the first transportation subway in the United States. 

68. The William Ellery Channing Statue, by Herbert Adams, corner of 
Boylston and Arlington Sts., is a tribute to a leader (1780-1842) of the 
Unitarian movement in America. 

69. The Natural History Museum (open weekdays 9-4.30; Sun. 1-4.30), 
corner of Berkeley St., a Palladian structure of brick and brownstone, 
houses collections of minerals and fauna of New England. 

FOOT TOUR 5 (Fenway District) 2.5 m. 

E. from Massachusetts Ave. on Huntingdon Ave. 

70. The Christian Science Church (open Wed. and Fri. 10-5; services Sun. 
morning and evening and Wed. evening) is The Mother Church. Christian 
Science was discovered in 1866 by Mary Baker Eddy, who developed the 
theme into a Christian Science textbook, 'Science and Health with Key 
to the Scriptures,' and published it in 1875. In 1879, she organized the 
Church of Christ, Scientist, and reorganized it in 1892. The present 
organization, including all its branches and activities, is the direct out- 
growth of her work. The Publishing House across the street issues The 
Christian Science Monitor, widely read throughout the English-speaking 
world. A large terraced grass plot on Huntington Avenue, adorned with 
shrubs and small trees, allows the buildings to be seen in perspective. 

Two church structures in actual contact with each other are connected 
by an interior passage. The smaller one of gray rough-faced granite with 
a square granite tower, erected in 1894, is the first Christian Science 
church building in Boston, though its congregation dates from 1879. The 
main church (1904), in Italian Renaissance with a great central dome, is 
of limestone, trimmed with granite below and with glazed white tiles 
above. Its vast open nave, seating 5000 people, rises 108 feet from floor 
to dome, with no support of pillars. The doors and pews are of San 
Domingo mahogany, richly carved; the walls of limestone, with windows 
of clear glass. The wide pulpit contains two lecterns, one for the First 
Reader, a man, and one for the Second Reader, a woman. 

164 Main Street and Village Green 

The Publishing House (open daily, 9-11.30 and 1-4, guide service) occupies 
a three-story limestone building, covering a city block and surmounted 
by six additional stories in a recessed tower, capped by yellow tiles. 

Beyond the white marble entrance hall is the Mapparium, unique in the 
world, a spherical room, thirty feet in diameter, with walls of colored glass 
depicting a world map. Passage through the room is by a glass bridge. 

Throughout the building marble corridors lead from room to room 
opulently paneled in rare woods, beautifully tiled or carpeted, hung with 
Venetian blinds and tapestries. Even in the halls of the presses is spotless- 
ness, quiet, and order. 

Retrace on Huntingdon Ave. across Massachusetts Ave. 

71. Symphony Hall, northwest corner of Massachusetts Ave., a low, 
oblong, red-brick building trimmed with granite, is a subdued adapta- 
tion of Renaissance forms designed by McKim, Mead and White (1900) 
and admirably suited to its specific function. The concert hall, with two 
balconies, seats 2500 persons. In a side room is the Casadesus Collection 
of Ancient Musical Instruments (open during concert hours). The Boston 
Symphony Orchestra, founded in 1881, by Major Henry Lee Higginson, 
is recognized as one of the finest in the country. In early summer a re- 
duced orchestra gives a ten-week season of popular concerts, affection- 
ately known to all Boston as 'the Pops.' For this series Symphony Hall 
assumes a gala appearance with gay lattices adorning the stately walls 
and the floor occupied by small square tables at which refreshments are 

72. The New England Conservatory of Music, at the corner of Gains- 
borough St., occupies a three-story, square, flat-roofed building of gray 
brick, trimmed with granite and marble. It is one of the oldest institu- 
tions (1867) of its kind in America, as well as one of the best, offering 
co-educational instruction in instrumental and vocal music, in composi- 
tion and teaching. It has a distinguished faculty, and many of its 140,000 
graduates have attained eminence. 

Within the building, reached from the Gainsborough St. entrance, is 
Jordan Hall, the leading recital hall in Boston, with perfect acoustics and 
a seating capacity of 1000. 

73. Northeastern University (incorporated 1916), 316 Huntington Ave., 
is a co-operative educational institution with a total enrollment (1937) of 
5293. The student is enabled to combine classroom instruction with 
supervised employment, effectively uniting theory and practice. Among 
its professional branches the divisions of law and engineering are well 

74. The Boston Opera House (1906), corner of Opera Place, is a massive 
brick building of somber Neo-Classic design. The front wall is plastered 
with billboards advertising downtown theatrical attractions, except dur- 
ing brief visiting engagements of operatic companies. On November 8, 

Boston 165 

1909, this building was the scene of the brilliant debut of the new Boston 
Opera Company, founded and maintained at a heavy loss for three years 
by Eben D. Jordan, a Boston merchant. 

75. The Museum of Fine Arts (open daily except Mon., 9-5, winter 9-4, 
Sun., 1-5; closed Thanksgiving, Christmas, 4th of July) occupies several 
buildings. These, grouped by halls and loggias, are of granite, admirably 
situated in a broad quadrangle on the open, sunny lawns of the Fenway. 
The not-too-well-designed Neo-Classic buildings derive their impress 
from the massiveness of the group. Directly in front of the entrance is 
the ' Appeal to the Great Spirit,' Cyrus Dallin's renowned American 
Indian on ponyback, his face lifted skyward, both arms outstretched in 

The largest showings of individual painters are of Millet, Copley, and 
Stuart. The American Colonial silver is very fine, and includes many 
examples of the work of Paul Revere. Equally memorable are the Colonial 
interiors, consisting of entire rooms transferred from New England houses, 
together with their original period furniture. Notable among these in the 
American Wing are three complete rooms designed and executed by 
Samuel Mclntire from his ' Oak Hill ' in Peabody. 

The Dancing Bacchante, a copy of a statue by Frederick MacMonnies, 
in the central courtyard, has a piquant past. A nude figure of a young 
dancer, holding aloft in one arm an infant whom she tantalizes with 
a bunch of grapes held high in the other hand, the original statue was 
placed in the courtyard of the Public Library in 1895, where it roused a 
storm of protest still clearly remembered by middle-aged citizens. Morals, 
especially the morals of youth, were regarded as imperiled and a sugges- 
tion was made in all seriousness that the sculptor be asked to clothe the 
figure. The original young lady is now in the Metropolitan Museum of 
Art, New York. 

76. Wentworth Institute (open Sept -May, 9^, except Sat. and Sun.; in 
summer to shops and laboratories not in use), corner of Ruggles St., trains 
young men in the mechanical arts. It occupies a wide, four-story yellow- 
brick building trimmed with granite, set well back on a spacious lawn. 

R. from Huntingdon Ave. on Longwood Ave. 

77. The Massachusetts College of Pharmacy, corner of Worthington St., 
was instituted in 1823, as an association of Boston pharmacists who 
fostered the training of apprentices in apothecary shops. 

78. The Angell Memorial (animal) Hospital (open 9-9 daily; Sunday and 
holidays for emergency only), named for George T. Angell, founder and 
first president of the Massachusetts Society for the Prevention of Cruelty 
to Animals and editor of Our Dumb A nimals, occupies a handsome three- 
story brick and granite building at 180 Longwood Ave., opposite the 
Massachusetts College of Pharmacy. 

79. The Harvard Medical School (1903-06), built entirely of white Ver- 

1 66 Main Street and Village Green 

mont marble, from designs by Shepley, Rutan and Coolidge, is of simple 
classic design adapted from the Greek and made impressive by its formal 
setting upon a terrace. 

The Four Laboratory Buildings, set upon a lower level than the Administration 
Building, are symmetrical in design. The Administration Building, approached by 
broad steps leading up from the terrace to a gigantic Ionic portico is monumental 
in character. On its ground floor is a great hall of design conforming to the classic 
exterior, and a marble staircase rises on the axis of the building. 

R. from Longwood Ave. on Avenue Louis Pasteur. 

80. The Boston Public Latin School (1635) now occupies a three-story 
brick building, three blocks deep, with granite Corinthian columns. It 
is the oldest public Latin school still in existence. 

L. from Avenue Louis Pasteur on Fenway. 

81. Emmanuel College, 400 Fenway, a massive four-story brick and 
granite edifice in English Collegiate Gothic, with a broad, square, open 
bell-tower and wide lawns adorned with shrubbery, is a non-resident 
Catholic institution for women, directed by the Sisters of Notre Dame de 

Retrace on Fenway. 

82. Simmons College (for women), 300 Fenway, occupies a wide three- 
story yellow-brick building dating from 1902. It was the first college for 
women in the United States to recognize the desirability of giving stu- 
dents such instruction as would fit them to earn an independent liveli- 
hood. It offers courses in science, household economics, literary and 
secretarial work, and is affiliated with schools of physical education and 
store service. It has more than 1600 students. 

83. The Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum (' Mrs. Jack Gardner's Venetian 
Palace') (open Tues., Thurs., Sat. 1CM, adm. 25^; Sun. 1-4, free, closed in 
August), at junction of Fenway and Worthington St., built in 1902, is 
a composite of fragments and materials from Venice and other parts of 
Italy. Although Edward H. Sears, an architect, drew the plans, the 
edifice is obviously the work of a collector indulging an unbridled fancy. 
The Museum houses works of Raphael, Titian, Rembrandt, Cellini, and 
many other old masters. Chamber-music concerts are given in the 
romantic setting of the Tapestry Room (Tues., Thurs., Sat. at 2.45, Sun. 
at 2, no extra fee) . 

Mrs. John Lowell Gardner, known to Boston during her lifetime as ' Mrs. 
Jack Gardner,' was the most picturesque figure in the social, art, and 
music world of Boston in the Mauve Decade. The daughter of a wealthy 
New York merchant with an artistic and musical flair, she was witty and 
independent, flaunting social tradition, and gathering about herself 
a salon of artists and musicians. Her shrewd acceptance of drawbacks in 
her personal appearance, and her capitalization of her good points, is 
somewhat cryptically embodied in the small portrait of her by Zorn, 
representing her as flinging open her palace doors, her face a mysterious 

Boston 167 

vague blur without features, but her shapely arms and hands very 
prominent, even reflected in the doors. 

Straight ahead from the front of Gardner Museum. 

84. The Back Bay Fens, commonly called The Fenway, are reclaimed 
mud flats. This stretch of charming parkway, following the beautified 
meanderings of a sluggish brook far from lovely in itself, gives a rustic 
touch to the surrounding residential district and the art and educational 
institutions. The Fens, with their bridle paths and motor roads, begin 
a long strip of parkway winding through Brookline and Roxbury. 

On the right is the Museum of Fine Arts (north front), and just beyond, 
the marble walls of the Forsyth Denial Infirmary for Children. 

85. The Boston Medical Library (open Mon. and Wed. 9.30-10; Tues., 
Thurs., FrL 9.30-6; Sat. 9.30-5), 8 Fenway, is a modern three-story 
yellow-brick building trimmed with granite, built in 1901. 

R. from Fenway on Boylston St. 

86. The Massachusetts Historical Society (open weekdays 9-5; Sat. 9-1; 
museum open Wed. 2-4), 1154 Boylston St., corner of Fenway, occupies 
an incongruously modern bow-front granite and yellow-brick building. 
Founded in 1791, the oldest historical society in the United States, it is 
primarily a library, rich in early books, historical documents, newspapers, 
manuscripts, and engravings. Of special interest are a suit of clothes 
worn by Benjamin Franklin in Paris, of lilac poplin, with cuffs of pleated 
lawn, Governor Winthrop's Bible, Shem Browne's Indian weathervane 
from Province House, Peter Faneuil's mahogany wine chest, and a British 
drum from Bunker Hill. Casually tucked away among these is the pen 
with which Lincoln signed the Emancipation Proclamation. 

MOTOR TOUR 1 (South Boston, Roxbury, and Dorchester) 23 m. 

E. from South Station, Boston, on Summer St. 

87. The Commonwealth Pier, built by the State just before the World 
War, is a fine passenger and freight pier. Twelve hundred feet long and 
400 feet wide, it provides berths for five 6oo-foot vessels at a time, and is 
used by a number of transatlantic lines. 

88. The Army Base (open by approval of Officer of the Day), corner of 
Harbor St., comprises a 2ooo-foot pier and an 8-story concrete warehouse 
1600 feet long. Built during the World War, it is the Army Quartermaster 
depot for New England, and the second largest Army base in the United 

Straight ahead from Summer St. on L St.; L. from L St. on East Broadway. 

The City Point Section of South Boston is traversed by East Broadway, 
bordered by old bow-front brick residences reminiscent of the fashionable 

1 68 Main Street and Village Green 

forties. It has the finest situation, with respect to the harbor, of any 
district of Boston, and one of the best beaches near the Metropolitan 

89. The Boston Aquarium (open 10-5 daily), corner of Farragut Rd., is 
a low stucco building with octagonal, red-tiled tower and a fish weather- 

L. from East Broadway on Gardner Way. 

90. Castle Island, so named by Governor Winthrop, who thought its 
natural contours resembled a castle, is a peninsular headland park, its 20 
rolling acres capped in the center by the solid stone walls of Fort In- 
dependence (yard only open), erected in 1801 and abandoned about 1880. 
When exposed fortifications were of service in warfare, this fort was of 
great strategic value in the defense of Boston, for the harbor channel 
passes within a stone's throw of its northern face. 

In 1827, Edgar Allan Poe, at eighteen, enlisting under the name of Perry, 
did five months of army service here. In 1905, an amazing parallel to 
Poe's story, ' The Cask of Amontillado,' was disclosed by the finding, in 
a sealed casemate within the fort, of a skeleton clothed in army uniform. 

Motor cars may proceed only to the ' island's ' edge. The short footpath around the 
fort offers an interesting panorama. To the northwest, surmounted by another 
abandoned stone fort, is Governor's Island, one of Governor Winthrop's three Bos- 
ton homes. To the north is Winthrop (see Tour 1.4), huddled at the foot of a silver- 
gray water-tower. Northeast is Deer Island, identified by the long red-brick build- 
ings of a city penitentiary. 

Due east on the far horizon rises the white tower of Boston Light, the oldest light- 
house in America, not to be confused with the nearer white tower of Long Island 
Light, a trifle southeast of it, marking the entrance to Nantasket Roads, where the 
British gathered their departing fleet in 1776. 

Directly opposite the Clipper Ship Monument to Donald McKay (see NEWBURY- 
PORT) is the Ship Channel of the inner harbor, busy at all hours with passing ves- 
sels, large and small. 

Retrace Gardner Way; straight ahead on Columbia Rd. 

91. The L Street Baths (adm. 10f), at the junction with L St., are built on 
the European plan of enclosed bathing areas, one for men, one for women 
and girls, and one for boys. The enclosure is roofed over to hold the bath- 
houses; the walls extend out, surrounding open-air sections of beach and 
water. A group of intrepid bathers known as the 'L Street Brownies' 
go into the ocean here every day of the year. 

R. from Columbia Rd. on L St.; L. from L St. on East Broadway. 

92. The Site of the Old Mount Washington Hotel, later the first building 
of Perkins Institution for the Blind (see WATERTOWN), is covered by 
the South Boston Municipal Building, 535 East Broadway. 

L. from East Broadway on G St.; R. from G St. on Thomas Parkway. 

93. The Dorchester Heights Monument (not open), summit of Thomas 
Park, is a square white marble tower 80 feet high, commemorating the 

Boston 169 

gunfire from this hill that was a contributive factor in the British evacua- 
tion of Boston on March 17, 1776. 

R. from Thomas Parkway on Telegraph St.; R. from Telegraph St. an 
Mercer St. 

94. Old Saint Augustine's Chapel (open upon application at Saint Augus- 
tine 's Church, one block left on Dorchester St.) (1819) stands in the 
walled cemetery at the junction of Mercer and Dorchester Sts. The tiny 
brick chapel, with its irregular slate-tiled roof and its arches, small-paned 
clear-g]ass windows, nestling in a century-old graveyard under giant 
English elms, inevitably suggests Gray's 'Elegy.' 

L. from Mercer St. on Dorchester St.; L. from Dorchester St. on Old Colony 

95. Old Harbor Village (R), framing the expansive area of Columbia 
Circle, is one of the largest ventures of the Federal Housing Projects in 
New England. Occupying 20 acres, this group comprises 1016 apart- 
ments in a block of three-story buildings with penthouses, play yards, 
and social halls. The buildings are centrally heated. The apartments 
have 3 to 5 rooms and rent at a moderate figure. The smaller structures, 
called 'low houses,' have from 3 to 6 rooms, each section with its own 
private entrance. 

R. from Old Colony Blvd. on Columbia Rd. to the junction with Pond St. 

96. The Blake House (1648) (owned by the Dorchester Historical Society, 
open upon application), corner of Pond St., is a two-and-a-half-story 
shingled cottage with steep pitched roof and diamond-paned windows. 
The interior, consisting only of four rooms and an attic, has hand-hewn 
cross-beams, slightly arched, and ' S ' hinges. By the front doorsill is the 
Dorchester Milestone. 

97. The Site of Edward Everett's Birthplace, corner of Boston St., Edward 
Everett Square, Dorchester, is marked by a tablet, just across the square 
from his Statue, by W. W. Story. Congressman, Governor, Minister to 
England, Secretary of State, President of Harvard, and U.S. Senator, 
Edward Everett (1794-1865) was in addition a graceful orator, without 
whom no commemorative exercises in the New England of his day were 
considered complete. 

R. from Columbia Rd. on Boston St.; L. from Boston St. on Willow Court. 

98. The Clap House (open by arrangement), 23 Willow Court, early 17th- 
century, still retains its gambrel roof. 

Retrace Willow Court; R. from Willow Court on Boston St. to Edward 
Everett Sq.; R. from Edward Everett Sq. on East Cottage St.; L. from East 
Cottage St. on Humphreys St. 

99. The Bird-Sawyer House (private), 41 Humphreys St., is a two-and-a- 
half-story gray clapboarded dwelling built in 1637 with broad windows, 
a green door with a brass eagle knocker of Federal date, and a square 
central chimney. Additions were made in 1804. 

170 Main Street and Village Green 

R. from Humphreys St. on Dudley St.; R. from Dudley St. on Shirley St. 

100. The Shirley-Eustis House (not open, 1937, but present ownership 
plans to restore as a museum), 31 Shirley St., was once a gubernatorial 
mansion in the grand manner. It is a four-story square frame structure 
with dormer windows and cupola built in 1748. Two wide stone flights 
of steps lead to the second or main floor. The west flight gives access to 
the entrance hall, while the east flight opens into a two-story banquet 
hall with a musicians' gallery. The east doorway is treated with pilasters, 
a fan-light, and side panels of glass. The house itself is also pilastered, 
and has an elaborate carved cornice. The windows of the main floor 
reach from floor to ceiling. Originally there were piazzas north and 
south. Occupied by Governor William Shirley until his death in 1771, 
it passed through a succession of merchant princes and then to William 
Eustis, Governor from 1823 to 1825. Its guests have included Washing- 
ton, Franklin, Lafayette, Webster, Clay, Calhoun, and Aaron Burr. 

Retrace Shirley St.; L. from Shirley St. on Dudley St.; R. from Dudley St. 
on Columbia Rd.; L. from Columbia Rd. on Hancock St.; R. from Hancock 
St. on Winter St. 

101. The First Parish Church (Unitarian) in Dorchester (open 9-5 daily 
by the -vestry entrance), Meeting House Hill, houses a Roman Mosaic from 
Dorchester, England, dating from the Conquest of Britain by Caesar. 
In the vestry is an Anglo-Chinese clock of 1770, the works English, the 
case Chinese, beautifully lacquered. This case, larger than needed for 
the clock, was used just before the Revolution for smuggling tea, an un- 
dertaking then considered so patriotic as not to disturb the conscience 
of the church when the gift of the clock was made. 

L. from Winter St. on Adams St.; R. from Adams St. on Dorchester Ave.; 
L. from Dorchester Ave. on Ashmont St. 

102. All Saints 1 Church, constructed in 1894, was the initial success of 
the contemporary medievalist, Ralph Adams Cram. In his autobiography 
he wrote : ' Into it I put all I knew or suspected of Gothic which to tell 

the truth was not much It struck a new note in the cacophony of 

disintegrating Romanesque and an arid Victorianism.' 

Retrace Ashmont St.; R. from Ashmont St. on Talbot Ave. 

103. Franklin Field has facilities for baseball, football, tennis, and 

R. from Talbot Ave. on Blue Hill Ave. 

104. Franklin Park, 527 acres of open, rolling terrain, beautifully wooded 
and watered, contains a public golf course and motor and bridle paths. 
The park forms a unit in a parkway chain which circles Boston southwest 
and south from Commonwealth Ave. to the Blue Hills. 

Franklin Park Zoo (open daily 10-5), corner of Seaver St., is one of the ranking 
zoos of America. Boston follows its news with absorbed interest, and new arrivals, 
whether by ship or by stork, are an occasion for headline stories and pictures in 
the press. 

Boston 171 

Retrace Blue Hill Aw.; R. from Blue Hill Ave. on American Legion High- 
way; R. from American Legion Highway on Morton St. (second unmarked 
road within park). 

105. Forest Hills Cemetery (plan and information furnished at office), 
famous for its rhododendron hedges, is the largest cemetery in New 
England and is known as one of the most beautiful in the United States. 
Here are buried Joseph Warren, William Lloyd Garrison, Fanny Daven- 
port, and Edward Everett Hale. 'Death Staying the Hand of the Sculp- 
tor,' a memorial by Daniel Chester French, marks the grave of Martin 

Straight ahead from Morton St. on Arborway; L. from Arborway on Wash- 
ington St. 

1 06. Stony Brook Reservation, West Roxbury, 464 acres, is the one forest 
park in Metropolitan Boston. It is densely wooded with pine, oak, and 
birch, but traversed by trunk motor highways and many paths, some of 
the latter leading to knolls which offer delightful views of the Charles 
River Valley. 

R. from Washington St. on La Grange St.; L. from La Grange St. on Centre 

107. The Roxbury Latin School, corner of St. Theresa Ave., the third 
oldest school still existing in the United States, is remarkable because 
it was for 250 years the oldest, if not the only, free school not aided by 
public funds. It was established by the Apostle John Eliot and 60 
families of Roxbury practically the entire town in 1645 by generous 
contributions of land, money, and labor. 

R. from Centre St. on Spring St.; R. from Spring St. on Baker St. 

1 08. Brook Farm (open as the Martin Luther Orphans' Home), 670 Baker 
St., was the scene of an early experiment (1841-47) in communal living 
by the Transcendentalists. Among actual members or associate partici- 
pants were Hawthorne, Emerson, Bronson Alcott, Theodore Parker, 
George W. Curtis, and Margaret Fuller. Everyone had some share of 
work, and all members shared in educational and social enjoyments. 
Under the influence of Albert Brisbane, father of the late Arthur Bris- 
bane, the associates adopted the phalanx according to the plan of Fourier, 
and established primary departments of agriculture, domestic industry, 
and mechanic arts. In March, 1846, one of the main buildings, the 
Phalanstery, was burned. At this heavy financial blow, the group, already 
somewhat discouraged, lost heart completely and disbanded in October, 

Retrace Baker St.; L. from Baker St. on USl; R. from US1 on Arborway. 

109. The Arnold Arboretum (for pedestrians only), just beyond USl, is 
the largest living-tree and shrub museum in the country as regards 
foreign introductions. In May and early June its 223 acres are a paradise 
of blooming lilac hedges and cherry trees, forsythias, plum trees, mag- 
nolias, rhododendrons, and azaleas. Endowed (1872) by the late James 

172 Main Street and Village Green 

Arnold, a New Bedford merchant, the Arboretum is owned by Harvard 
University (see CAMBRIDGE) and contains the buildings of Harvard's 
Bussey Institute of Horticulture and Agriculture. 

Retrace Arborway; R. from Arborway on Centre St. 

1 10. The Loring-Greenough House (1758) (open as a tearoom, except Tues.), 
12 South St., in Whitcomb Square, is set in sizable grounds which once 
extended half a mile to Jamaica Pond. It is a square two-story frame 
mansion, with dormer windows, painted white, black blinds, a dentiled 
cornice, a slate mansard roof, white roof-rail, and white chimneys. 
There are three formal doorways, one of which opens from a porch 
(added later). Another has an iron lock eighteen inches wide and a 
keyhole the size of the human eye. The wide hall is especially fine, having 
a hand-carved stair-rail imported from early Georgian England, and 
landscape wallpaper of the same period. The large square rooms are 
wainscoted in white and furnished with valuable and beautiful antiques. 
A feature of the house is a large vault, built between two chimney flues. 
The house was first the home of Commodore Joseph Loring, a Tory naval 
officer who distinguished himself in the conquest of Canada. In 1775, it 
was the headquarters of General Greene, and later a hospital for Ameri- 
can Revolutionary soldiers. 

Sharp L. from Whitcomb Square on Eliot St.; R. from Eliot St. on Pond St. 

in. The Children's Museum of Boston (open daily except Monday 9-5; 
Sun. 2-5; free), 60 Burroughs St., is a modern stucco building with white 
wood trim. Founded in 1913 and maintained by private subscription, 
its purpose is to stimulate the interest of children in the wonders and 
beauties of nature. Natural history specimens, including animal skele- 
tons, stuffed animals and birds, are displayed; and a collection of varie- 
gated minerals illustrates the simpler stages of geologic history. There is 
a small but instructive industrial exhibit, as well as a collection of dolls, 
ancient and modern, dressed in typical costumes of various countries. 

112. Jamaica Pond (refreshments and rowboats available; also fishing, by 
permit from Fish and Game Commission), junction of Pond St. and Arbor- 
way, a beautiful 65-acre expanse of fresh water, is encircled by 55 acres 
of parkway in the Boston Park Department. 

Straight ahead from Pond St. on Jamaicaway; R. from Jamaicaway on 
Perkins St.; straight ahead from Perkins St. on Centre St. 

113. The First Church in Roxbury (Unitarian) (open Tues. and Thurs. 
1-3; Sun. service 11), Eliot Square, erected in 1804, was built after the 
design of the First Unitarian Church in Portsmouth, New Hampshire, 
and was known as the Church of John Eliot, Apostle to the Indians. It is 
a typical New England meeting house, simple and dignified, with a clock- 
tower and open belfry. 

The interior, in ivory color and brown, has broad lateral galleries sup- 
ported by columns. There is a balcony pulpit, raised halfway between 
the floor and the galleries. Treasures of the church are John Eliot's 

Boston 173 

Chair and a Simon Willard Gallery Clock, surmounted by a spread eagle, 
holding in its beak two strings of gilded balls. This famous design has 
often been copied, but this clock is one of the two or three authentic 

114. The Dillaway House (open daily 9-5), 183 Roxbury St., originally 
the parsonage, built 1714, is a fine type of the two-and-a-half-story 
gambrel-roof dwelling with dormer windows. Some of the rooms show 
the supporting corner posts; some have rounded corners. The wide, 
uneven floor boards and the hand-hewn timbers of the roof, are original, 
as well as the door-knobs, hinges, and massive locks. 

Straight ahead on Roxbury St.; R. from Roxbury St. on Guild Row; L. from 
Guild Row on Dudley St.; R. from Dudley St. on Warren St. 

115. General Joseph Warren's Statue by Paul Bartlett, Warren Square, 
shows the physician and Revolutionary hero as a handsome, imperious 
young man in his early thirties. Quite indifferent to personal danger, 
Warren had been a marked man to the British ever since he had outwitted 
their guard at the Old South Meeting House and climbed through a 
second-story window over the heads of British soldiers, to address the 
patriots within. His death at the battle of Bunker Hill was mourned 
throughout Boston. 

Retrace Warren St.; straight ahead from Warren St. on Harrison Ave.; L. 
from Harrison Ave. on Massachusetts Ave.; R. from Massachusetts Ave. on 
Tremont St.; L.from Tremont St. on Dartmouth St.; R.from Dartmouth St. 
on Montgomery St. 

1 1 6. The Boston English High School founded in 1821, one year before 
Boston became a city, is the oldest high school in the United States. 

Straight ahead from Montgomery St. on Tremont St.; R.from Tremont St. on 
Castle St.; L. from Castle St. on Shawmut Ave. 

117. Morgan Memorial at the junction of Shawmut Ave. and Corning 
St., occupies a group of buildings. Here are the central offices of 
the far-famed Morgan Memorial activities, founded in 1868 by Henry 
Morgan. The various branches of this social service have been so ex- 
tended that they provide useful employment for many people unable to 
find work in other fields. The best-known of these projects is the Good- 
will Industries, which collects discarded clothing, furniture and household 
equipment of all sorts for resale. 

MOTOR TOUR 2 (Charlestown) 5m. 

N. from North Station, Boston, across Charlestown Bridge on Main St.; 
R. from Main St. on Chelsea St.; R. from Chelsea St. on Wapping St. 

1 1 8. United States Navy Yard (ppen daily 9.30-4.30; adm. to cars and 
pedestrians), popularly known as the Charlestown Navy Yard, and con- 

174 Main Street and Village Green 

tinuously operated since 1800, occupies 123 acres in a narrow, high-walled 
strip extending \y^ miles along the waterfront. The great attractions of 
the yard are the U.S. Frigate ' Constitution ' (' Old Ironsides ') (open during 
yard "visiting hours), and the Rope Walk, a long stone building where the 
great hempen cables of the fleet are carded, twisted, and wound. Ships in 
port may usually be visited. 

Retrace on Wapping St.; straight ahead on Henley St.; R.from Henley St. on 
Warren St.; R. from Warren St. on Winthrop St. 

119. Blinker Hill Monument on Breed's Hill (open 9-5, May to Sept. ; 9-4, 
Oct. to April; adm. 10^) is a granite obelisk about 220 feet high, designed by 
Solomon Willard, a noted architect, and erected between 1825 and 1842. 
Its design shows the influence of the Greek Revival which lamentably 
dominated American architecture at the time. At the base of the monu- 
ment is a Statue of Colonel William Prescott (' Don't fire until you see the 
whites of their eyes'), in a spirited pose, sculptured by William Wetmore 
Story. A small museum contains portraits, statues, and engravings of 
battle participants, both British and American. 

L. from Winthrop St. on High St.; L. from High St. on Cordis St. 

1 20. The Webb- Adams House (private), 32 Cordis St., with yellow clap- 
boards, low hip roof, small-paned windows, and semi-circular white Doric 
portico, is the best remaining example of the pleasant homes of nine- 
teenth-century Charlestown (1801). It has the frequent Charlestown 
feature of a front door at the garden side of the house, away from the 
street, frequent in Southern cities, but unusual in New England. 

Retrace on Cordis St.; L. from Cordis St. on High St.; L. from High St. on 
Green St. 

121. The Boys' 1 Club of Boston (open daily, 9-9; visitors welcome), founded 
in 1898, by Frank S. Mason, represents in its broad two-story brick build- 
ing, surrounding a flagged terrace, one of the finest civic undertakings in 
Boston. The combined membership, consisting of boys from 7 to 21, is 

R. from Green St. on Main St. 

122. The Site of the Birthplace of Samuel F. B. Morse, inventor of the 
telegraph, 195 Main St., is marked by a white marble tablet. 

L. from Main St. on Phipps St. 

123. The Phipps Street Burial Ground, at the end of the street, dates from 
1638. Here lies John Harvard, founder of Harvard College, beneath a 
granite shaft, erected in 1828, 190 years after his death, through popular 
subscription directed by Edward Everett, who limited contributions to 
one dollar a person, in order to give a large number of people a chance to 

Boston 175 

MOTOR TOUR 3 (East Boston) 5 m. 

N.E. from Haymarket Sq., Boston, through Sumner Tunnel. 

124. The Sumner Tunnel (fare for passenger car, 15^), constructed (1931- 
34) by the city at a cost pf $19,000,000, was named for General William 
H. Sumner, founder of East Boston. At the Boston terminal is a brick and 
granite administration building. The tunnel is more than a mile long and 
serves the seaboard north of the city, passing under the harbor and 
emerging in East Boston. Blow-plants at either end supply air-condition- 

L. from Sumner Tunnel on Porter St.; L. from Porter St. on Meridian St. 
into Central Square. 

125. The East Boston Social Centers Council (open) occupies an old red- 
brick building, formerly a church, in Central Square. Endowed by Jewish 
philanthropists, it offers to all creeds and races recreation, instruction in 
arts and crafts, music, drama, and health education. 

R. from Meridian St. on Paris St.; L. from Paris St. on Henry St. 

126. The Lutheran Seamen's Home, n Henry St., occupying a pair of old 
bow-front brick dwellings, is a Scandinavian bethel, where comfortable 
shelter, regardless of the recipient's ability to pay, is provided and leav- 
ened by a measure of home life and wise counsel. 

R. from Henry St. into Maverick Square; L. from Maverick Square on 
Sumner St.; R. from Sumner St. on Orleans St.; L. from Orleans St. at its end 
on unmarked Marginal St. 

127. Saint Mary's House for Sailors (open 8-10), 120 Marginal St., a 
recreational center founded in 1890 by Phillips Brooks, furnishes reading 
and game rooms, shower baths, and foreign money exchange service free. 
In a wing is Saint Mary's Church for Sailors (Episcopal) . 

128. The United States Immigration Station, 285 Marginal St., is not very 
busy in these days of restricted immigration. 

L. from Marginal St. on Jejfries St. 

129. The Boston Airport (daily airplanes to New York, Albany, Burlington, 
and Bangor connecting at those cities for all other points) occupies a two- 
story yellow brick terminal, surrounded by five hangars. 

BROCKTON. City of Shoes 

City: Alt. 120, pop. 62,407, sett. 1700, incorp. town 1821, city 1881. 

Railroad Stations: 104 Center St., 41 Station Ave., 31 Riverside Ave., and 847 
North Montello St. for N.Y., N.H. & H. R.R. 

Bus Stations: 104 Center St. and 233 Main St., for New England Transporta- 
tion Co.; Legion Parkway and Main St. for Great Eastern Line and Grey 
Line; 117 Main St. for Interstate Transportation Co. 

Accommodations: Four first-class hotels. 

Information: Chamber of Commerce, Legion Parkway. 

BROCKTON is one of the two great shoe-manufacturing centers of 
New England. The middle of the city is occupied by block after block 
of factories making shoes and shoe findings. From this core stretch the 
areas crowded with the homes of the workers, tenements, and small 
houses. Beyond these, chiefly toward the south, lie residential areas. 

In 1649 the lands now occupied by this city were deeded by the Indians 
to Miles Standish and John Alden for approximately thirty dollars. 
The district including Brockton was part of the town of Bridgewater 
until 1821, when it was set off as North Bridgewater. 

The Revolutionary War did not vitally affect the everyday lives of the 
townsfolk of North Bridgewater, the scene of actual hostilities being 
comparatively remote. But the post-Revolutionary depression found 
them vigorously opposing the ruthless laws affecting small debtors. 
Militant townsmen snatched their hunting guns from the walls and came 
out into the street in sympathy with Shays's Rebellion. 

Continuing their democratic traditions, the inhabitants of North Bridge- 
water played an important role in pre-Civil War days. The skilled shoe 
workers, most of whom had fled their respective countries to escape the 
tyranny of the old order and had come to America to help build a new 
and free world, felt a ready sympathy with the Negroes of the South. 
They became devoted followers of William Lloyd Garrison, and developed 
an intricate system of 'Underground Stations' to facilitate the escape 
of runaway slaves. 

In the second quarter of the nineteenth century, just prior to the Civil 
War, the invention of the McKay sewing machine, which made it possible 
to sew together the uppers and soles of shoes instead of pegging them, 
changed North Bridgewater from a small unimportant farming center 
to one of the foremost industrial cities in Massachusetts. 

Civil War days brought unparalleled prosperity to the owners of the 
shoe factories. Government orders for army shoes during the Civil 

Brockton 177 

War made it the largest shoe producing city in America. Half the Union 
Army was shod by North Bridgewater. 

Workers streamed into town, and by 1880 the population of Brockton 
- the name adopted in 1874 had more than tripled. William Cullen 
Bryant in describing the city said: 'The whole place resounds, rather 
rattles, with the machinery of shoe shops, which turn out millions of 
shoes, not one of which, I am told, is sold in the place.' 

Before the Civil War the social life of Brockton consisted almost wholly 
of church functions characterized by a minimum of gaiety a residuum 
from Puritan days. With the influx of foreign-born workers communal 
gatherings assumed a livelier cast. Public dances became the vogue. 
The Swedish workers were the first church group to sanction dancing, 
holding their parties in the church vestry. Volunteer firemen grouped 
themselves into engine companies and soon became leaders in the social 
life of the community. The Firemen's Ball became the most brilliant 
and colorful social event of the year. Local dramatic groups produced 
such plays as 'Uncle Tom's Cabin' and 'Ten Nights in a Bar-Room.' 
The young bloods formed secret societies and musical clubs. The 
workers organized into trade unions, and various foreign-language groups 
erected halls which were later to become community centers. 

Civic improvement kept pace with the rapid industrial and social 
growth of the town. It is claimed that the first central power station 
in the United States from which power was distributed through three- 
wire underground conductors was located here, becoming the present 
Edison Electric Company. An early experimental street railway espe- 
cially built for the use of electric power was developed here, and Thomas 
Alva Edison came to Brockton to see the first car run over the line. 
In 1893, Brockton worked out a solution of the sewage disposal problem 
for inland cities, and investigating committees came from foreign coun- 
tries as well as from many cities of the United States to learn the Brock- 
ton system and arrange for its adoption. 

In 1929, in the neighborhood of Brockton there were thirty thousand 
skilled shoe workers employed in sixty factories. Three of the largest 
shoe manufacturing corporations in America are today located in Brock- 
ton, as are also several of the largest plants producing tools and supplies 
for the shoe industry. 

During the last few years the emigration of shoe industries from New 
England, due to attractive offers of cheap unorganized labor and tax 
rebatements in other States, has noticeably affected Brockton. This 
movement, along with antiquated production methods and lack of 
foresight on the part of the manufacturers, has been a primary factor 
in the decline of the shoe industry. Between 1919 and 1929 local pro- 
duction fell off forty-nine per cent. 

On the whole, Brockton has been remarkably fortunate in relationships 
between employer and employee. Aside from two large strikes, the city 
did not participate in the series of violent industrial revolts that swept 

178 Main Street and Village Green 

the country at the beginning of the twentieth century. Eighty per cent 
of the local shoe workers are members of the Brotherhood of Shoe and 
Allied Craftsmen. Brockton had one of the first Socialist mayors in the 
United States, Charles Coulter, elected in 1900. 


1. The Brockton Fair Grounds, on Belmont St., are the property of the 
Agricultural Society. The Brockton Fair, held here in September, has 
been famous since 1874. It includes agricultural, industrial, and educa- 
tional exhibits, vaudeville acts, an automobile show, horse and automobile 
races, and other popular attractions. 

2. The Bryant House (open; present occupant, a relative of the poet, permits 
visitors), 815 Belmont St., corner of Lorraine Ave., is a simple unpainted 
frame dwelling. Here William Cullen Bryant lived for a time while 
studying law, and here the famous New England poet is said to have 
composed 'Yellow Violet' and a part of 'To a Waterfowl.' 

3. Stone House Hill, opposite 330 Belmont St., has a boulder-studded, 
pine-covered crest from which, or from a rock near-by, according to tradi- 
tion, the Indians relayed smoke signals from Plymouth to the Blue Hills. 

4. The Public Library (open weekdays 9-9, Sun. 3-9), White Ave. and 
Main St., will eventually house the Walter Bryant Copeland Collection 
of American Masters of Art, which was bequeathed to the city with a fund 
to maintain it. 

5. The Walk-Over Shoe Factory and Club (open; permission at office], 82 
Perkins Ave., occupies the old Keith plant, which includes a hospital with 
health clinics, clubhouses, and a park. 

6. The W. L. Douglas Shoe Factory (open; permission at office), occupies 
133-173 Spark St. Begun in 1876 by W. L. Douglas with a capital of 
$875 and a small group of carefully chosen workmen, it has grown into 
a $10,000,000 business. 

7. D. W. Field Park, Oak St., beautified by woods, gardens, ponds and 
artificial waterfalls, is one of the show places of the State. From a tower 
in the grounds it is possible to see Plymouth and Massachusetts Bay. 
Municipal golf links adjoin the park, which was named after a citizen 
who helped to create it Daniel Waldo Field (1856), leading shoe manu- 
facturer, agriculturist, dairyman, philanthropist, and author. 

BROOKLINE. Opulent Comfort 

Town: Alt. 18, pop. 50,319, sett, about 1638, incorp. 1705. 

Railroad Station: Brookline Station, Station St., for B. & A. R.R. 

Bus Station: Blueway Line, Boston to Springfield, stops at Brookline Village, 

115 Washington St. 

Accommodations: Three hotels and several private houses. 
Swimming: Municipal Pool, Tappan St. (fee 10). Separate hours for men and 

Annual Events: National championship tennis matches at Longwood Cricket 

Club; horse show and races at Brookline Country Club. 
Information: Chamber of Commerce, 306 Harvard St. 

BROOKLINE is almost exclusively a residential town. Over its three 
hills, Fisher Hill, Corey Hill, Aspinwall Hill, and along Beacon Street 
and Commonwealth Avenue, around the Reservoir and over into Chest- 
nut Hill, spread the homes of people who find their source of income in 
the business districts of Boston. In the first decade of the twentieth 
century, Brookline was popularly known as the 'Town of Millionaires.' 
By 1910, however, it had begun to open its doors to residents of far 
more modest means. Restricted areas are still occupied by hedged and 
landscaped estates, handsome showplaces of the metropolitan area. In 
other sections the beautiful old estates have begun to be split into 
house lots; apartments have appeared, especially along the boulevards; 
large private dwellings have been turned into rooming houses. Half of 
Brookline still remains the closed citadel of wealth and leisure; the other 
half has become a modern residential hive for the better paid of the busy 
workers of Boston. 

In 1630, the Company of Massachusetts Bay, bringing the Charter and 
its Governor, John Winthrop, arrived from London. Shortly afterward 
the worthy citizens of old Boston found their Common overcrowded 
with cows, and the town fathers found it needful to seek a new place to 
the west for grazing. 

Governor Winthrop first mentions 'Muddy River Hamlet' in his writings 
in connection with early allotments made for 'planting.' John Cotton, 
urbane, affable, and of easy fortune, as his well-fed embonpoint testified 
the foremost divine of Boston was granted the first tract of land. 
Following him, other distinguished citizens of Boston hastened to secure 
for themselves generous grants, until by 1639 the available acreage 
began to run decidedly short. After the first famous allotment of Janu- 
ary 8, 1638, the grants were smaller, more numerous, and made to less 
well-known applicants. 

In the earliest days, agriculture was naturally the most important in- 

i8o Main Street and Village Green 

dustry. Truck farms raising produce for sale in Boston, and fields, 
were under cultivation as early as 1662, and a clerk of market was ap- 
pointed to represent the Muddy River farmers at Old Faneuil Hall 
Market, Boston. Growth of the little village went forward, and in 1705 
it was granted recognition as the separate town of Muddy River Hamlet 
(now euphemistically called Brookline), having been named for the estate 
of Judge Samuel Sewall, of witchcraft fame, who owned a large tract 
in Muddy River. 

During the Revolution much property in Brookline owned by Boston 
Tories was confiscated. A Mr. Jackson, living near the present Public 
Library, sold his home and moved away when he was forced to provide 
quarters for Continental soldiers. The house of Henry Moulton, man- 
damus counsellor for the British Government, was mobbed by a crowd 
of boys who broke the windows with stones. 

By the middle of the nineteenth century a larger town hall was built; 
the first railroad ran through the town; telegraph posts and wires were 
beginning to appear; the Coolidges had a store near the spot later to be 
known as Coolidge Corner. 

As time passed, many leading citizens of Boston were attracted to this 
flourishing suburb, so far removed in appearance as well as in name from 
the Old Muddy River Hamlet. Taxes were low. Brookline was near 
Boston and could be reached by train and trolley in a short time at a 
moderate fare. It was an ideal commuter's town. 

In 1870, Boston attempted to annex Brookline. Aroused, the citizens 
gathered in town meeting and blocked this proposal. Five times more 
did Boston attempt to pull out this coveted plum from the political 
pie, but each time met with failure, though at times the margin of votes 
was narrow. Brookline is today an 'island' almost entirely surrounded 
by Boston. A modified form of town government is still maintained to 
avoid expense and political complications, although the population of 
Brookline makes it by far the largest town in New England. In the last 
forty years the racial character of the general population has materially 
changed; it is now about equally divided among native inhabitants, 
foreign-born residents, and those of mixed parentage. Among the latter, 
the Irish strain predominates, with the Jewish influence second. 

Among the famous citizens of Brookline was Hannah Adams, said to be 
the first woman in America to follow the profession of literature. In 
recent times the roll of honor has included such diverse personalities as 
Serge Koussevitzky, conductor of the Boston Symphony Orchestra; 
Jack Sharkey, the former heavyweight champion prize-fighter of the 
world; and the poet, Amy Lowell, known to the general public as much 
for her masculine appearance, her blunt speech, and her long black 
cigars as for 'What's O'clock' or 'A Dome of Many-Coloured Glass.' 
During her later years, however, Miss Lowell was the most striking 
figure in contemporary American poetry. She lectured widely. Among 
her contributions to poetry must be reckoned the perfecting, in her best 

Brookline 181 

work, of the technique of free verse; her almost unrivaled command of 
the vocabulary of sensuous impressions; the wide range of the themes 
to which she has given poetical expression; and the clarity and restrained 
beauty of many of her shorter poems. Her most important critical work 
was the biography of John Keats. 

TOUR 14 m. 

W. from State 9 (Boylston St.) on Washington St. 

1. The Brookline Public Library (open weekdays, 8.30-9; Sat. 2-9), at 361 
Washington St., was designed by R. Clipston Sturgis and erected in 1910. 
It is set well back from the street in landscaped grounds. The library 
houses the Desmond Fitzgerald Collection of Paintings, in which among 
other artists are represented Maufra, Bloos, Banderweiden, and Dodge 

R. from Washington on School St.; L. from School on Harvard St. 

2. The Harvard Congregational Church, Harvard and Marion Sts., is 
a low rambling brownstone building in Gothic style with a high tower 
which contains an unusually fine set of chimes. It was designed by 
E. Tuckerman Potter and erected in 1873. 

L. from Harvard St. into Marion St.; L. from Marion into Beacon St. 

3. All Saints 7 Church, 1773 Beacon St., consecrated in 1926, and like 
the cathedrals of Europe built slowly over a period of years, was one of 
the first large churches undertaken by Cram, Goodhue, and Ferguson. 
It shows the influence of the ' perpendicular ' churches of England late 
Gothic design. The high walls, low-pitched roof, and restrained use of 
carving are characteristic. The rose window, by Charles F. Connick of 
Boston the American authority on stained glass is a notable feature. 

Retrace Beacon St.; L. from Beacon into Summit Ave., a steep grade. 

4. The Corey Hill Outlook (alt. 265) is the best vantage-point of Brookline. 
Beneath it, to the west, lie the towns of Brighton and Watertown, with 
the tower of Perkins Institution for the Blind, and the Watertown Ar- 
senal, a group of gray-brick buildings, standing out among the huddle of 
roofs. To the north the horseshoe of the Harvard Stadium is easily 
distinguished, with the towers of the college buildings on its right. To 
the east the Charles River widens to its greatest breadth and merges 
with Boston Harbor in the distance. 

Retrace Summit Ave.: L. from Summit Ave. on Beacon St. 

5. The Brookline Trust Company, at 1341 Beacon St., has the Ernest 
B. Dane Collection of Tapestries, which includes four Gobelin tapestries 

valued at $2,000,000. 

L. from Beacon St. on Harvard St. 

1 82 Main Street and Village Green 

6. The Edward Devotion House (open Sat. 2-4; adm. lO^f), at 347 Harvard 
St., was built in 1680 by Edward Devotion, town perambulator, town 
constable, fence viewer, and tythingman. The neat cream and yellow 
two-and-a-half-story frame house with small-paned windows, gambrel 
roof, and central chimney stands on the premises of the Devotion School. 
Two old maples shade and partly hide the little house, which is now the 
headquarters of the Brookline Historical Society. 

Retrace Harvard St.; L. from Harvard St. on Beacon St.; L. from Beacon 
St. on Amory St. 

7. Hawes Pond (skating), lies in the Amory St. Playground. Tradition 
has it that a white horse and wagon once sank in its reputedly bottomless 
depths, and for many years thereafter it was known as White Horse Pond. 

Retrace Amory St.; R. from Amory St. on Beacon St.; L. from Beacon 
St. into Kent St.; L. from Kent St. on Aspinwall Ave.; L. from Aspinwall 
Ave. into Netherlands Rd. 

8. The Netherlands House (private), is a close copy of the Stadthuise at 
Franeker in Fresland (i6th century). From the World's Columbian Ex- 
position held at Chicago in 1893, where it served as the Dutch Cocoa 
House, it was moved piece by piece and set up in its present location. 
The door frame, embellished with stone animals, is a replica of the door- 
way of the Enkhaisen Orphanage. 

Retrace Netherlands Rd.; L. on Aspinwall Ave.; R. from Aspinwall Ave. 
on Brookline Ave.; R.from Brookline Ave. on Boylston St.; R.from Boylston 
St. on Buckminster Rd.; L. from Buckminster Rd. on Seaver St. 

9. The Zion Research Library (open daily 1.30-4.30), 120 Seaver St., is 
a non-sectarian institution for the study of the Bible and church history. 
The building, a brownstone mansion of 60 rooms, once John Munro 
Longyear's private residence in Bay City, Michigan, was carried stone by 
stone to its present location on the crest of Fisher Hill. 

Retrace Seaver St.; R.from Seaver St. into Buckminster Rd.; R.from Buck- 
minster Rd. into Summer St.; across Boylston St., entering Warren St. 

10. The Davis-Cabot-Goddard Home or Green Hill (private), 215 Warren 
St., on one of the tall inner chimneys bears the inscription, 'Greenhill 
1730.' The first-floor windows and their sturdy green blinds are ten feet 
high. The wallpaper in the living-room is of the design known as Les Rives 
du Bosphore, and was printed in colors from wooden blocks by Joseph 
Defour in Paris; the dates ascribed to this design vary from 1816 to 1829. 
The rear wing, with its floors three feet lower than those in the original 
house, is a long, low, rambling addition. 

L.from Warren St. into Cottage St.; R. from Cottage into Goddard Ave. 

11. Green Hill (The Goddard House; private), 235 Goddard Ave., was 
built as a farmhouse for Nehemiah Davis in 1732. The great drawing- 
room with chambers above was added in 1797, and subsequent alterations 
have been made. This house is one of the oldest in Brookline. Just beyond 
the house is a cone-shaped pudding-stone boulder set in an alcove of young 

Cambridge 183 

evergreens, with a bronze tablet to Hannah Seaver Goddard and her 
husband John Goddard, loyal patriot and wagonmaster-general during 
the Revolution. In the barn, long since demolished, were secreted military 
stores which Goddard carted to Concord in 1775. 
Straight ahead into Newton St.; R. from Newton St. on Clyde St. 

12. The Country Club (adm. by invitation), claimed to be the oldest course 
in the United States, was established in 1882. Along Clyde St. the 
grounds, over 100 acres, are enclosed by a high wooden beanpole fence. 
Here are perpetuated the ancient sport of curling and various turf sports, 
as well as the more modern horse-racing, steeple-chase, and golf. In the 
dining-room are several interesting murals depicting hunting scenes, 
painted by Karl Yens. 

Retrace Clyde St.; R. from Clyde St. on Newton St.; straight ahead into 
West Roxbury Parkway. 

13. The Municipal Golf Course is one of the finest public courses in the 
vicinity of Boston (available to transients; small fee). 

R. from West Roxbury Parkway on Hammond St. 

14. The Longwood Cricket Club is at the junction of Hammond and 
Boylston Sts. This organization sponsors national annual tennis tourna- 

Retrace Hammond St.; L. from Hammond St. on Boylston St. 

15. A Tercentenary Marker opposite Reservoir Park indicates the Site 
of the Zabdiel Boylston House. Here, in 1736, lived Dr. Zabdiel Boylston, 
the first American physician to inoculate for smallpox. In 1721, despite 
popular prejudice, he inoculated his son and two slaves. As a consequence 
of the success of this experiment, smallpox inoculations gradually became 
general, public hostility was reduced, and smallpox finally ceased to be 
a scourge. 

CAMBRIDGE. University City 

City: Alt. 9, pop. 118,075, sett - 1630, incorp. town 1636, city 1846. 
Railroad Station: Cambridge Station near Porter Square, for B. & M. R.R. 
Bus Stations: Bence Pharmacy, 1607 Mass. Ave., for B. & M. Transportation 
Company; Leavitt and Pierce, Harvard Square, for Frontier Coach. 

Accommodations: Five hotels, including 3 apartment hotels, and a large number 
of certified tourist homes. 

184 Main Street and Village Green 

Swimming: Magazine Beach, Memorial Drive. 

Annual Events: Ride of William Dawes, April 19. 

Information Service: Booth at Harvard Square (summers only). 

ON THE northwest bank of the beautiful Charles River, occupying a 
level plain broken only by Mt. Auburn, lies the city of Cambridge, bi- 
sected by the busy arteries of Massachusetts Avenue and Mt. Auburn 
Street and bordered by the leisurely sweep of Memorial Drive. In reality 
four cities occupy its confines. Here in elm-shaded streets, in fenced door- 
yards and landmarks that preserve treasured memories, still live Old 
Cambridge and that second Cambridge which succeeded it, the Home of 
the Literati. And here, visible in contemporaneous lusty existence, are 
two other cities : the University City and one other the Unknown City. 
The University City shelters ten thousand people within the walls of the 
Harvard dormitories, and Harvard Yard is a hive of learning vaster than 
any Tibetan monastery. The University City houses a thousand Rad- 
cliffe students in beautiful Georgian Colonial brick buildings. The Uni- 
versity City may claim the Massachusetts Institute of Technology 
(1861), the leading technical institute in the United States, and one of the 
foremost in the world, with 2600 men and women students. 

This Cambridge is famous. The story of its historic shrines, its illustrious 
authors and poets, its learned scholars and scientists, has been told and 
retold. But the story of Cambridge, the Unknown City, has seldom been 

Yet this is a very real Cambridge. A hundred and fifty thousand people 
throng its streets, stores, and crowded subway stations. Five hundred 
distributing and manufacturing plants pour out a score of nationally 
known products. The streets of its mercantile sections are lined with 
banks, motion-picture theaters, department stores, and more than one 
thousand small retail stores. It presses in between Harvard Yard and the 
vast Technology Unit; it surges toward the elegant Embankment; it 
encroaches on the placid dignity of Brattle Street and Lincoln Lane; the 
city of which one seldom hears but which no one should ignore : Cambridge 
the Industrial City. 

This Unknown City is the second of Massachusetts in the value of goods 
manufactured; it is third in all New England, outranked only by Boston 
and Providence. Huge factories pour forth goods, including candy, bread, 
and soap, into the great stream of American commerce and industry. 
Within its confines over a hundred thousand workers dwell. 

So they stand, interlocked, interpenetrated, Cambridge the University 
City and Cambridge the great Industrial City; and behind them and with- 
in them in surviving landmarks lie the shadows of two other cities: Old 
Cambridge and the Home of the Literati. 

OLD CAMBRIDGE dates back over three centuries. In 1630, the Com- 
pany of Massachusetts Bay arrived from London with its charter and 

Cambridge 185 

its Governor, John Winthrop. A fortified place was needed for a cap- 
ital, protected against the enemy most to be feared not the Indians, 
but the warships of King Charles. ' Wherefore they rather made choice 
to enter further among the Indians, than hazzard the fury of malignant 
adversaries that might pursue them . . . and erected a town called New 
Towne, now named Cambridge.' 

Great pains were taken in laying out and building the 'New Towne/ 
One of its earliest visitors describes it as 'having many fair structures 
with many handsomely contrived streets one of the neatest towns in 
New England. The inhabitants, most of them, are very rich.' 

An early episode had much to do with determining New Towne's destiny. 
In October, 1636, the General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony 
agreed to give 400 towards a school or college a sum equal to the 
whole colony tax. It remained to select the place. 

The preceding year a solemn synod of the teaching elders had been called 
at the little meeting house on Dunster Street, Cambridge, to put down the 
dangerous and disturbing doctrines of Mistress Anne Hutchinson of Bos- 
ton, a strong-minded and brilliant New England woman who took the 
liberty of expressing lively doubts as to the Boston clergy's being the 
recipients of divine inspiration. This first New England synod was dom- 
inated by the Rev. Mr. Shepard of New Towne; and Mistress Hutchinson 
was condemned by the General Court together with about eighty others 
for opinions 'some blasphemous, others erroneous, all unsound.' 

As the country was ' miserably distracted ' by a storm of Baptists and other 
'unorthodox sects,' and as 'the vigilancy of Mr. Shepard preserved the 
congregation from the rot of these opinions,' Cotton Mather, the eminent 
Puritan divine, says that Cambridge was selected as the site of the new 
college because it was ' under the soul-ravishing ministry of Mr. Thomas 

At the time there was living in Charlestown a young dissenting minister, 
John Harvard, and as the friends of higher education ' were thinking and 
consulting, how to effect this great work ... it pleased God that he died, 
and it was then found he had bequeathed his library to the proposed col- 
lege, and one-half his estate in all, some 1,700.' It was therefore 
decreed that the new college should bear John Harvard's name. The 
Court also ordered that 'New towne shall henceforth be called Cam- 
bridge,' the name of the Old English University town. 

Less than a decade later, once more in solemn synod, the solid men of the 
town assembled to set forth a document of all known opposites to the 
Church of England. This was the famous ' Cambridge Platform,' wherein 
the powers of the clergy were minutely defined, and the duty of the com- 
mon people stated to be ' obeying their elders and submitting themselves 
unto the Lord.' By this action Church and State were united by law, and 
the rule of the clergy was made absolute. 

In spite of all this, there shortly appeared in Boston 'an accursed and 
pernicious sect of heretics lately risen up in the world, who are commonly 

1 86 Main Street and Village Green 

called Quakers.' The plague spread, and the horrified people of Cambridge 
beheld Elizabeth Horton passing through the streets crying, ' Repentance ! 
Repentance ! A day of howling and sad lamentation is coming upon you 
from the Lord!' Elizabeth was soon laid hold of by a mob and cast into 
jail; then tied to a whipping-post and lashed ten stripes with a three- 
stringed whip having three knots at the end. Then they carried her, 
miserably torn and beaten, many miles into the wilderness, and toward 
night 'left her among the wolves, bears, and wild beasts.' 

The Devil, however, continued to afflict Old Cambridge ; and the Mathers, 
father and son, as God's appointed judges, jousted vigorously with him. 

At Harvard, Bible study was most important. The student was expected 
to live under a monastic code. The main aim of his life was * to know God 
and Jesus Christ.' All his acts were performed under the vigilant eye of 
the Town Watch. He was to read the Scriptures twice a day, and not to 
'intrude or inter-meddle on other men's affairs.' He could not 'buy, sell, 
or exchange anything above the value of a sixpence,' nor could he use 
tobacco without permission of the president or prescription of a physi- 
cian, and then only 'in a sober and private manner.' 

In spite of all this praiseworthy regulation, however, the infant college, 
which should have been a stronghold of piety, was not free from the 
taint of 'willfulle heresie.' There was the painful conduct of President 
Dunster, who obstinately would neither renounce nor conceal his opposi- 
tion to infant baptism, and who was therefore haled before a Grand Jury 
and removed from office for ' poisoning the minds of his students and thus 
unfitting them to become preachers of the truth.' By the early quarter 
of the eighteenth century the College had fallen into a sad state of 
decay. Its buildings were dilapidated, the number of students reduced, 
and all available funds did not amount to 1000. 

Cambridge in those days was still primitive. The forest was still near at 
hand and the town had not yet 250 taxable inhabitants. 'A great many 
bears are killed at Cambridge and the neighboring towns about this time,' 
wrote student Belknap of Harvard. 

But the town had its elegant sophistication. The wealthy and aristocratic 
families who gave social strength to the Church 'made a superior figure 
to most in the country.' The Phipses, Inmans, Vassalls, Sewalls, Lees, 
Ruggles, Olivers, and Lechmeres were all in easy circumstances. The 
whole easterly part of the town was divided into a few great farms, and 
the luxurious estates stretching along Brattle Street on the highway to 
Watertown won for it the name of Tory Row. 

Tories were, however, soon to become decidedly unpopular in Cambridge. 
In 1768, delegates from ninety-five towns met in patriotic protest at 
Faneuil Hall among them two Cambridge delegates. On March 8, 
1770, the solemn tolling of the bell in the meeting house in Cambridge 
mingled with the tones of the bells at Charlestown and Roxbury while the 
victims of the Boston Massacre were carried through the streets of Bos- 
ton to their burial. In May of that year, the House of Representatives 

Cambridge 187 

sat in the halls of Harvard College. In 1772, events were moving rapidly 
toward the crisis. Cambridge elected a revolutionary committee of ten 
despite the efforts of William Brattle, its Tory Moderator, to prevent it. 
The night following the famous Boston Tea Party thousands of people 
assembled round the courthouse steps, forcing the Crown's officials to 
resign, including High Sheriff, Judges, and Councillors. 

One evening a party of British soldiers dined in Cambridge, arousing great 
suspicion. That night, hoofbeats echoed in the frosty air Paul Revere 
set out on his midnight ride ; William Dawes, his comrade, galloped over 
the Great Bridge into Cambridge to arouse the town. The women and 
children, awakened by the 'horrors of that midnight cry were bidden to 
take refuge near Fresh Pond away from the Redcoats' line of march.' 
From all quarters, small companies of militia and Minutemen were has- 
tening to Cambridge. 

By the end of the week a rude army of fifteen to twenty thousand men had 
assembled. For the next year, after the nineteenth of April, 1775, Cam- 
bridge became the headquarters of the first American army. 

Shortly after the Battle of Bunker Hill, a cavalcade of citizens and a 
troop of light horse gathered by the Watertown road. There they were 
met by General George Washington, newly commissioned Commander. 
The weathered bronze tablet on the Common gate tells the rest of the 

Story: Near this Spot 

on July 3, 1775 

George Washington 

took command of the American Army. 

Through a glass, from a 'crow's-nest' erected in the branches of a tree, 
Washington surveyed the surrounding country. A citizen wrote : ' Thou- 
sands are at work, every day from four until eleven o'clock in the morning. 
. . . There is a great overturning in Camp. Generals Washington and Lee 
are upon the line every day. Everyone is made to know his place, and keep 
in it or be tied up and receive forty lashes.' 

On the first day of the new year, over the camp a new flag of thirteen 
stripes was unfurled, symbolizing the union of the thirteen Colonies. On 
the second day of March, the booming of cannon and mortar announced 
that the bombardment of Boston had begun. A sortie and counter at- 
tack by the British was expected ; but on the seventeenth day of March the 
British troops were seen moving out of the city. Boston was evacuated 
and Washington left for New York soon after. The military days of 
Cambridge were ended. 

After the Revolution, the life of the little town flowed along. The church 
gave an impulse to the college, the college to the town, and a scholastic 
and literary atmosphere took form, regarded as the epitome of American 
culture even by critical European intellectuals. Cambridge, borne on a 
sluggish but smooth and comfortable current, was entering upon the 
second chapter of its existence, as the Home of the Literati. 

1 88 Main Street and Village Green 

Oliver Wendell Holmes, the kindly 'Autocrat of the Breakfast Table,' 
brilliant talker and disarming wit, too sympathetic to practice medicine 
despite his brilliant contribution in the discovery of puerperal fever, at 
fifty had embarked on a new career literature. Associated with him 
was a young Harvard 'professor of modern languages, Henry Wadsworth 
Longfellow. No poems of the era entered more deeply into the life of 
the people than Longfellow's. 'The Psalm of Life' was translated before 
the century was out into fifteen languages. The children of Cambridge 
subscribed to give him an armchair from the wood of the 'spreading 
chestnut tree.' James Russell Lowell, also a Harvard professor, and also 
a poet, author of the famous 'Biglow Papers,' was twice appointed 
United States ambassador, once to Spain and once to the Court of St. 
James's. In London his popularity was tremendous in literary circles. 

Now appeared the North A merican Review, devoted to the ' true revival 
of polite learning,' its editors and its foremost contributors mainly from 
Cambridge. Similarly came into being The Dial, the journal of the 
famous Transcendental Club, edited by the brilliant Margaret Fuller. 
Two famous presses, the University Press and The Riverside Press, were 
a practical factor in this literary domination. 

The history of Cambridge is peppered with the names of scholars, his- 
torians, and scientists. Among the historians are Henry Adams, Ticknor, 
John Fiske, and Palfrey. To these may be added distinguished European 
scholars, among them the great scientist Louis Agassiz from Switzerland ; 
Francis Sales, that living Gil Bias in hairpowder and pigtail, from France. 

By the last quarter of the eighteenth century, Cambridge the University 
City was far beyond the embryo stage. ' This business of teaching, lodg- 
ing, boarding and clothing and generally providing for the [Harvard] 
students [who numbered five hundred] was the occupation of the ma- 
jority of the households of the Old Village.' College and town, mutually 
dependent, grew steadily during the next century. 

One evening in 1878, Dr. Oilman, a noted teacher, historian, and author, 
invited Prof. Greenough and his wife to come to his house to talk over a 
very important matter, namely, the foundation of a college for women. 

Radcliffe was created, unofficially, in 1879, as a mere association of 
Harvard instructors, who agreed that in response to popular demand 
they would give women 'some opportunity for systematic study in 
courses parallel to those of the University.' There was no official con- 
nection with Harvard until 1894. In that year the new college was 
formally named Radcliffe, in honor of Ann Radcliffe of England, donor 
of the first Harvard scholarship fund. The new institution of learning was 
long known among the irreverent as Harvard Annex, and serious qualms 
were felt by the respectable citizenry of Cambridge at the idea of ' hosts 
of young women walking unescorted through the town.' 
Today, though Radcliffe has its own President and other administrative 
officers, the counter-signature of the President of Harvard on all diplomas 
officially establishes standards of scholarship equal to those of Harvard. 

Cambridge 1 89 

In 1916 another and most distinguished institution of learning added 
itself to Cambridge, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Late 
one August afternoon, a procession, its members clad as Venetian sailors 
and led by a marshal in the crimson and velvet of a Doge, moved slowly 
to the river edge in Boston. Followed by a group of men in gowns and 
crimson hoods, and bearing a great gilded and ornamental chest contain- 
ing charter and archives, the solemn procession moved forward. They 
were met by a Venetian barge, which, under the eyes of ten thousand 
spectators, bore them away to the other shore. 

The processional solemnity, the colorful spectacle, the silent throngs 
massed on both banks of the river, the hovering sailboats and motor 
craft, constituted a peculiarly appropriate celebration of a civic event of 
tremendous import: the University City had come of age. 

So, too, but without heralds or fanfare, the date unnoticed and unre- 
corded, had the Industrial City. 

While Washington was still President, the building of the Unknown 
City began. One of its founders was a lad who walked ninety miles from 
a New Hampshire farm to make his fortune. From good Deacon Liver- 
more he learned to make brown soap. Today from his efforts stands the 
Lever Brothers Soap Works, one of the largest in the country. 

One of its founders was a cook on a Nova Scotia fishing schooner, a boy 
of sixteen who came to Cambridge to seek his fortune, paying his toll 
over the bridge with a lead pencil. He learned to make coffins, and today 
his business is part of the National Casket Company. 

Two of its founders, named Little and Brown, were clerks in a bookstore. 
They, with Henry O. Houghton, founder of The Riverside Press, estab- 
lished two great publishing houses in Boston. 

The stories of these men and a hundred more read like those of Oliver 
Optic, and are stranger than fiction. Among them were the farsighted 
men who built the town buildings on the edge of a marsh in the far 
corner of the town and reclaimed the useless mud flats along the river, 
where great factories stand today. They made the laws, freed the 
bridges from tolls, founded the banks, and kept the town records. Old 
residents still recall the hundred and twenty-four foot chimney of the 
New England Glass Company, and the great banquet held on its top the 
day that it was completed. 

Before mid-century the Unknown City was a going concern with eight 
times as many workers in its factories as there were students in the 

Today the country's first ladder factory and the great carriage works 
are but memories. So, too, are the immense ice cuttings on Fresh Pond, 
from which the ice trade of the country was controlled. But here, laying 
the foundations of today's industrial city, was made the first galvanized 
iron pipe, relieving thousands of tinsmiths from making their pipe by 
hand. Here were the machines that produced the first piano keys, and, 




in humbler fields, perfected flowerpots, the famous reversible collars, 
waterproof hats, and the first mechanical egg-beater. Call the roll of the 
industries today and Kendall Square will answer: Ink, machineries, and 
foundries; glass, rubber, food and cracker factories. Call the roll and 
North Cambridge and Cambridgeport will answer: Binderies, printeries, 
and paper boxes; wire cable, valves, and boilers. 

Here it lies, crowded in between and around two great universities: a 
city of workers, most of whose thousands never even dreamed of going to 
college, many of whom never even completed high school; yet a city no 
less real than its intellectual other self, with no less lusty a heritage and 
no less potent and problematic a future. 

FOOT TOUR 1 1.5 m. 

SW. from Harvard Square on Brattle St.; R. from Brattle St. 

i. The Brattle Mansion (open), 42 Brattle St., is a three-story, clap- 
boarded, gambrel-roofed house with dormer windows, shorn of much of 
its former glory, but otherwise well preserved as the home of the Cam- 


1. Brattle Mansion 

2. Site of Village Smithy 

3. Cock Horse Tearoom 

4. Read House 

5. Samuel Longfellow's Home 

6. House that John Fiske Built 

7. Belcher House 

8. Craigie-Longfellow House 

9. Longfellow Park 

10. Campus of Radcliffe College 

11. Site of the Washington Elm 

12. Christ Church 

13. Old Town Burying Ground 

14. First Parish Church 

15. George Washington Memorial 

1 6. Common 

17. Wadsworth House 

1 8. Harvard Yard 

19. Chinese Student Memorial 

20. Widener Library 

21. New Yard 

22. University Hall 

23. Statue of John Harvard 

24. Massachusetts Hall 

25. Harvard Hall 

26. Hollis and Stoughton Halls 

27. Holworthy Hall 

28. Holden Chapel 

29. Appleton Chapel 

30. Robinson Hall 

31. Sever Hall 

32. Emerson Hall 

33. Fogg Art Museum 

34. Memorial Hall 

35. Germanic Museum 

36. Semitic Museum 

37. Biological Laboratories 

38. University Museum 

39. Children's Museum of Cambridge 

40. Harvard Law School 

41. Site of the first Meeting House 

42. Bishop's Palace 

43. New Houses 

44. Harvard Business School 

51. Cambridge Observatory of Har- 
vard University 

52. Botanic Garden of Harvard 

53. Cooper-Frost-Austin House 

54. Site of Oliver Wendell Holmes' 

192 Main Street and Village Green 

bridge Social Union. Built in 1727, it was one of the i8th century show 
houses of Cambridge. 

Later it was the home of Margaret Fuller (1810-50), the most brilliant 
American woman of her day, a friend of Emerson and other transcen- 
dentalists, first editor of the Dial, author of 'Woman in the Nineteenth 
Century,' literary critic and teacher. Holmes, who went to grammar 
school with her, described Margaret Fuller as a queer child; and the. 
urbane and customarily gallant Lowell went as far as to call her 'that 
dreadful old maid.' In her thirties, however, she married the Marquis 
D'Ossoli in Italy and bore him a son. On their return voyage to America 
she perished with him and the child in a shipwreck off New Jersey. 

2. The Site of the Village Smithy immortalized by Longfellow is marked 
by a stone at the corner of Story St. 

3. The Cock Horse Tearoom (open), 56 Brattle St., was built in 1811 as 
the home of Dexter Pratt, the village blacksmith ('The smith a mighty 
man was he'). The main house, to which have been added quaint and 
harmonious ells, is of two stories with brown clapboards and green blinds. 

4. The Read House (private), 55 Brattle St., was built in 1725. It is a 
two-and-a-half-story yellow frame dwelling distinguished by a white 
doorway framed by wedge-shaped wood quoins. Though encroached 
upon by the business district, it maintains a front garden stretching back 
60 feet from the sidewalk to the house. 

5. Samuel Longfellow's Home (private], 76 Brattle St., is a two-and-a- 
half-story brown frame dwelling with a flat-roofed ell. Its one-time 
owner, brother of the famous poet, wrote several fine hymns still in 
general use. 

6. The House that John Fiske Built (private), corner of Ash St., is a 
Victorian dwelling with a tower, which the eminent historian (1842-1901) 
was building at the time of his sudden death. An early champion of the 
then heretical theory of evolution, Fiske was not invited to teach at 
Harvard. After the University embraced the theory it still thought 
Fiske a little too 'popular' to adorn its faculty, but awarded him an 
honorary degree. 

7. The Belcher House (private), 94 Brattle St., is an impressive mansion 
of yellow frame, with a mansard roof and white roof-rail. Having main 
entrances both east and west, it could easily be mistaken for a double 
house, and as a matter of fact the west end was constructed first some 
experts say as early as 1635, because of its use of shell plaster in the 
chimney. The east end, a harmonious block, dates from 1700. Although 
the house has undergone alterations, it is still a dignified example of the 
more massive type of Colonial home. 

8. The Craigie-Longfellow House (study and grounds open Sat. 2-4), 105 
Brattle St., the home of Henry Wadsworth Longfellow and now occupied 
by his grandson, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow Dana, has a mellow 
prosperous dignity very characteristic of the poet himself. Built in 1759 
by Major John Vassall, a Tory, the house is a three-story square yellow 

Cambridge 193 

clapboarded mansion with white Ionic pilasters, a white roof-rail, and 
yellow brick chimneys capped with ornamental hoods. Side piazzas, 
east and west, overlook wide lawns, and in front of the house a small 
formal park runs down almost to the Charles River. 

This was one of the seven famous houses that made up Tory Row. When 
Major Vassall fled to Boston in 1774, General Washington made the 
house his headquarters. Martha Washington joined him in December, 
and on the sixth of January they celebrated their wedding anniversary 
here. Later the house was occupied by Dr. Andrew Craigie, who added 
the banquet hall behind the study and entertained lavishly. He died 
bankrupt, and his wife rented rooms in the front of the mansion. 

Young Longfellow came here to lodge in 1837, in his second year of 
teaching at Harvard, and was installed in the second-floor front rooms 
at the right of the entrance. His study at that time had once been 
Washington's private chamber. In this historic atmosphere, the poet 
wrote 'Hyperion,' 'The Psalm of Life,' 'The Wreck of the Hesperus,' 
and other early poems. Here he brought his second bride, Frances 
Appleton of Boston, whose father gave them the house as a wedding 
present. In 1845 the poet's former study became the nursery, and the 
study was transferred to the right-hand front room on the lower floor, 
outside which in the hall, stands 'The Old Clock on the Stairs.' 

Here in his later years were held the meetings of the Dante Club. At 
the Wednesday evening gatherings, to which Lowell, Norton, and other 
scholars and friends were invited, Longfellow read his translation of 'The 
Divine Comedy,' and welcomed suggestions for revision. The evenings 
always ended with a good supper, good wine and good conversation. 

9. Longfellow Park, opposite the Craigie-Longfellow House, was named 
after the poet and later given to the city by his family and friends. At 
the lower end of the park stands a Memorial Monument by Daniel Chester 
French, embellished in bas-relief with figures of some of the poet's best 
known characters, including 'The Village Blacksmith,' 'Miles Standish/ 
'Evangeline,' and 'Hiawatha.' 

Retrace Brattle St.; L. from Brattle St. on Mason St. 

10. The Campus of Raddiffe College for women occupies a block bounded 
by Garden, Mason, James, and Brattle Sts. and Appian Way. 

The architecture of the college buildings, like those of Harvard, derives 
from the Georgian; but the more modern of them are tempered with a 
strain of refinement especially in interior work which distinguishes 
and feminizes them. Unlike Harvard, where the architecture runs the 
full gamut from early Georgian through Victorian Gothic and Richard- 
sonian Romanesque to revived Colonial forms, Radcliffe has maintained 
a certain consistency of style. 

Fay House, the Administration Building, is the oldest structure. It was built in 
1807 by Nathaniel Ireland as a private home from, according to tradition, designs 
by Charles Bulfinch. Agassiz House and Bertram Hall were designed by the poet, 
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow. The Library was designed by Winslow and Bige- 

394 Main Street and Village Green 

low, and Hemenway Hall, the gymnasium, was built in 1899 from designs by 
McKim, Mead, and White. 

Alice Alary Longfellow Hall, completed in 1931, brought to her architects, Perry, 
Shaw, and Hepburn, award of the Parker medal. The design of this building, 
which is devoted to lecture halls, is based upon that of University Hall, a Harvard 
building designed by Bumnch. Besides the base course of cut granite, a special 
brick of a pink salmon color was used in the structure to match that of Fay House. 

R. from A fas on St. on Garden St. 

1 1 . The Site of the Washington Elm, under which Washington took com- 
mand of the Continental Army in 1775, is marked by a circular bronze 
plaque, bordered by cobblestones. 

12. Christ Church, designed by Peter Harrison and built in 1761, is the 
oldest church building in Cambridge, and was used in the Revolution as 
a barracks for the Colonial troops. The gray flush-board exterior and 
the small squat wooden tower, visibly leaning forward, and only relieved 
by small lunette windows at front and sides, are not particularly pre- 
possessing, though their humility has a certain charm; and they give little 
idea of the great beauty of the interior. It is, in fact, among the four or 
five best church interiors in or near Boston, and is a jewel of Georgian 
Colonial. The simplicity of the seven tall windows at each side, and the 
six white wooden columns in each of the side aisles, give it, though small, 
a great deal of dignity; and the mahogany-colored pew-backs add the 
necessary touch of warmth. An unusual feature is the presence of heavy 
two-piece slatted shutters inside the church, folded back so as partly to 
obscure the white wooden pilasters between the windows. These do much 
to enrich the whole effect of the interior, and to give it depth. The 
windows, of plain glass, are heavily muntined in the early Georgian 
manner. The fine crystal chandeliers were given in memory of Mrs. 
Francis Sayre, daughter of Woodrow Wilson. The tower holds the 
Harvard Chime, a set of thirteen bells given in 1860 by Harvard gradu- 
ates. The original organ loft remains, but the metal pipes of the original 
organ were melted into bullets during the Revolution. 

13. The Old Town Burying Ground (open to visitors) lies adjacent between 
Christ Church and the First Parish Church and dates from 1636, the 
year Harvard College was founded. Here is buried Dexter Pratt, the 
'Village Blacksmith.' 

R. from Garden St. on Massachusetts Ave. 

14. The First Parish Church (Unitarian) houses the oldest church or- 
ganization in Cambridge, dating from 1633. Among its early pastors 
was Thomas Hooker, who, disagreeing with some of the policies of the 
Massachusetts Bay clergy, quietly and peaceably led his flock to Hart- 
ford, Connecticut. The present building, a gray wooden edifice with a 
latticed belfry, was erected in 1833. Harvard College commencements 
were held here from 1833 to 1873, and a number of Harvard Presidents, 
including Dr. Eliot, were inaugurated here. Its most popular minister 
was the late Samuel McChord Crothers, genial wit and essayist, who 
after listening to the speeches at a certain Harvard Commencement re- 

Cambridge 195 

marked that he gathered that the world had been in great danger, but 
that all would now be well. 

Retrace Massachusetts Ave. 

15. The George Washington Memorial Gateway to the Common at the 
corner of Garden St. was dedicated on the sesquicentennial of Washing- 
ton's taking command of the Continental Army. 

1 6. The Common was originally the common pasture and was called the 
'cow common.' On it criminals were punished, and it was the scene of 
several executions. 


(Harvard University) 

E. from Harvard Square on Massachusetts Ave. 

17. The Wadsworth House (semi-private housing the Alumni Association), 
which stands at the edge of Harvard Yard opposite Holyoke St. was 
built in 1726. It is a typical yellow clapboarded Colonial house of two- 
and-a-half-stories, and is of considerable dignity. The ell is of brick; the 
roof gambrel, with dormers; green blinds set off the 24-paned windows 
on the lower floor. Harvard presidents, from Wadsworth to Leverett, 
lived here, and Washington stayed here briefly in 1775. 

L. from Massachusetts Ave. into the Yard by the McKean Gate, the first 
gate E. of Wadsworth House. 

1 8. The Harvard Yard, which is the university campus, is the original 
center of the College, and still keeps much of its Old World charm. Not 
unlike Lincoln's Inn Fields and Gray's Inn, in London, and roughly con- 
temporary with them, it shares much of their characteristic blending 
of Georgian stateliness and mellowed red brick. On the whole, the modern 
additions to the Yard have been tactfully adapted to their surroundings, 
with but a few exceptions, to be noted later. It may well be described 
as one of the most beautiful college campuses in America. 

19. The Chinese Student Memorial is a granite shaft 10 feet high, carved with 
dragons at the top, its base resting on a dragon-headed mythical monster. An 
inscribed tablet explains in Chinese that it was presented at the Harvard Ter- 
centenary in 1936 by 1,000 Chinese alumni of the University. 

20. The Widcner Library (open Mon.-Fri. 8.45-10; Sat. 8.45-5.30), on the south 
side of the Yard, is a huge red-brick edifice which unfortunately somewhat dwarfs 
its surroundings, and has therefore been adversely criticized. A wide cascade of 
shallow stone steps leads up into the deep Corinthian portico, with its 12 lofty 
columns, the main floor being considerably above ground level. Designed by 
Horace Trumbauer and built in 1913-14, the Library is a memorial to Harry Elkins 
Widener, class of 1907, who was drowned with the sinking of the 'Titanic.' The 
much-marbled interior, at its worst in the pillared entrance hall, has been con- 
sidered too lavish to be quite in keeping with the general character of the college 
buildings. On the stairway above are John Singer Sargent's World War Murals. 

196 Main Street and Village Green 

The Treasure Room, reached from the southwest corner of the entrance hall, is 
allotted to such rare books and manuscripts as need special supervision. Here are 
a collection of the various editions of the 'Imitatio Christi,' a similar series of the 
issues of the ' Compleat Angler/ the ' George Herbert Collection,' given by George 
Herbert Palmer, and a remarkable theater collection. Among examples of fine 
printing is the collection of books designed and printed by Bruce Rogers. Also 
of interest is a case containing an approximate reproduction of the library of books 
bequeathed by John Harvard. 

The Widener Memorial Room, on the first landing of the main stairway, entered 
between the two Sargent murals, contains a portrait of Widener and his own collec- 
tion of rare books, among them an almost unrivaled collection of Stevensoniana. 
This room, finished in carved English oak, is approached through an octagonal 
reception room executed in white Alabama marble. 

The Poetry Room, on the third floor, west of the staircase, dedicated to George 
Edward Woodberryj contains the valuable Amy Lowell collection, especially 
interesting for its Keats manuscripts. 

21. The New Yard, on which the Library faces, bounded on the west by University 
Hall, on the north by Appleton Chapel, and on the east by Sever Hall, was the 
scene of the tercentenary exercises in 1936. 

22. University Hall, at the left, designed by Charles Bulfinch and built in 1813-15, 
is one of the most beautiful buildings in the Yard. Its gray Chelmsford granite 
body, white wooden pilasters and white chimneys, provides an excellent foil for 
the Georgian red brick which everywhere surrounds it. Particularly effective, in 
the unusual impression of lightness which they give, are the six tall round-topped 
windows of the second story which light the Faculty Room. Within is a flight of 
granite stairs, each step a single granite block, so designed that they appear to 
climb to the second floor unsupported. With its white wainscoting and pilasters, 
green-tinted walls, and the twelve tall windows with deep-paneled reveals, the 
Faculty Room is easily the handsomest room in the university. One regrets the 
presence of a good many indifferent portraits of Harvard worthies. To be noted, 
however, is the very fine portrait of Nicholas Boylston by John Singleton Copley, 
one of the painter's most brilliant works. 

23. The Statue of John Harvard, which stands in front of University Hall, was done 
by Daniel Chester French in 1880, and is an imaginary likeness; no portrait of 
Harvard is known to exist. 

24. Massachusetts Hall was erected in 1720 with funds granted by the Province 
of Massachusetts, and designed by John Leverett, then president of the college, 
is the oldest of all the Harvard buildings, and in recent years has been used as the 
archetype from which the style of the new buildings has been evolved. Standing 
opposite University Hall, but endlong to it, it plays a lesser part in the general 
impression of the Yard than the houses which face directly on the Yard. Simple 
in line, with gambrel roof, end-chimneys, and white roof-rail, the belt-courses of 
brick between the stories and the somewhat heavy woodwork of the windows (as 
in the thick muntins) give it an air of great solidity. It is this effect which has 
been sought, for the most part in the recent additions to Harvard an earlier and 
heavier type of Georgian Colonial, with the emphasis on weight and simplicity. 

25. Harvard Hall, to the North of Massachusetts Hall and parallel with it, built 
in 1766 from the design of Sir Francis Barnard, has been largely spoiled by later 
additions, in 1842 and 1870, but traces of the i8th century character may still 
be seen in the upstairs lecture rooms. 

26. Hollis and Stoughton Halls, to the North, are almost identical twins, the former 
built in 1763 from the design of Colonel Thomas Dawes, the latter being frankly 
modeled after it. They are not quite identical, however, for Hollis has belt-courses 
between stories, and looks heavier than the more graceful Stoughton. 

27. Holwortky Hall (1812), which closes the north end of the Yard, does most, 
along with University, Hollis, and Stoughton Halls, to give the Yard its character. 

Cambridge 197 

It was named for Sir Matthew Holworthy, a generous English benefactor of the 
college, and its architect, Loammi Baldwin, was a graduate of the college, class of 
1800. The building is a very nearly perfect example of the essential unobtrusive- 
ness with which, in such groupings as this, the Georgian Colonial style makes its 
effect. Seen from any part of the Yard, with its simplicity, in which no detail, 
not even the admirable doorways with their stone trim and splayed steps, is con- 
spicuous, it affords the perfect counterfoil to University Hall, and the perfect 
end-piece for the finest part of the Yard. The brick work is very good without being 
quite as good as that of Hollis and Stoughton both of the latter having a color 
of brick probably not to be matched in beauty today. 

28. Holden Chapel (between Hollis and Stoughton) is a tiny building of which the 
most conspicuous feature is the huge coat of arms with elaborate mantling (much 
imitated in the new college Houses) which adorns the bright blue flush-board gable 
of the eastern end. But it is also the most complete small example of pure Georgian 
Colonial architecture to be seen in the Yard, and one of the finest in America. 
Built in 1744, its plans were probably drawn in London. Its anonymous architect 
set an example of purity which is now probably more intelligently appreciated than 
in his own day. 

Recross the Yard and pass University Hall to the N. 

29. Apphton Chapel or Memorial Church (open daily by the west door, 9-5), built 
in 1932 as a War Memorial for Harvard men, was designed by the firm of Coolidge, 
Shepley, Bulfinch, and Abbott, who were also architects of the new Houses. 
It tries at one and the same time to oppose the mass of Widener to the south and 
the dead weight of Thayer Hall to the west, with a portico of heavy Doric columns 
directed toward each. A doubtful success, though admired by some, the building 
seems on the whole to be at odds with its surroundings, and not too well synthesized 
in itself: the needle-fine white spire appears much too elongated for so squat and 
massive a structure. Part of this effect is due to the excessive fatness of the wooden 
Doric columns, and to the fact also that the pediment above the south portico 
breaks the otherwise admirable long roof-line. The interior, very much in the Wren 
tradition, is carried out almost wholly in white, with white Colonial pews, Corin- 
thian columns, and pilasters between heavy-muntined rounded windows. The 
pulpit is of the Colonial wineglass design, and advanced into the body of the church. 

At the right of the nave is the Memorial Room, which commemorates the 373 
Harvard men who died in the World War. The pseudo-classic treatment, carried 
out in Italian travertine, is too opulent, and out of key with the rest of the church. 
The low-relief figures on the north wall, by Joseph Coletti, and the sculptured 
group by Malvina Hoffman do little to redeem it. 

30. Robinson Hall, to the east, built in 1901 by McKim, Mead, and White, houses 
the Schools of Architecture and Landscape Architecture. The entrance is properly 
from the south, the side which faces Emerson, which, together with Sever and the 
Fogg Museum (across Quincy St.), forms what is known as Sever Quadrangle, 
one of the pleasantest quadrangles in the Yard, and the scene of the Harvard 
Commencements. The small brick columns which intersperse the windows of the 
second story, together with the wide shallow steps, set with urns before the door- 
way, and the sculptured plaques inlaid in the walls right and left of the door, com- 
bine to give an air of spaciousness to a small quadrangle which might easily have 
looked a little cramped. 

31. Sever Hall (1880), a red-brick building which forms the west side of the Sever 
Quadrangle, was designed by Henry Hobson Richardson, famous for his adapta- 
tions of the Romanesque style. Not too fortunate a specimen, it was the first, and 
remains the most glaring, note of incongruity in an otherwise harmonious grouping 
of Georgian Colonial buildings. Of interest is the brick carving, comparatively rare, 
over the doors at front and back. 

32. Emerson Hall (1905), designed by Coolidge, Shepley, Bulfinch, and Abbott 
for the Philosophy Department, is a somewhat heavy building whose massive 
brick columns and pilasters, of Doric design, dominate Sever Quadrangle from the 

198 Main Street and Village Green 

south. Beyond this, in the southeast corner of the Yard, are the President's House 
(1912) (private), a brick Colonial house designed by Coolidge, Shepley, Bulfinch, 
and Abbott, and the Dana-Palmer House (1820) (private), built by Thomas Foster. 
To the west of this, behind Widener, and somewhat cramped for room, is Wiggles- 
worth Hall (1931), which together with Straus Hall in the southwest corner of the 
Yard, and Lionel and Mower Halls in the northwest (1926-31), are the most recent 
additions to the Yard, showing on the whole a very skillful adaptation of the style 
of Massachusetts Hall. 

Exit from the Yard by the SE. gate; L. from gate on Quincy St. 

33. The Fogg Art Museum (open weekdays 9-5; free) is an admirably 
designed Georgian Colonial building of red brick in which function and 
appearance have been skillfully combined. It was built in 1927 from the 
designs of Charles A. Coolidge, with the co-operation of Henry R. Shepley 
and Meyric Rogers. In addition to its use for lectures and class-work, it 
houses an extremely good art collection. Noteworthy are two very fine 
Spanish sculptures in wood of the i3th century, a superb group of Copley 
portraits, some excellent Italian primitives, fine Tintorettos and El 
Grecos, and a very large collection of prints. 

34. Memorial Hall (open Mon.-Fri., 9-5; Sat. 9-1), the one fantastic 
building in all the Harvard group, is an immense pile of red brick in 
Victorian Gothic style, with a gargoyled tower which is a landmark for 
miles. Dedicated as a memorial to Harvard men who died in defense of 
the Union in the Civil War, and built between 1870 and 1878 from the 
designs of Ware and Van Brunt, this remarkable building is fascinating 
if only as a monument in a style now wholly discredited. The Great Hall, 
at the west end, was formerly used as a dining-hall, and Sanders Theatre, 
the Auditorium at the east end, is now used for part of the Commence- 
ment exercises and for symphony concerts. 

R. from Quincy St. into Kirkland St. 

35. The Germanic Museum or Adolph Busch Hall (1917) (open weekdays 
except holidays from 9-5; Sun. 1-5), corner of Divinity Ave., is a curious 
and very interesting stucco and limestone building with red-tile roof. 
It was done from designs by Prof. Germain Bestelmeyer of Munich, in 
the pre-war Munich ' kunstlerisch ' style, the designs then being adapted 
to local conditions by Dean H. Langford Warren of the Harvard School 
of Architecture. The low clock-tower is not unimpressive, the outdoor 
courtyard, with a cast of the Brunswick Lion, charming, and the interior 
affords an admirable progressive survey of the characteristic features of 
Romanesque, Gothic, and Renaissance styles. It contains also a collec- 
tion, outstanding in America, of reproductions of great medieval sculpture. 

L. from Kirkland St. into Divinity Ave. 

36. The Semitic Museum (open weekdays 9-5; Sun. 1-4.30) houses col- 
lections which relate to the history and arts of the Arabs, Aramaeans, 
Assyrians, Babylonians, Hebrews, and Phoenicians. Among Assyrian 
reproductions are bas-reliefs from the palace of Ashurnazirpal, King of 
Assyria (884-860 B.C.) and the Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III (860- 
825 B.C.). In the Babylonian collection is the oldest known map (dating 

Cambridge 199 

from 2500 B.C.) and discovered by a Harvard expedition. Of importance 
in the Palestinian collection is a model of the hill of Zion with its modern 
buildings and a tentative reconstruction of Herod's Temple, made, in 
1903, by Dr. Konrad Schick of Berlin. Other conjectural reconstructions 
include the Tabernacle and the Temple of Solomon. 

37. The Biological Laboratories, housed in what is certainly one of the 
most distinguished of the university buildings, form a three-sided court 
five stories in height, and offer a superb example of modern 'functional' 
architecture. Largely the design of Henry Shepley (Coolidge, Shepley, 
Bulfinch, and Abbott), and built in 1931 with the help of the Rockefeller 
Foundation, this lovely brick building, with its harmoniously spaced tall 
windows and exquisite use of plane surfaces, is a gentle reminder of what 
might have been done with Widener Library. The frieze of animals 
carved in the brick of the upper facing by Miss Katherine Lane, and so 
skillfully done that the shadows resulting from the slant-cut carving 
enhance the effect of the line, affords just the requisite offset of richness 
to the beautiful simplicity of the building as a whole; and Miss Lane's 
colossal bronze rhinos and carved doors complete a distinguished archi- 
tectural unit. 

L.from Divinity Ave. by footpath to Oxford St. 

38. The University Museum (open weekdays 9-4.30; Sun. 1-4.30), opposite 
Jarvis St. is a six-story rambling brick structure. Its most celebrated and 
popular exhibit is that of the Glass Flowers. Glass models of the humbler 
flowers of field and wood are realistically produced with an astonishing 
delicacy of detail and complete botanic accuracy. The secret of this art 
was discovered in the i9th century by a German family named Blaschka, 
and it remains with them. 

Stuffed specimens of North American Birds form one of the most com- 
plete collections and the Harvard Forest Models depict the history of 
land-clearing and reforestation. 

L. from Oxford St. into Jarvis St. 

39. The Children's Museum of Cambridge (open weekdays except Sat. 
8.30-4.30; Sun. 1-4.30; closed on Sat.), 5 Jarvis St., is a small red wooden 
building, a department of the Cambridge Public Schools and indirectly 
connected with Harvard University through the study privileges accorded 
at University Museum. The Children's Museum is less an exhibition 
hall than a classroom and club center for visual education in geography 
and nature study. Some of the instruction is given at the museum, some 
at the public schools, and much of it in the fields. There are, however, 
Indian and Eskimo models, small collections of mineral and stuffed 
birds, and exhibits of such popular hobbies as postage stamps and air- 
plane modeling. 

L.from Jarvis St. into footpath at W. end of Children's Museum. 

40. The Harvard Law School mainly occupies Langdell Hall, a long two- 
story limestone building with an Ionic colonnade. This is the oldest law 

2OO Main Street and Village Green 

school now in existence in the United States. Its library of over 460,000 
volumes is claimed to be the most complete law library in the world, 
and contains the statutes, judicial decisions, and legal treatises of every 
country on the globe. Portraits of eminent lawyers and judges within 
its walls include canvases by Lawrence, Raeburn, Romney, Lely, and 

R. from footpath into Cambridge St.; L. from Cambridge St. into Peabody 
St.; straight ahead on Massachusetts Ave. through Harvard Square. 

41. A Tercentenary Marker, corner of Dunster St., marks the Site Of 
The First Meeting House, where Thomas Shepard, that 'holy heavenly 
sweet affecting and soul-ravishing' preacher, held forth. 

This same corner is the Site Of The House Of Stephen Daye, the first 
printer in British America, who arrived here in 1638 and set up his press 
under the auspices of Harvard. 

R. from Massachusetts Ave. into Linden St. 

42. The 'Bishop's Palace' (Apthorp House) (private) is half hidden in 
a courtyard, reached by a footpath. It is a fine three-story mansion 
with white clapboards, dentiled cornice, and large inner chimneys, built 
in 1760 by the first minister of Christ Church (Episcopal) and named 
irreverently by Provincial dissenters. It now serves as the residence of 
the Master of Adams House, the nearest to the Yard of the 'New Houses.' 

R. from Linden St. into Mt. Auburn St.; L. from Mt. Auburn St. into 
Holyoke St.; L. from Holyoke St. into Holyoke Place. 

43. These 'New Houses,' seven in number, lie between Winthrop St. and 
the Charles River, from north to south, and between Boylston Street 
and McCarthy Road, from west to east. Something more than dormi- 
tories for the three upper classes, they serve as units for special types 
of study concentration, with resident masters and tutors, and their own 
libraries and dining-halls. Some of them were built originally as Fresh- 
man dormitories, but their amalgamation into the Houses has done a 
good deal to shift the center of the University toward the river, and has 
created a little university town of great charm. Of the completely new 
Houses Lowell (1930), Dunster (1930), and Eliot (1931), all designed 
by Coolidge, Shepley, Bulfinch, and Abbott perhaps Lowell, which is 
the largest, is also the handsomest. In all of them may be seen the 
following-out of the Georgian Colonial motif, with now and then a heavy 
leaning on Holden Chapel (as in the frequent use of arms and mantling 
on the gables) and University Hall (as in the dining-hall of Lowell, 
which bears a close resemblance to the Faculty Room). The rapidity 
with which they were built has made them possibly a shade too uniform, 
despite the deliberate attempt of the architects to vary them. 

Retrace Holyoke Place; L. from Holyoke Place into Holyoke St.; L. from 
Holyoke St. into Mill St.; R. from Mill St. into Plympton St. 

44. Across the Charles River from Memorial Drive is the Harvard 
Business School (graduate), visible on the opposite shore like another 

Cambridge 201 

fine group of the 'colleges within the college,' extending on either side 
of the white-columned Baker Library (open) with its white steeple. The 
establishment of the school in 1902 was accompanied by a sharp protest 
from scholars in the liberal arts against its association with cultural 
Harvard, but such comment has now largely disappeared. Baker Library 
contains 135,000 volumes and pamphlets relating to commerce and trade. 

45. The Harvard Stadium, rising 60 feet in air and approximately two 
city blocks in length, is impressively visible across the river, just west 
of the Business School. It is not the largest in the country but was the 
first, and is still considered, with its ivy-clad arches and classic colonnade, 
one of the most beautiful. It seats 22,000 on the concrete, and with 
additional steel stands and temporary seats can accommodate a total 
of 57,750. It was constructed under the direction of Prof. Lewis Jerome 
Johnson, Class of 1887, and Joseph Ruggles Worcester, Class of 1882. 
The general architectural design was worked out by George Bruns de 
Gersdorff, Class of 1888, under the direction of Charles Follen McKim, 
Master of Arts, Harvard 1890. The stadium, 570 feet long by 420 feet 
wide, encloses a field 478 by 430 feet on which are held, in addition to 
the usual athletic events, part of the Class Day festivities and outdoor 
theatrical performances of note. 

Tourists especially interested in Harvard University are referred to the 
following additional points of interest : 

Radcliffe College (10), First Parish Church (4), in list above; Mt. Auburn Cemetery 
(47), Cambridge Observatory (51), and the Botanic Garden and Gray Herbarium 
(52), below; also the Harvard Medical School and Arnold Arboretum (see Bos- 
ton), the Thayer Bird Museum (see Tour 7, LANCASTER) and the Harvard 
Astronomical Observatory (see Tour 7, HARVARD) and the Black Brook Planta- 
tion (see Tour IA, HAMILTON. 


SW. from Harvard Square through Brattle Street; R. from Brattle Street into 
Mt. Auburn St. 

46. Elmwood (private), corner of Elmwood Ave., was the home of James 
Russell Lowell. It is a fine three-story yellow clapboarded mansion with 
white roof-rail and square yellow chimneys. 

The house was built in 1767, and was first the home of Lieutenant 
Governor Oliver, the last of the royal deputies in Massachusetts, who 
in 1774 was forced by 4000 Cantabrigians to write his resignation and 
seek safety in Boston. In 1810 Elbridge Gerry lived here while he was 
Governor, just before becoming Vice-President in 1812. Lowell was born 
here and made it his lifelong home, except for his absences as United 
States minister to Spain and England (1877-85). Here he wrote his 
'Vision of Sir LaunfaP and the first of the 'Biglow Papers.' 

2O2 Main Street and Village Green 

47. Mt. Auburn Cemetery (free map at gate) has famous graves of nearly 
every one of note who has died in or near Boston for the past hundred 

Individual graves may be found by circling left from the gate, as follows: Mary 
Baker Eddy, Halcyon Ave.; Oliver Wendell Holmes, Lime Ave., in the Jackson 
plot of his wife's relatives; James Russell Lowell, Fountain Ave., next to the stone 
of the child immortalized in 'The First Snowfall'; Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, 
Indian Ridge Path, next to Gay Alice of 'The Children's Hour' (Laughing Allegra 
and Edith with Golden Hair became Mrs. Thorp and Mrs. Dana, respectively) ; 
Charlotte Cushman, Palm Ave. (the trustees of the cemetery would be glad to hear of 
any of her heirs); Charles Sumner, Arethusa Path; Louis Agassiz, Bellwort Path, 
under a boulder taken from a glacier near his birthplace in Switzerland; Margaret 
Fuller, Pyrola Path; Edwin Booth, Anemone Path; Phillips Brooks, Mimosa 
Path; William Ellery Channing, Greenbrier Path. 

In Mt. Auburn are buried also Julia Ward Howe, Henry James, Edward Everett, 
Hosea Ballou, Joseph Story, Rufus Choate, and the historians Prescott ana Park- 

The reason for the choice of Mt. Auburn by the families of so many 
celebrities, before it became so historically noted, was that it was for 
many years the only garden cemetery in the environs of Boston. It is 
still one of the two most beautiful. Its grounds are thickly wooded 
with rare trees and shrubs, landscaped with occasional ponds, and they 
rise to a commanding hill, from which is a dreamy view of the winding 
Charles River, Cambridge, Boston, and distant hills. 

Retrace Mt. Auburn St.; L. from Mt. Auburn St. into Brattle St. 

48. The Nichols-Lee House (private), 159 Brattle St., is a heavy-set 
oblong three-story dwelling, clapboarded, except for a stone west end, 
in cinnamon color, with ivory-colored wood quoins, and surmounted by 
a roof-rail and a central chimney 12 feet wide, with six hoods. The 
20-paned windows have brown blinds. A broad doorway, ivory colored, 
with pilasters in the Doric, fronts upon a lawn enclosed by a picket 
fence. The house dates from 1660, and was occupied at the time of 
the Revolution by Joseph Lee, a mild and kindly Tory who thought 
best to flee, but who was such a general favorite as a citizen that he was 
allowed to return after the war without confiscation of his property. 
When he died at over 90 years of age the entire city mourned. 

49. American Thomas Lee's House (private), 153 Brattle St., is one of 
several sumptuous and beautiful old mansions to be seen hereabout. It 
is a three-story, clapboarded house (1685), with mansard roof, dormer 
windows, white roof-rail, and massive chimneys painted white with black 
hoods. It is set behind an ornamental white picket fence, on a lawn shaded 
by horse chestnut trees, and broken by a terrace with a low white rail. 

50. Baroness Riedesel's House (private), 149 Brattle St., is of interest as 
having been the home of the Baron and Baroness Riedesel, prisoners of 
war in the days of the Continental Army's second major success. The 
Baron was Burgoyne's chief staff officer at Saratoga, and the Baroness's 
gay and vivid letters about her social life in Cambridge are evidence that 
the city treated her well, in spite of its Revolutionary sympathies. After 

Cambridge 203 

the Baroness left, Washington gave the house to 'English Thomas Lee/ 

a former Tory who changed over to the American Cause. English Thomas 

was so named to distinguish him from his neighbor 'American Thomas 


L. from Brattle St. into Craigie St.; R. from Craigie St. into Concord Ave.; 

L. from Concord Ave. into Garden St. 

5 1 . The Cambridge Observatory of Harvard University (open weekdays 9-5 ; 
closed Sun. and holidays), 60 Garden St., is in the unmarked hilly land- 
scaped grounds just across the street from the Botanic Garden (see No. 

52, below). 

There is a public exhibit of Astronomical Pictures on glass plates lighted 
from behind. These are magnified examples of some of the famous collec- 
tion of 400,000 glass plates which the University has made in studying 
motions, magnitudes, and variations of celestial objects. This collection 
is studied by astronomers from all over the world, and some of the plates 
come from another observatory of the University in South Africa. The 
beehive-like houses in the Cambridge grounds are shelters for powerful 
photographic telescopes and sky-patrol cameras, which on every clear 
night swing the circuit of the universe, noting everything that happens for 
some billions of miles. 

52. The Botanic Garden of Harvard University (open weekdays 9-5; closed 
Sun. and holidays), corner of Garden and Linnaean Sts., was established 
in 1807 for the cultivation of all herbaceous plants hardy in this climate. 
From 1842 to 1872 Asa Gray, the celebrated botanist, was director. There 
are a rock garden, a rose garden, a water garden, and a greenhouse. In 
the grounds is the building of the Gray Herbarium (open only to botantists), 
containing 750,000 sheets of mounted specimens. 

Retrace Garden St.; L. from Garden St. into Linnaean St. 

53. The Cooper-Frost-Austin House (open Thurs. 1-5; adm. 25fi, 21 
Linnaean St., built in 1657, is the oldest house in the city, except possibly 
for one block of the Belcher House at 94 Brattle St. It is a two-and-a-half- 
story clapboard dwelling with lean-to and central chimney, furnished 
in early Colonial style and owned by the Society for the Preservation of 
New England Antiquities. 

R. from Linnaean St. into Massachusetts Ave. 

54. The Site of Oliver Wendell Holmes' s Birthplace is marked by a granite 
tablet within the triangular green opposite the Common. Here as a young 
physician he first displayed his shingle, on which he considered inscribing: 
'The smallest fevers thankfully received.' 

L. from Massachusetts Ave. into Peabody St.; R. from Peabody St. into 
Kirkland St.; L. from Kirkland St. into Irving St. 

55. Shady Hill (private), 136 Irving St., is a broad two-story mansion of 
1790 with a long front piazza, crowning a landscaped knoll. Its chief 
interest lies in its occupancy by Charles Eliot Norton (1827-1908), 
Harvard Professor of Art, and personal friend of Browning, Ruskm, 

2O4 Main Street and Village Green 

Carlyle, and the pre-Raphaelites. Norton was one of the most admired 
American scholars of the igth century, and exerted a profound influence 
on all Harvard graduates of his day. Like Ruskin, however, he was deeply 
concerned with the moral implications of art, and it was once slyly said 
that his art courses were 'Lectures in Morals as Illustrated by Art.' 

Retrace Irving St.; R. from Irving St. into Cambridge St.; L. from Cam- 
bridge St. into Felton St.; L. from Felton St. into Broadway. 

56. The Cambridge Public Library (open 9-9), corner of Trowbridge St. 
(1889), is in the Romanesque style, of granite trimmed with sandstone. 
Murals in the reading room depict 'The Evolution of the Printing Press.' 
A collection of copies of paintings by old masters includes subjects by 
Correggio, Domenichino, Van der Werff, Murillo, and Raphael, and an 
original painting 400 years old (artist unknown), 'St. Jerome Interpreting 
the Scriptures.' 

R. from Broadway into Inman St. 

57. The Site of General Putnam 7 s Headquarters during the Siege of Bos- 
ton is marked by a tablet near the rear of City Hall. Putnam's troops 
had erected a small earthworks, known as Fort Washington, on the 
present Waverly Street, and had on the present Otis Street a battery 
which fired by mistake on the Brattle Square Church in Boston. 

L. from Inman St. into Massachusetts Ave.; L. from Massachusetts Ave. 
into Main St. 

58. New Towne Court, corner of Windsor St., a Federal Housing project, 
is an attempt to provide attractive low-cost homes for people of small 
incomes. It consists of six large and two small brick apartment buildings, 
entrance to all of which is gained from the court, which runs from one 
end of the unit to the other. It contains 294 modern apartments of 
three, four, and five rooms, with a central heating plant. Rentals are 
moderate and include the utilities: heat, water, electricity, gas, and 
refrigeration. On the corner stood the house in which Elias Howe, in- 
ventor of the sewing machine, lived and perfected his model. 

Retrace Main St.; L.from Main St. into Massachusetts Ave. 

59. The Massachusetts Institute Of Technology, corner of Memorial 
Drive, occupies an 8o-acre campus in a beautiful location facing the 
broad terminal basin of the Charles River and, across this, the Boston 
skyline. Its 46 so-called separate buildings, of limestone and yellow 
brick, in restrained neo-Classic style, are in reality almost a single 
massive unit, connected by interior corridors, forming a U-shaped hollow 
square. A terraced lawn spreads before them, landscaped by rhododen- 
drons, poplars, and small elms, and ornamented by formal rows of 
decorative lamp-posts. The central or administration building, with a 
low central dome and Ionic portico, is known simply as 'Number 10.' 
All the buildings are illuminated by flood-lights at night, and with their 
reflection in the beautiful waters of the Charles they constitute an out- 
standing attraction of Boston and Cambridge. 

Chelsea 205 

To scientists, every department of the Institute contains equipment and exhibits 
of absorbing interest. The general public, however, finds special features of more 
comprehensive appeal. In the lower right hand corridors of Building 10 are repre- 
sentative exhibits, changed frequently, from the Institute's noted ceramics collec- 
tion, which comprises beautiful pottery and glass from all ages and lands, including 
specimens from the Chinese dynasties from 206 B.C. to A.D. 1850. In the dome of 
Building 10 is the Library, one of the best in the United States in scientific and 
engineering subjects. 

In Building 5 is a Ship Model Museum, a part of the Institute's distinguished School 
of Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering, which fosters one of Tech's most 
popular sports, sailboat-racing in the Charles River Basin. In Building 4 is The 
Colossus of Volts, a giant electrostatic generator which created the highest steady 
direct voltage ever achieved by man. In the basement of Building 6 is The Round 
Table of Light Camera, a great circular table, hollow at its core, with a grating of 
optical glass, which has no rival as an apparatus for spectroscopy. 

The Guggenheim Aeronautical Laboratory (Separate Building No. 35) has interest- 
ing wind-testing machines. Adjoining this laboratory, in Separate Building 20, is 
a large Model of the Cape Cod Canal, through which water is operated at the various 
levels and forces of the tides in the actual canal. 

The Walker Memorial, a separate unnumbered building, is the student social and 
athletic center, distinguished by a lofty and handsome restaurant hall adorned 
with a vast mural by Edwin H. Blashfield, representing 'Technology Saluted by 
the Hosts of Science.' The building contains also reading rooms and a gymnasium. 

Four main schools, the School of Science, the School of Engineering, 
the School of Architecture, and the Graduate School, together offer over 
900 subjects of instruction. In the words of President Compton, the 
Institute 'pioneered in extending the laboratory method of instruction 
as an indispensable educational technique. It virtually created the 
modern profession of chemical engineering. Its courses in electrical and 
aeronautical engineerings and in applied physics were probably the first 
in the world.' 

CHELSEA. City of Transformations 

City: Alt. 29, pop. 42,673, sett. 1624, incorp. town 1739, city 1857. 

Railroad Station: Washington Ave. and Heard St. for B. & M. R.R. 
Bus Station: Markel's Drugstore, Chelsea Square, for Greyhound Lines. 

Accommodations: Inns and boarding-houses. 
Information: Chamber of Commerce, 445 Broadway. 

CHELSEA is a city of transformations. Humbly beginning as a trading 
post, it has been successively a manorial estate, an agricultural com- 
munity, a ferry landing, a summer resort, a residential suburb and finally 
an industrial city. Its principal manufactures today are rubber, elastic 
webbing, boots and shoes, and paper stock. 

206 Main Street and Village Green 

In 1624, Samuel Maverick, a youth of twenty-two, saw possibilities 
in a permanent trade with the Indians of Winnisimet, now Chelsea, and 
with some followers he set up his homestead, the first permanent one on 
Boston Harbor. 

Ten years later he sold out his large holdings to Governor Richard 
Bellingham, one of the most extensive landowners about Boston. A 
leader in the political affairs of the Bay Colony, he must have been some- 
what scandalously erratic from the Puritan point of view. Quite soon 
after his first wife's death, he married a woman betrothed to another 
man, performing the ceremony himself. When prosecuted for this breach 
of law and decorum, he, being a judge, refused to leave the bench, thereby 
trying and freeing himself. 

With equal independence, he adopted a procedure with regard to his 
land which was not customary in New England. Dividing it up into 
four farms in manorial fashion, he leased out each quarter to a tenant 

When in his eightieth year the old Governor was gathered to his 
fathers, he left behind him as his final self-assertion a last will and testa- 
ment that was to torment legal minds for a century to come. The contest 
over this memorable will had no parallel in the country, and by tying up 
the property it effectively retarded the development of early Chelsea. 

Though the original Bellingham purchase transformed Chelsea from a 
fur- trading post into an agricultural community, geographic location 
singled it put for another and more impressive function. Boston, practi- 
cally insular until after the Revolution, was reached by land from towns 
to the north by a route which entailed a whole day's journey. For north- 
country folk, the nearest point of mainland to Boston was Winnisimet 
(Chelsea) but a mile distant by water. Consequently, the General Court 
enacted a subsidy to encourage a ferry route between Boston, Charles- 
town and Winnisimet. This was the first ferry in New England and 
probably in North America. 

The Court also kept an eye on the ferry business, regulating fares and 
schedules and imposing suitable penalties for neglect of duty. The con- 
venience and safety of the passage was a matter of vital concern to these 
early legislators. The difficulties they themselves experienced in crossing 
are vividly described in Cotton Mather's diary: 'A fearful hurricane and 
thunderstorm overtook us, just as we got out of Winnisimet Ferryboat (a 
ferry three miles wide), which, had it overtaken us four or five minutes 
earlier, we had unquestionably perished in ye waters.' 

The hazards of wind and tide often delayed travel; so, before long, 
taverns sprang up near the ferry, where, besides a night's lodging, 'strong 
waters ' might be had to console or embolden the traveler. 

Throughout much of the nineteenth century Chelsea was a well-known 
summer resort, offering not only country landscape, but also three miles 
of beautiful sandy beach (now Revere). 

Chelsea 207 

Paradoxically, the steam ferry made and then ruined Chelsea as a 
summer resort. The efficient operation of the Winnisimet Company 
made commuting to Boston possible. In a phenomenally short period, 
Chelsea's population passed the ten thousand mark. After a while, man- 
ufacturing and shipping usurped the waterfront; the residential section 
was pushed back from the sea, and congestion of population followed. 
Its rustic appeal gone, many of the older inhabitants packed up and went 
elsewhere. Many remaining commuters departed after the great Chelsea 
fire burned their homes to the ground. 

A century's upbuilding vanished in smoke on Palm Sunday morning, 
April 12, 1908. Because of a heavy gale, the flames spread with remark- 
able rapidity and within ten hours all buildings burned were in ruins. By 
nightfall the city was a devastated waste of smoldering embers: seven- 
teen thousand four hundred and fifty people were homeless. It is said 
that in the entire burned area there was not enough combustible material 
left to start a kitchen fire. 

In the reconstruction of the city, the business section was considerably 
enlarged and the population took on a decidedly cosmopolitan cast. To- 
day Irish Catholics, Jews, Italians, Poles, and Armenians represent over 
fifty per cent of the total population. 


1. City Hall, Broadway, in Bellingham Square, is in the Georgian 
Colonial style, its design having been based on that of Independence 
Hall at Philadelphia. 

2. The Thomas Pratt House (about 1662) (occasional visitors welcome) , 481 
Washington Ave., occupied by a descendant of the original owner, sets 
back from the road, its steep sloping roof and huge chimneys distinguish- 
ing it from the modern dwellings which surround it on every side. The 
shingled exterior is in need of repair, but the interior has been well pre- 
served and retains the spirit of the original design. The hand-hewn 
ceiling beams in the living-room and the warped floor boards are of special 

3. The Bellingham-Cary House (open Thurs. 2-5, at other times through 
courtesy of the resident caretaker; adm. free}, 34 Parker St., is a square 
hip-roofed frame house with interior chimneys. The original portion was 
built in 1629 and was at one time the home of Governor Bellingham. It 
was remodeled by Samuel Cary in 1791-92, and was purchased by the 
Gary House Association in 1912. In it Washington quartered the last 
outpost of the left wing of the Continental Army besieging Boston. 

4. Powder Horn Hill, Hillside Ave., is so named because it was believed 
sold by the Indians to the early settlers for a horn of gunpowder. On its 

208 Main Street and Village Green 

summit, 200 feet above sea level, is Soldiers' Home, a haven for 2500 

5. The Forbes Lithograph Co. (permission at office), Forbes St., off Crescent 
Ave., has a national reputation for unique color processes. 

6. The U.S. Lighthouse Service (permission from officer in charge) has a 
depot at 37 Marginal St. where gaudy-colored buoys line the quays and 
bright-hued lightships arrive from and depart to their lonely vigils along 
the Atlantic coast. 

7. The Samuel Cabot Co. (open), 229 Marginal St., a pioneer in the 
field of chemical experimentation, manufactures the commercial product 
known as Sylpho-Nathol. This firm is also nationally famous for its 
research in the field of shingle stains. 

8. The Pulaski Monument, Chelsea Square, a medallion head on a 
granite shaft, was erected by the Poles of Chelsea, and dedicated in 1931 
in honor of the great Polish patriot of the Revolutionary War. 

9. The Chelsea Clock Co. (permission at office), 284 Everett Ave., is 
internationally known for its marine clocks. 

C H I C O P E E . The Future-Minded 

City: Alt. 92, pop. 41,952, sett. 1652, incorp. town 1848, city 1890. 

Railroad Stations: Chicopee Station, Exchange St., and Willimansett Station, 

near Prospect St., for B. & M. R.R. 
Bus Station: 276 Exchange St. for Blue Way Line. 

Accommodations: Hotels and tourist houses. 

Swimming: Municipal pools in Nash Field (Willimansett), and on Front St. 

CHICOPEE, a manufacturing city just above Springfield on the Con- 
necticut River and across the river from Holyoke, consists of three 
separate units, Chicopee, Chicopee Falls, and Willimansett. These are 
all manufacturing centers, but the outlying districts have a rural char- 
acter. Of its 41,952 inhabitants, over half are of foreign-born parentage, 
with French-Canadian predominating. It has sixteen large industrial 
plants, those outstanding being A. G. Spalding Company, specialists in 
sporting goods, and the Fisk Rubber Company, the second largest 
rubber factory in the world. 

The residential parts of the manufacturing sections are crowded with 
the homes of the workers, individual frame or brick dwellings with little 
tree-shaded yards, or solid blocks of tenements. Springfield Street, in 

Chicopee 209 

the better residential quarter, has a look of considerable prosperity and 
Victorian charm. 

The Chicopee River, bisecting the city from east to west, is so banked 
with factories as to be hidden from sight, but where it joins the Con- 
necticut River there are broad, elm-shaded meadows. These meadows 
and the river attracted the first settlers. 

On April 20, 1641, the Indian Nippumsuit deeded land now included in 
Chicopee to William Pynchon in return for ' fifteen fathom of wampum 
by tale accounted and one yard and three quarters of double shagg 
bags, one bow, seaven knifes, seaven payer of sessars and seaven owles 
with certaine fish hooks and other small things given at their request.' 
The region remained a part of Springfield until its incorporation as a 
town in 1848. 

Down to the last days of the eighteenth century Chicopee continued a 
quiet farming community. Then certain industrial-minded men of the 
town perceived possibilities in the water-power of the Chicopee River, 
which cut through the main section of the town into the Connecticut 
River. Others set about mining bog iron (iron ore) and erecting blast 
furnaces. In 1805, Benjamin Belcher bought out from his two partners 
an iron foundry on the Chicopee River and prospered. 

In 1822, Edmund Dwight, of the Boston and Springfield Manufacturing 
Company, decided upon Chicopee for the site of a textile factory. He 
located at a natural waterfall, now called Chicopee Falls, and the corpo- 
ration he founded is today the Chicopee Manufacturing Company. 

Later, in 1829, Nathan Ames and his father and brother were settled in 
Chicopee, busily manufacturing edged tools and cutlery, electro-plated 
silverware, and swords. Heretofore, Army and Navy swords had been 
imported from abroad, but the Ames brothers began filling government 
contracts, their products rivaling the illustrious blades of Toledo and 
Damascus. By 1853 the Ames Manufacturing Company had expanded 
to include a department of bronze statuary, the first of its kind in America. 

The first friction matches in the country are claimed to have been made 
in Chicopee in 1835; some of them are still in the possession of old Chico- 
pee families. 

By 1845 the town of Chicopee, with a population of 8000, had set up its 
own government. The citizens, feeling that they had interests foreign 
to those of Springfield, broke away from that city. Chicopee was then 
known as Cabotville, not taking its present name until a later period. 

Prior to the Civil War, Chicopee was one of the stations in the Under- 
ground Railroad to Canada. A. G. Parker, a shoe manufacturer, har- 
bored numerous fugitive slaves in his home on Chicopee Street. Not 
infrequently funds were raised to buy freedom for runaway Negroes. 

One illustrious son of Chicopee, Edward Bellamy, became internationally 
famous. Within ten years of publication, almost a million copies had 
been sold of his 'Looking Backward,' best known of American Utopias. 

2io Main Street and Village Green 

Translations into German, French, Italian, Russian, Arabic, Bulgarian, 
and several other languages and dialects brought this Chicopee man's 
name into many parts of the world. 


1. City Hall, Front and Springfield Sts., is an Italian Gothic building in 
red brick designed by Charles Edward Parker and erected in 1871. It 
is arresting because of its very high, slender, square tower, capped by a 
pointed roof, and its second-story stained-glass windows and beautiful 
rose window. 

2. The white Victorian Stebbins Mansion (private), Springfield St., now 
a part of the College of Our Lady of the Elms, is a typical American 
Victorian dwelling of the best type, complete with a little tower, narrow 
projecting ells, offering bay windows, and a little porch with fretwork 
pillars. It is reminiscent of the Swiss chalet. 

3. The Ames Mansion (at present still occupied by an Ames descendant, 
but open free as a museum at suitable daylight hours), Front St., corner of 
Grape St., is a square two-story brick residence of 1844, with an almost 
flat hip roof, and is set in a gardened lawn behind a picket fence. It con- 
tains some delightfully personal mementoes of sorts: a bronze wall can- 
delabrum taken from the White House when gas was installed, an in- 
vitation to dinner with President Lincoln, a punchbowl brought from 
Japan by Commodore Perry in 1851, a landscape by Albert Biers tadt 
painted surreptitiously by him as a present to his host, a presentation 
autographed photograph of Mary Garden. 

4. Edward Bellamy's Birthplace (private), 93 Church St., Chicopee Falls, 
is a small two-and-a-half-story plain white clapboarded house with a 
small ell and two porches. Here the son of a Baptist minister mused on 
the theme of social equality later to be treated by him in 'Looking Back- 
ward' and 'Equality.' 

CONCORD. Golden-Age Haven 

Town: Alt. 135, pop. 7723, sett, about 1635, incorp. 1635. 

Railroad Station: B. & M. R.R. (Fitchburg Division), Thoreau St. 
Bus Stations: B. & M. Transportation Co., Colonial Inn, Monument Square, 
and R.R. Station; Grey Line sightseeing tour from Hotel Brunswick, Boston. 


ONE might suppose that the authors of Massachusetts had 
been influenced by the dignity and spare simplicity of the 
houses which sheltered them. Elmwood, the Cambridge home 
of James Russell Lowell, and the Craigie-Longfellow House 
are graceful Georgian mansions. The two views of the rooms 
in the Antiquarian House in Concord reflect Emerson's love of 
ingenuous, homely order. The rambling country house where 
Longfellow set the scene of the * Tales' is still the Wayside 
Inn, Sudbury; Fruitlands, in Harvard, is where Alcott and his 
{ English Mystics ' struggled with farming for their ideal of a 
consociate family. And the Orchard House, on the main Con- 
cord road, is today very much as it was when Bronson and 
Louisa May Alcott lived in it, with sister May's sketches still 
preserved on the walls and doors of the girls' rooms. 

It was in the Salem Custom House that Hawthorne spent un- 
happy years as a clerk. After he had left Salem, he wrote 
'The House of the Seven Gables,' a story which is vividly re- 
called by the tinkle of the bell above the door through which 
visitors enter. The tale of Moby Dick, the white whale, was 
written at Arrowhead, in Pittsneld, where Melville worked, 
and on the same page is pictured the house (austere as his 
writings) where Thoreau lived. 

The stately, shadowed house in Amherst is the Emily Dickin- 
son home. On the right, in the second story, is the 'window 
facing west.' The Dickinson memorabilia may be seen in The 
Evergreens, the house across the lawn, built by Emily's bro- 
ther in 1856. 



u 1. 1.1 u 1-1 










Concord 211 

Accommodations: Several inns and rooms in private houses. 
Information: Independent Information Bureau, 26 School St. 

CONCORD, situated where the Sudbury and Assabet join to form the 
Concord River, is rich in historical and literary associations. It shares 
with Lexington the honor of being the birthplace of the American Revo- 
lution; later, in the 'Golden Age' of American literature, it was a haven 
for poets, authors, naturalists, and philosophers. 

The Concord River has not attracted great industries, so that the 
village is predominantly residential, retaining much of its quiet Colonial 
atmosphere. Around the Green are grouped the trim red-brick and clap- 
boarded shops of the business district. Along the river, so slow-moving 
that Hawthorne said he lived beside it for weeks before discovering which 
way it flowed, stand fine white houses on broad lawns that slope down to 
the water's edge. Tall elms shade other homes distinguished by the 
beautifully proportioned doorways and panelled interiors that are a 
heritage of eighteenth-century craftsmanship. Outlying fields are given 
over to farms. 

In 1635, scarcely five years after Boston had been settled, Simon 
Willard, a fur trader, and the Reverend Peter Bulkeley led about a dozen 
families to this spot, then the Indian village of Musketaquid. It was the 
furthermost inland point in the wilderness. With garments, hatchets, 
knives, and cloth the settlers purchased from the Massachusetts tribe a 
plantation described as 'six myles of land square,' then clinched the bar- 
gain by smoking the pipe of peace with the Indian chieftains. The name 
'Concord' commemorates this friendship, a friendship that was never 

It went hard with the settlers during the first winters, but the settle- 
ment slowly grew, in the latter half of the century becoming a county 
seat. The first county convention to protest against the Acts of Parlia- 
ment met here in August of 1774; the First Provincial Congress in October 
of the same year. From March 22 until four days before the Battle at the 
Bridge, the Second Provincial Congress held sessions in the town. 
Throughout this period Concord was a depot for military stores and 
consequently a focal point for British attack. On April 19, 1775, after 
Dr. Samuel Prescott and William Dawes had carried Paul Revere's mes- 
sage to Concord, the British redcoats appeared and, as the Concord Min- 
utemen advanced across the Concord Bridge, fired the ' shot heard round 
the world.' 

During the siege of Boston that followed, so many patriots took refuge 
in Concord that a Boston town meeting was called here. Again, while 
Harvard served as a barracks for American forces, the university classes 
were conducted in Concord. The town was the seat of the Middlesex 
field of Shays's Rebellion. 

Following a post-war period of readjustment, Concord entered upon 
its second phase this time as an important center of American culture. 


Concord 213 

Here Ralph Waldo Emerson wrote his greatest essays, poems, and jour- 
nals, and revived the philosophy of Transcendentalism. Closely associ- 
ated with the Transcendentalist movement were Nathaniel Hawthorne, 
novelist; Franklin B. Sanborn, journalist, philanthropist, and biographer; 
and William Ellery Channing the poet. While not residents in Concord, 
Margaret Fuller, editor of the School of Philosophy's organ the Dial, and 
Elizabeth Fuller, Boston educator who established the first American 
kindergarten, were of this literary group. 

By the shores of Walden Pond, Emerson's intimate friend, Henry 
David Thoreau, the naturalist, fled from society, built his hut and studied 
the trees and birds he was to write about in 'Walden, or Life in the Woods.' 

In the building known as Hillside Chapel, Amos Bronson Alcott opened 
his School of Philosophy, while his more practical wife and daughters 
wrestled with the humdrum problem of making ends meet. As a result 
of their struggles, Mr. Alcott's daughter Louisa May wrote her series of 
books, the most autobiographical of which, 'Little Women,' has taken its 
place among children's classics. Margaret Sidney (Mrs. Harriet Mulford 
Stone Lothrop) was another Concord author, and Jane Austin wrote here 
the 'Nameless Nobleman.' Daniel Chester French (1850-1931) of Concord 
has won fame for his sculptures. These are represented in his home town 
by the Minuteman, the Melvin Memorial, and a statue of Emerson. 

Concord men have made contributions outside the field of the arts. 
Harrison Gray Dyer erected the first telegraph line in this country and 
William Monroe made the first lead pencils in America. In 1853 Ephraim 
Bull bred the Concord grape, a development which began the commercial 
production of table grapes in America. 

Though Concord, with its many memories, seems so much a part of an 
older New England, it is nevertheless a flourishing modern village. Today 
ten small factories and a busy tourist trade supplement the revenue that 
comes to Concord from its position as trading center for farm and garden 
products. Many Boston families have in recent years established their 
homes here, since Concord is within commuting distance. 


1. Monument Square n. First Parish Church 

2. Emerson Elm 12. Concord Art Association 

3. Sleepy Hollow Cemetery 13. Reuben Brown House 

4. Bullet-Hole House 14. Emerson House 

5. Old Manse 15. Antiquarian House 

6. Battle Ground 16. School of Philosophy 

7. Colonial Inn 17. Orchard House 

8. Public Library 18. Wayside 

Q. Thoreau-Alcott House 19. Grapevine Cottage 

10. Wright Tavern 20. Site of the Attack by Minute Men 

214 Main Street and Village Green 

TOUR 7.0 m. 

NW. from Lexington Rd. through Monument Square. 

1. Monument Square has three war memorials on its Green. In the 
center is the huge granite shaft of the Civil War Memorial; the Boulder 
at the north end of the Green commemorates the heroes of the Spanish 
War; the World War Memorial, a boulder now almost covered with ivy, 
bears Emerson's words: 

'So nigh is grandeur to our dust, 
So near is God to Man, 
When duty whispers low, "Thou must," 
The youth replies, "I can.'" 

2. In front of the Town Hall, NE. of the square is the Emerson Elm. 
Under this tree for the past three generations Concord men on their way 
to battle have been addressed by a member of the Emerson family. 

R.from Monument Square into Monument St.; R. from Monument St. into 
Court Lane; straight ahead into Bedford Rd. 

3. Sleepy Hollow Cemetery, lying in an oval basin surrounded by high 
ridges and tall trees, holds the graves of many of Concord's notable dead 

-Emerson, Hawthorne, Thoreau, the Alcotts, Elizabeth Peabody, 
William Ellery Channing, Frank Sanborn. Here lie Colonel Prescott 
and members of the Hoar family, prominent in national politics during 
the last century. The tombstone of Ephraim Bull, who lacked the 
shrewdness to profit by his development of the Concord grape, bears the 
significant epitaph: 'He sowed, others reaped.' 

Retrace Bedford Rd. into Court Lane; R. from Court Lane into Monument 

4. Bullet-Hole House (private], 36 Monument St., the original portion of 
which was built in 1644, is probably the oldest house in Concord. It is a 
two-and-a-half-story white, yellow-trimmed structure with a plain board 
front, a clapboarded ell, and a mansard roof. During the battles of Con- 
cord and Lexington, Elisha Jones, a Minuteman, guarded Colonial 
military supplies stored in this house. When the British began their re- 
treat, Elisha rashly appeared at the door and was fired upon. The bullet- 
hole is still to be seen, enclosed in a glass case at the left of the door in 
the ell. 

5. Old Manse, adjacent to the Battleground (open weekdays 10-6; Sun. 
12-6), a dark gray, clapboarded, three-story structure with a gambrel 
roof, was built in 1765 by the Rev. William Emerson, the militant min- 
ister, grandfather of the writer Ralph Waldo Emerson. Hawthorne 
lived here for a time and made it the setting for 'Mosses from an Old 

Concord 215 

L. from Monument St. into footpath. 

6. Battleground, made famous in 1775. The Minuteman, the first 
statue by Daniel Chester French, guards this site. Too poor to afford 
a model, the sculptor is said to have used as model a statue of Apollo 
Belvedere arrayed in the dress of the Minutemen. Near-by is a concrete 
reproduction of the original wooden Concord Bridge over which the 
Americans crossed in pursuit of the British attacking force. A tablet 
marks the graves of two British soldiers. 

Retrace to Monument St.; R. from Monument St. into Monument Square. 

7. Colonial Inn, n Monument Square (open the year round) , faces the 
Concord Green at its northern end. The inn, a long rambling yellow 
structure formed by joining together three adjacent houses, is in an ex- 
cellent state of preservation. The original unit was built in 1770. The 
taproom holds its original fittings besides Revolutionary relics. 

R. from Monument Square on Main St. 

8. Public Library, corner of Sudbury Rd., a red-brick structure lately 
modernized, has French's statue of Emerson, cabinets of Indian relics, 
volumes by Concord authors, paintings, and other objects of historic 
and artistic interest. 

9. Thoreau-Alcott House (private), 75 Main St., a buff-colored dwelling, 
is the house in which Thoreau died. 

Retrace Main St.; R. from Main St. into Lexington Rd. 

10. Wright Tavern (open as a hotel), 2 Lexington Rd., built in 1747, is 
the oldest existing tavern in Concord. The exterior, hip-roofed, with 
two large chimneys, retains much architectural charm. Here Major 
Pitcairn had his headquarters on April 19, 1775, and here he made his 
boast that before night he would ' stir the blood of the damned Yankee 

11. First Parish Church (Unitarian) is on the site of the building in 
which sat the First and Second Provincial Congresses, with John Hancock 
presiding and William Emerson as chaplain. 

12. Concord Art Association (open April-Oct. 15), 15 Lexington Rd., 
housed in a white clapboarded building with a central chimney, has 
permanent exhibits of unusual historical interest. During the summer 
months resident artists hold exhibitions. 

i2a. The Concord Summer School of Music, 21 Lexington Rd., founded in 
1914, and directed by Thomas Whitney Surette, gives a series of three 
public chamber music concerts each summer. Public classes (free) in folk 
dancing are also conducted. 

13. Reuben Brown House (open as tearoom), 27 Lexington Rd., a red 
clapboarded structure with white trim and with a central chimney, 
was the home of Reuben Brown, a saddler by trade, who brought back 
from Lexington the news of the outbreak of hostilities. The British fired 
his house, but it was saved. 

216 Main Street and Village Green 

14. Emerson House (open weekdays 9.30-11.30, 1.30-3.30 and fry appoint- 
ment), Lexington Rd. and Cambridge Turnpike, is a square white dwell- 
ing in a setting of pines. In 1820 Emerson himself built the house, and 
here he lived from 1835 until his death in 1882, except for the period of 
his European tour, when Thoreau occupied the house. The Victorian 
interior shows furnishings, portraits, hangings of Emerson's day as well 
as the philosopher's fine library of classics and first editions. 

15. Antiquarian House (open weekdays April ig-Nov. n, 10-5.30, Sun. 
2-5; after Nov. n, 10-5; adm. 25^), Lexington Rd. at Cambridge Turn- 
pike, is one of the most important museums in Concord. The two-and- 
one-half-story brick structure with green blinds, has a pitched roof and 
two wings. The museum contains several authentic New England period 
rooms, in which are admirably displayed furniture, glass, and china dat- 
ing from the iyth to the igth centuries. The Emerson Room reproduces 
the philosopher's study with its furnishings kept just as they were when 
he died. Thoreau's books, flute, and surveyor's chain, as well as articles 
from the Walden hut, are exhibited in the room bearing his name. 

1 6. School of Philosophy, Lexington Rd., once known as the Hillside 
Chapel, is a small, unpainted building with Gothic doors and windows. 
Here for nearly a decade Bronson Alcott gathered together leaders of 
American thought. 

17. Orchard House (open weekdays April ig-Oct. 31, 10-6, Sun. 2-6; adm. 
25^), a tan two-and-a-half-story house with central chimney and small 
paned windows, was the second home of the Alcotts. The old house, 
considered unlivable, was shaded by great elms in front. In the rear was 
an apple orchard. The members of the Bronson family repaired, painted, 
and papered the house. The interior and the Alcott furnishings, books, 
and pictures are all preserved. Drawings by 'Amy' are still on the doors 
and walls of her room. It was here at 'Apple Slump,' as she called it, 
that Louisa May Alcott wrote the first part of 'Little Women.' 

1 8. Wayside (open daily May 3 -Nov. n, 9-6; adm. 25^), near Haw- 
thorne Rd., was known as Hillside during the residence of Bronson 
Alcott in 1845-48. Here Louisa and her sisters spent part of their girl- 
hood, and here in the barn they staged their early plays. Hawthorne, 
upon purchasing the property in 1852, named it Wayside, and lived here 
until his death in 1864. In the tower that he built as a refuge from 
visitors, Hawthorne wrote 'Tanglewood Tales' and the * Marble Faun.' 
Margaret Sidney, while a resident at Wayside, wrote several volumes of 
her children's series, 'The Five Little Peppers.' On display are photo- 
stats of pages of Hawthorne manuscript and letters, as well as furniture 
belonging to Hawthorne and Margaret Sidney. 

19. Grapevine Cottage (open as tearoom), a gambrel-roofed cottage, has 
a tablet identifying it as the home of Ephraim Wales Bull. For many 
years a trellis against the cottage wall supported the original Concord 
grapevine. Recently this was winter-killed, but the present vine is a 
shoot from the same root. On the trellis is a tablet inscribed with a 

Dedham 217 

quotation from Bull's journal: 'I looked to see what I could find among 
our wildings. The next thing to do was to find the best and earliest grape 
for seed, and this I found in an accidental seedling at the foot of the hill. 
The crop was abundant, ripe in August, and of very good quality for a 
wild grape. I sowed the seed in the Autumn 1843. Among them the 
Concord was the only one worth saving.' 

20. A tablet, junction of Lexington Rd. and Old Bedford Rd., indicates 
the Site of the Attack made by the Minutemen of Concord and neighbor- 
ing towns upon the British while they were retreating from North Bridge, 
April 19, 1775. 


1. W olden Pond Reservation, 1.5 m. S. of the village (see Tour 1 C). 

2. Concord Reformatory, W. Concord (see Tour 2). 

3. Middlesex School for Boys (1901), about 3 m. N. of Concord on Lowell 
Rd., is a college preparatory school with fine modern buildings, dormi- 
tories and equipment. 

D E D H A M . The Sober-Minded 

Town: Alt. in, pop. 15,371, sett. 1635, incorp. 1636. 

Railroad Station: Dedham Station, off High St., for N.Y., N.H. & H. R.R. 
Bus Station: 380 Washington St. for New England Transportation Co. 

Accommodations: Inns and boarding-houses charge reasonable rates. 
Information: Board of Trade, Hartnett Square. 

FEW towns in Massachusetts have changed as little in their basic char- 
acteristics between the time of settlement and the present day as has 
Dedham. In its earliest beginnings and through the pioneer period it 
was known as a sober-minded and solid community full of the well- 
recognized virtues of citizenship; and this reputation still endures, 
embodied in the substantial architecture of its center and the comfortable 
residential uniformity of its surrounding districts. 

The permanent character of the town was determined at its very genesis 
by the character of the men who settled it. The Dedham settlers were 
not religious enthusiasts or sentimental visionaries. They cared for all 

218 Main Street and Village Green 

the solid respectable things of life. For many of them the new land 
promised primarily social and economic advancement. So they chose 
a place on a pleasant river, well watered by subsidiary streams, and 
blessed with a fruitful soil. The town covenant announced their purpose 
of being 'a loving and comfortable society.' And in the word 'comfort- 
able' they certainly meant to include physical comfort. It is significant 
that in their petition to the General Court they requested that their town 
should be named * Contentment.' These were sober persons who wanted 
security, a congenial group, and the goods of life. 

Moreover, the founders had a penchant for law and civic regulation. 
The Dedham town covenant antedated the first code of colony laws by 
several years. 

Had the new town been situated on the shore, a spirit of adventure might 
have been stimulated. Men who go down to the sea in ships learn to take 
chances; the infinite variability of wind and sky and season accustoms 
them to change. No such salty alchemy wrought upon the men of 
Dedham. It was sheltered from the bufferings of circumstance. Even 
the Indian wars hardly touched it. 

Other settlements of Massachusetts might be more conspicuous, self- 
assertive as leaders of Colonial development, finally revolutionary; the 
Dedhamites went sanely and solidly on their way, laying the foundations 
of a prosperous industrial and residential town. 

TOUR 6 m. 

W. from Dedham Square on High St. (State 135). 

1. The building of the Dedham Historical Society (open weekdays 2-5), 
612 High St., erected in 1887, contains a collection which includes among 
many notable items, a mother-of-pearl tea chest, exquisitely carved, 
brought from China before 1775 and donated by the Quincy family; a 
Simon Willard clock with an unusual astronomical base made about 
1780; wallpaper depicting a Roman chariot race, taken about 1819 from 
the dining-room of the Dickson House on High St. ; and a steam jack in 
use about 1765 and probably the first steam machine in the country. 
The jack is composed of a water-compartment and an arrangement of 
cogs attached to a roas ting-spit. The water-compartment was bedded 
in the fire on the hearth. As the water boiled, the spit turned and browned 
the roast. Among documents preserved in the vault is the original 
manuscript of a diary (1726-29, 1729-75) kept by Dr. Nathaniel Ames, 
Jr., the editor of an almanac which rivaled Benjamin Franklin's in 
popularity in its time. 

2. The Thayer House (private), 618 High St., a two-story yellow-painted 
clapboarded structure with two chimneys, brick ends, and a small ell, 
has grown shabby with the passing years, during which four generations 

Dedham 219 

of Thayers have lived and died within it; but on the door gleams a 
brightly polished brass Masonic emblem placed there in 1831 by Dr. 
Elisha Thayer at the time of a national attack on the Masonic Order, 
when Dedham Masons were being stoned in the streets. 

3. The Norfolk County Courthouse (1827) is an imposing edifice of gray 
stone with a dome and frontal columns. Within its walls have been 
pleaded many interesting cases. First of these was the controversy be- 
tween the Natick Indians and the town over certain lands occupied by 
the Indians. The latter won but Dedham was allotted 8000 acres in the 
west (now Deerfield) in compensation. 

A second noteworthy trial centered around the Fisher Tavern, later to 
be known as the Ames Tavern and finally as the Woodward Tavern 
(see below}. Dr. Nathaniel Ames, Sr., married a Fisher. By a series of 
four deaths in rapid succession, the last that of an infant, the tavern came 
into probate court. Ames brought suit for possession and won his case, 
the first ruling in Massachusetts by which a father inherited a deceased 
child's estate. 

Of prime importance was the litigation culminating in 1818 with an 
historic decision of the Supreme Court of Massachusetts, which gave 
to the Dedham Parish, rather than to the church fellowship, the right 
to elect ministers, and thus paved the way for the rise of Unitarianism 
in Massachusetts. 

The most notorious of all Dedham trials was that of Sacco and Vanzetti 
before Judge Webster Thayer in 1921. The injection into the trial of 
political considerations, the quality of the testimony, the attitude of the 
judge, the dragging-out of the trial over six long years aroused a world- 
wide storm of denunciation from pulpit and press, resulting in the ap- 
pointment of a commission headed by ex-President Lowell of Harvard. 
The commission reported that it believed the trial had been fairly con- 
ducted and had reached a proper conclusion. Sacco and Vanzetti were 
executed following the publication of this report. But ten years after 
the case, a play based on it won the Pulitzer prize, and a brochure on 
the report of the Lowell Commission was circulated at the Harvard 
Tercentenary Celebration in 1936. 'Though the tomb is sealed, the dry 
bones still rattle,' said Heywood Broun. 

4. A tablet on the Norfolk County Registry, another large gray stone 
building, across from the courthouse, commemorates the Site of Woodward 
(Fisher) Tavern, where was held the Suffolk Convention for the drawing- 
up of the Suffolk Resolves. The legend reads in part: 'They lighted the 
match that kindled the mighty conflagration of the American Revolution.' 
Another tablet marks this site as the Birthplace of Fisher Ames (1758- 
1808), a member of the Massachusetts Constitutional Convention and 
a distinguished Federalist, author of the Lucius Junius Brutus papers 
written in denunciation of Shays's Rebellion. 

5. On the Church Green at the southeast corner of High and Court Sts. 
is the stone Base of the Pillar of Liberty, erected in 1766 by the Sons of 


Dedham 221 

Liberty to glorify William Pitt for his vigorous opposition to the Stamp 

6. The First Church in Dedham (Unitarian) fronts on the Church Green. 
A dignified and simple type of American Georgian architecture, built 
about 1768, it is painted white and has a steeple and two round-topped 

7. A tablet in front of the church marks the Site of the First Free Public 
School in America (built 1649) to be supported by general taxation. 

8. The Haven House (open as Dedham Community House; tearoom), 669 
High St., was built by Judge Samuel Haven in 1795. Two venerable 
English elms standing in front of the house were set out by the judge in 
1789, when he graduated from college. 

9. The Dexter House (private), 699 High St., was built about 1762 by 
Samuel Dexter, member of the Provincial Congress, 1774-75. The in- 
terior retains its 18th-century features including the beautiful staircase 
with elaborate balusters, high paneled wainscoting and ample fireplaces. 

Retrace High St.; R. from High St. on Bullard St.; L.from Bullard St. into 
Village Ave. 

10. St. Paul's Episcopal Church is an impressive edifice of rough granite. 
Most of the buildings of the business section of Dover, an adjoining town, 
are tenants on 999-year leases of lands bequeathed to this church in 1757 
by Samuel Colburn. 

11. Horace Mann's Law Office (private), 74 Church St., diagonally op- 
posite St. Paul's Church across Village Square, is now a two-and-a-half- 
story, broad gabled dwelling; its original character has been lost by re- 
modeling. Horace Mann occupied it from 1828 until 1835, while he was 
a representative from Dedham in the General Court. 

L.from Village Ave. into Court St.; straight ahead into Ames St. 

12. The Powder House, opposite 162 Ames St., is perched on a rocky 
knoll. A tiny cube, hardly bigger than a large closet and surmounted by 
a (restored) conical roof, it was built in 1766 of bricks formed of clay from 
local pits and baked in a local kiln. 

L.from Ames St. on Bridge St. 


1 . The Dedham Historical Society 10. St. Paul's Episcopal Church 

2. Thayer House n. Horace Mann's Law Office 

3. Norfolk County Courthouse 12. Powder House 

4. Site of Woodward (Fisher) Tavern 13. Noble and Greenough School 

5. Pillar of Liberty 14. Fairbanks House 

6. First Church in Dedham 15. Avery Oak 

7. Site of first free public school 16. Dedham Pottery 

8. Haven House 17. Mother Brook 

9. Dexter House 

222 Main Street and Village Green 

13. Granite gateposts mark the entrance to the campus of the Noble and 
Greenough School for boys, a non-sectarian institution originally estab- 
lished (1886) in Boston as a preparatory school for Harvard. In 1917 the 
Volkmann School was combined with it, and in 1922 it moved to Dedham. 
Well worth an extra ten minutes is the drive along the charming wooded 
lane with views (R) of a picturesque main building set high on a rocky 
eminence like a luxurious castle with red tiled roof and (L) of athletic 
fields, modern new buildings, and a small lake. 

Retrace Bridge St.; R. from Bridge St. into Ames St.; L. from Ames St. into 
High St.; cross Dedham Square; R. from High St. into Eastern Ave. 

14. The Fairbanks House (open daily 9-6, Apr. 19 to Nov. 1; contribution 
expected) stands at the corner of East St. Set on a mound lawn and 
shaded by giant elm trees this long, low, faded brown house stretches 
along in three sections, its lower story massed by flowering shrubs. The 
roof sags in two deep curves on each side from the great central chimney 
and slopes almost to the ground in the rear. The central block, built in 
1636, with two wings of different architecture added at a later date, is 
generally conceded to be the oldest frame house still standing in America. 
Like Dedham itself in 1936, it celebrated its 3ooth anniversary. Furnished 
with family heirlooms, it is a shrine for 6000 Fairbanks families in- 
corporated as descendants of the builder, Jonathan Fairbanks. Five 
doors lead from a small entrance hall to other parts of the dwelling. The 
step down into the kitchen is a simple log, worn concave by the feet of 
many generations of Fairbanks. 

L. from Eastern Ave. into East St. 

15. The Avery Oak, 80 feet in height and 16 feet in circumference, stand- 
ing on the lawn of a modern frame house (R) half a block down, is under 
the protection of the Dedham Historical Society. This patriarch of a 
vanished forest was ' marked ' in its prime to be used in the construction 
of the frigate ' Constitution,' but the Averys refused to sell it. 

R. from East St. into High St.; R. from High St. into Pottery Lane. 

1 6. The Dedham Pottery (open, guide provided) is an attractive brick 
building within which is made, by secret process, a famous blue-and- 
white porcelain reminiscent of old Chinese crackleware. 

Retrace Pottery Lane; L. from Pottery Lane into High St.; R. from High St. 
into Washington St.; L. from Washington St. into US 1. 

17. Mother Brook, believed to be the first canal in America, connects 
the Charles and Neponset Rivers. The narrow channel, long unused 
now, was dug, according to the tablet, 'before 1640,' to provide water 
for the mills of the early settlers, and was the basis of the town's in- 
dustrial growth. 

DEERFIELD. ,4 Beautiful Ghost 

Town: Alt. 204, pop. 2963, sett. 1673, incorp. 1677. 

Railroad Stations: Memorial St., Deerneld and Elm Sts., South Deerneld, for 

B. & M. R.R. 
Bus Stations: Elm St. for B. & M. Transportation Co.; Billings Drugstore for 

Blue Way Line. 

Accommodations: One hotel open summer only, Deerneld; two hotels open all 
year, South Deerneld. Tourist houses. 

Information: See Greenfield. 

IF IT is no exaggeration to say that Deerneld is not so much a town as 
the ghost of a town, its dimness almost transparent, its quiet almost a 
cessation, it is essential to add that it is probably quite the most beautiful 
ghost of its kind, and with the deepest poetic and historic significance to 
be found in America. Salem, with its somber echoes of the witch hang- 
ings, of the brighter pages of the clipper-ship trade with the East, New 
Bedford with its whale-ships, Concord with its bold patriotism and its 
almost unexampled literary flowering these all perhaps have a greater 
' importance.' But Deerneld has something to say which none of these 
say, and says it perfectly. It is, and will probably always remain, the 
perfect and beautiful statement of the tragic and creative moment when 
one civilization is destroyed by another. And the wonderful ghostliness of 
this mile-long 'Street' of grave and ancient houses, the strange air of 
unreality which hangs over it, arises precisely from the fact that the little 
town is really saying two things at once. It is saying, 'I dared to be 
beautiful, even in the shadow of the wilderness'; but it is also saying, 
1 And the wilderness haunts me, the ghosts of a slain race are in my door- 
ways and clapboards, like a kind of death.' 

The air of unreality, moreover, is simplified and heightened by the fact 
that Deerfield is one of those towns which have literally and completely 
been forgotten by time: it has fallen asleep. To all intents, nothing has 
happened there for two hundred years; and the whole history of its 
greatness is crowded into the first three decades of its existence, the 
violent and dreadful years from 1672 to 1704, when it was the northwest 
frontier of New England, the spearhead of English civilization in an un- 
known and hostile country. The town of Dedham having been awarded 
a grant of land in 1663 (see DEDHAM), the site of Deerfield was 'laid 
out' in the Pocumtuck country just west of the Connecticut River in 
1665. Not a single Dedham man settled there until 1669, when Samuel 
Hinsdell of Dedham, a squatter, began the cultivation of the fertile 
soil, where the Pocumtucks had grown their corn and pumpkins and 
tobacco; and by 1672 Samson Frary and others had joined him. After 

224 Main Street and Village Green 

two expeditions to Boston, Hinsdell got the consent of the General Court 
to form a township. 

A minister was procured and the little town throve. In 1673 it had 
twenty families, and two years later its population numbered 125. But 
seeming peace and prosperity were to prove only an illusion: with the 
outbreak of King Philip's War began the interminable series of Indian 
and French attacks on Deerfield which for thirty years kept its inhabi- 
tants in constant terror. The two most famous of these the Bloody 
Brook massacre of 1675 an d the great Deerfield raid of 1704 practically 
emptied the town: the first, in fact, wholly, and the second of all save its 
garrison. In 1675 the garrison was withdrawn, the families were scat- 
tered among the towns lower in the valley, and for seven years Deerfield's 
houses were empty. 

Not to be discouraged, the survivors in 1678 presented a petition to the 
General Court asking leave to return. They had their way, the town was 
re-established in 1682, and in 1686 was held its first town meeting. John 
Williams, destined to become Deerfield's most famous citizen, came to 
take over the church in the same year, induced by the handsome offer of 
' sixteen cow-commons of meadow-land,' a 'homelott,' and a house 
'forty- two foot long, twenty foot wide, with a lentoo.' Of Williams's part 
in the great raid of 1704, during Queen Anne's War, when half the town 
was burned, 49 inhabitants killed, and Williams himself with no others 
taken captive to Canada, it is sufficient here to say that Williams's own 
account of it in ' The Redeemed Captive ' remains the best. 

With its slow rehabilitation after the great raid, Deerfield had really 
ended its active life, and began to become the long reminiscence which it 
seems destined to be. Agriculturally, its importance died with the open- 
ing of the West, though it still grows its tobacco and cucumbers; a de- 
velopment of handicrafts late in the eighteenth century was of short 
duration; and a revival of them again in the early part of the present 
century needlework, hand-weaving, basket-making is only now 
(1937) making headway. Actually, the town's chief industry is its 
schools. Deerfield Academy is one of the oldest boarding-schools in the 
country: this and Eaglebrook, a preparatory school for boys, and Bement, 
co-educational, add about five hundred to the town's population. 

TOUR 1.5 m. 

i. Old Deerfield Street, a mile long, contains none but old houses, most of 
them Colonial, beside a church, two schools, and a post-office. The shops 
of the town are elsewhere, and this one long street gives an effect of being 
the entire village, with glimpses of open country, fields, and far hills 
beyond. All the way along it, spreading elms, two hundred years old, 
form an arch; a setting once frequent in New England, but now rare. 
Some of the houses are singularly handsome and still prosperous; others 

Deerfield 225 

are plain but well tended; still others are on the verge of romantic decay. 
Two-leaf front doors, characteristic of the Connecticut Valley and rare 
elsewhere in New England, are to be seen here on many of the dwellings. 

2. The Frary House (private), in the Town Square on the southeast corner 
of Old Deerfield and Memorial Sts., was built at least its north end 
in 1689, and was one of the very few to escape being burned in the most 
disastrous Indian raid of New England. It is a long, massive, L-shaped 
structure of two and a half stories, of unpainted, darkly weathered clap- 
boards, with a white portico, white sashes, and white dentiled cornice. 
Samson Frary, who built this old house, was murdered by the Indians. 
Later it became a Revolutionary tavern, where Benedict Arnold closed 
a contract which afforded his army much needed supplies. 

N. from the Town Square on Old Deerfield St. 

3. The Wittard House (private), built in 1768 and sometimes called the 
Manse, is one of the loveliest houses in Deerfield, a square Georgian 
Colonial mansion of yellow clapboards with white trim, set imperiously 
on a banking, and adorned about its doorway and windows with all the 
decorative detail the general conception will stand. The curious gam- 
brel-roofed red ell in the rear was originally a separate building, the oldest 
in Deerfield. The Manse was the home of Dr. Samuel Willard, one of 
the ministers of the First Church across the way and a pioneer in the 
Unitarian movement in Massachusetts. 

4. The Meeting House (Unitarian), built in 1824, was probably designed 
by Isaac Damon. The brick body of the church, with arched doorways, 
is surmounted by a pediment, roof, and closed cupola of wood, which 
lighten the somber dignity of the design. 

5. The Joseph Stebbins House (private; about 1772), marked by a granite 
tablet in the grounds, is a massive three-and-a-half-story white Georgian 
Colonial house with wood quoins and gambrel roof. The front and side 
doorways match, except for an arched hood over the front door. Each 
has a top light of five panes cut in the rare pattern of a triple hood (sim- 
ilar to the tops of many old gravestones), the center hood rising above 
the two flanking ones. 

6. The ' Indian House' Reproduction (open daily 9-12 and 1-5; adm. 10f), 
with its dark weathered timbers and second- and third-story overhangs, 
illustrates a special type of the earliest Colonial architecture. It takes 
its name from its survival of the Indian raid of 1704. The original house 
was torn down in 1848, but its door, with a hole caused by a tomahawk, 
may be seen at Memorial Hall. The present structure was erected in 
1929 by the Deerfield Historical Society, and on a Millstone in the yard 
is inscribed the history of its predecessor. The rooms are furnished in 
Colonial style, and one of them contains an exhibit of handicraft and 
paintings by local artists. 

7. Old Bloody Brook Tavern (open daily 9-12 and 1-5; adm. free), in the 
rear yard of the Indian House, is a long one-and-a-half -story frame build- 

226 Main Street and Village Green 

ing with giant central chimney, now the home of the Deerfield Art School. 
It was built prior to 1700, and was moved here from South Deerfield. 

8. The Bardwell-Stebbins-Abercrombie House (private) is a charming 
two-and-a-half-story gray frame dwelling with a central chimney and a 
gabled roof. It sits on a banking above a field-stone wall. At the rear is 
a low ell porch, added later, but designed with the open arches of the 
early New England woodshed to conform to the style of the older part 
of the dwelling. 

9. The Sheldon Homestead (open as an antique shop) is a two-and-a-half- 
story unpainted clapboarded structure. It was built in 1734, and has a 
gable roof, and a gambrel-roof ell. Its major interest, as often in Deerfield, 
is its narrow two-leaf front door, framed with ornamental pilasters. 

10. The Hinsdale House (visitors by permission) is a two-and-a-half-story 
frame house with hip roof, very well preserved, and interesting because 
of its unusual doorway, which has wide white paneling in the jambs and 
heads, framing a large fanlight and ornamental sidelights. The house was 
built in 1738 and remodeled in 1816. 

Retrace Old Deerfield St.; R. from Old Deerfield St. on Albany Rd. 

11. Deerfield Academy occupies several modern brick buildings in the 
Georgian style. It was established in 1797, and after several changes, 
including one period when it was a local public school, it is today one of 
the leading smaller preparatory schools for boys, having 275 resident 
students, in addition to day students. 

12. The John Williams House (private) was built in 1707, a two-and-a- 
half-story brown frame dwelling of generous proportions and in a good 
state of preservation. The graceful and beautiful entrance has a broken- 
arch pediment over its two-leaf door. The house has a secret stairway. 
It belonged to the Rev. John Williams, 'The Redeemed Captive.' 

13. The 'Little Brown House' (private) is a broad one-and-a-half -story 
unpainted clapboarded house with gable roof, interesting as an adaptation 
to a studio by means of a large window in the north front. 

Retrace Albany Rd.; straight ahead from Albany Rd. on Memorial St. 

14. Memorial Hall (open weekdays 9-12 and 1-5; adm. 1Q) is a three- 
story brick building erected in 1798, the first building of Deerfield Acad- 
emy and now a museum of the Pocumtuck Valley Memorial Association. 

EVERETT. Industrial Half-Sister 

City: alt. 31, pop. 47,228, sett. 1649, incorp. town 1870, city 1892. 

Railroad Stations: West Everett, West St.; Everett, off Broadway, for B. & M. 

Bus Station: Glendale Square for B. & M., Grey Line, and Greyhound busses. 

Accommodations: Rooms in private houses. 
Information: Board of Trade, National Bank Bldg. 

EVERETT, an industrial city adjacent to Boston, today shows one 
hundred and forty-two manufactories with an employment roll of over 
five thousand, specializing mainly in coke and petroleum products, oils, 
chemicals, and shoes. Everett is the home of the New England Coke 
and Coal Company and the New England Fuel and Transportation 
Company, the latter one of the largest coal discharging plants in the 
east, with a storage capacity of two hundred thousand tons or more and 
with equipment to handle fifteen hundred tons hourly. Another of the 
city's notable enterprises is the Beacon Oil Company. A fleet of tankers 
plies constantly between the company's docks and Texas. Within the 
plant there is an underground storage room for one million barrels of 
crude petroleum; above ground are warehouses with storage facilities for 
500,000 barrels of refined oil. The main supply of gas for Boston is 
manufactured on the Everett side of the Mystic River (but on Boston 
territory) by the Boston Consolidated Gas Company. A local plant 
of the General Electric Company turns out castings, while another of 
du Pont de Nemours and Company produces a complete line of paints 
and varnishes. At the Mystic Iron Works may be seen in operation the 
only blast furnace in New England, and one of the few on the eastern 
seaboard. There are many other outstanding industrial firms. 

A year before John Winthrop's fleet dropped anchor in Salem Harbor, 
three brothers were exploring the virgin timberland along the Mystic 
River. Diverging a trifle from their course, they came upon a country 
which one of the brothers, Ralph Sprague, reported as an 'uncouth 
wilderness' (uncouth then meaning 'wonderful,' 'uncommon') full of 
'stately timber.' This is the first record (1629) of a white man's visiting 
the three square miles of territory that now contain the thriving industrial 
city of Everett. 

Since more than two centuries passed before Everett became self- 
governing, its history is entangled with that of Maiden and early Charles- 
town. As early as 1649, a petition granted to some 'Mystic Side' men 
permitted them to separate from Charlestown and to set up a town 
called 'Maulden.' 

228 Main Street and Village Green 

In the first half of the nineteenth century, South Maiden was important 
principally because of the commanding position which it occupied in the 
overland communication to Boston. A penny ferry, opened in 1640, had 
formerly been the most direct route to the capital. From the back country 
one of the oldest New England roads led to the ferry. In 1 796 a country 
road was laid out, three rods wide, running to Maiden Bridge, built ten 
years before to supplant the ferry. Private capital financed the construc- 
tion of Maiden Bridge, which the Maiden Bridge Corporation owned and 
operated as a toll bridge for seventy- two years. During that time the 
round trip from Maiden to Boston was costly: the tolls amounted to forty- 
seven cents, a heavy tax in a time when a daily wage rarely exceeded a 

When the Newbury Turnpike Corporation decided upon South Maiden 
as a terminus for the new highroad to Newburyport, the first step was 
taken in making the future Everett a consequential post in the trans- 
portational plan of the Commonwealth. Yet, in spite of its favorable 
location in the system of communication between Boston and the north 
country, Everett's progress before 1870 was slow. Until 1845 the town 
was engrossed in agriculture. In 1859 toll charges were done away with 
on the Maiden Bridge, thus attracting more business and more residents 
to the town, which in 1870 was incorporated under the name of Everett, 
in honor of the illustrious orator, statesman, and scholar Edward Everett. 


1. Parlin Library, Everett Square, a modern white brick building, chief 
public library of the city, and memorial to Albert N. Parlin, civic philan- 
thropist, contains one of the few copies now readily available of a useful 
historical-descriptive booklet, 'The Straight Road/ concerning the New- 
buryport Turnpike, which passed through what is now Everett. On the 
lawn of the library grounds is a Sundial inscribed: 'To the children of 
Everett that they may measure their hours of sunshine.' 

2. The Milburn Collection of Hawthorniana (open only to accredited stu- 
dents of Hawthorne), 88 Waverly St., is a large and exceedingly valuable 
treasure-house of first editions of Nathaniel Hawthorne's works and 
other Hawthorniana. Except for 'Fanshawe' and the two 'Carrier's 
Addresses' (broadsides soliciting newspaper subscriptions in Salem), the 
set of Hawthorne 'firsts' is complete. Among the rare items are the 
large paper copy of 'The Gentle Boy,' containing a frontispiece drawing 
by Mrs. Hawthorne and the privately printed 'Love Letters of Haw- 
thorne.' There are also in the collection notebooks, manuscripts, and a 
very nearly complete compilation of all comment so far discovered in 
print about the great novelist, as well as association objects. 

3. Mt. Washington (summit on Garland St., alt. 176) is one of several 
glacial drumlins in a chain, the others, visible from this one, being 

Fall River 229 

Powder Horn Hill in Chelsea and Orient Heights in East Boston. West- 
ward is a good view of Everett. Once there were remains of Indian forts 
here, testifying to the defeat of a Massachusetts tribe by the Wabanaki 
of Maine. Indian relics, including pottery, have been dug up at various 
times, indicating that the Indians also used Mt. Washington for cere- 
monials and encampments. 

4. Woodlawn Cemetery, Elm St., 176 acres, planted with rhododendrons 
and many varieties of beautiful trees, is one of the notable burial 
grounds in Greater Boston, comparing favorably with Mt. Auburn and 
Forest Hills. 

5. The Mystic Iron Works (open by permission), on the Mystic River, 
has a five-million-dollar blast furnace turning out 500 tons of pig iron 
daily, which is about 20 per cent of this type of raw material used in New 
England. This furnace is among the largest in the country. The great 
ore bridge, first object to catch the eye of the approaching visitor, has a 
clear span of 250 feet and is equipped with an eight- ton bucket. The 
plant, built in 1926, revived in Massachusetts an industry which had 
been lost to the State for a century and a half. 

6. Merrimac Chemical Company' (open by appointment Mon. Fri. 9-4.45; 
guide provided), Chemical Lane, off Broadway, is another vast and im- 
portant plant, picturesquely marked for many years to travelers on the 
Eastern Division of the Boston and Maine Railroad by the great outdoor 
pile of sulphur which lies west of the buildings. This plant, formerly the 
Cochrane Chemical Co., was established in 1858. During the World War 
it did a huge business in TNT, phenol, and picric acid. It marketed the 
first H-acid made in the United States, and produces also fire and sagger 
clay, mined at Bennington, Vermont. A favorite statement is that its 
total output supplies the basic materials of every applied science and 
manufacturing process and the physical media of all the arts. 

FALL RIVER. City of Falling Water 

City: Alt. 39, pop. 117,414, sett. 1656, incorp. town, 1803, city 1854. 
Railroad Station: Fall River, 860 North Main St., for N.Y., N.H. & H. R.R. 
B-us Stations: North Main St., Granite Block opposite City Hall, for Eastern 

Mass. Ry. Co.; Union Coach Terminal for New England Transportation Co., 

Short Line, Inc., Union Ry. Co., and I.C.T. Bus Co. 
Piers: Fall River Line Wharf, off Water St., near Anawan St. 

Accommodations: Ten hotels; twenty-four lodging houses; three boarding-houses. 
Information: Chamber of Commerce, N. Main and Granite Sts. 

230 Main Street and Village Green 

FALL RIVER, strikingly outlined against the sky on a long steep hill 
crest across Mount Hope Bay, looks both larger than it is and very 
foreign. The lofty chimneys of the great stone or brick mills and the 
soaring stone towers of numerous Roman Catholic churches, especially 
the twin pagoda-like spires of Notre Dame, give a European tone. In 
the foreground of the bay, the white Fall River Boat to New York, one 
of a line known to all New Englanders for ninety years, lies moored await- 
ing its evening sailing hour. 

The uphill approach to City Hall and the heart of the municipality, 
through warehouses and mills, many of the latter now silent and empty 
except for some solitary watchman, is unimpressive, but the center of 
the business district is solid and substantial, with large stores, banks, 
and public buildings, mainly of granite, brownstone, or limestone. 
Excursions from this center bring the visitor at almost any block to 
sudden stretches of time-darkened mill plants, of which the Durfee Mills, 
all of granite, extend for eight blocks, largely closed, though some sections 
have been leased to small concerns. South and east of these lie large 
areas of shabby but self-respecting wooden tenements; toward the north 
the streets open into a more prosperous and pleasant residential district. 
The territory of the present city was settled in 1656 as part of a large 
land grant from Plymouth known as Freemen's Purchase. What is now 
Fall River was then called Pocasset, an Indian name still preserved by 
one of the villages in the town of Bourne on Cape Cod. In 1804 Fall 
River's Pocasset took the name of Troy, because of the affection of one 
of its citizens for Troy, New York. The present name of the city dates 
from 1834, and originated from the Indian name of the Quequechan 
River ('Falling Water'), which runs through the city and gives power 
to its mills. 

Agricultural interests predominated until the Revolution, and there- 
after no drama appears in the settlement until its sudden discovery by 
the industrial age. Fall River has three natural advantages as a center 
for cotton manufacturing: water-power, a mild, moist climate suited to 
the weaving of cotton fibers, and a sea harbor adequate for trade ship- 
ments. In consequence, its textile mills were among the first to be estab- 
lished in New England, and by 1871 they experienced a boom which from 
then until 1929 made the name of the city practically synonymous with 
cotton in the social and industrial history of the nation. Even in 1936, 
after seven years of depression, the city directory listed 236 industrial 
plants. There are upward of fifty labor unions. 

Today the dominant note of the working city is French. The handsomest 
churches are French; French translations parallel the English inscriptions 
on monuments; the radios in the restaurants offer French popular songs; 
French newspapers are read in the trolleys. 

Dark, stolid, built four-square, the Portuguese from the settlement at 
the far north of the city, more numerous than the French, are also princi- 
pally engaged in the textile industry. Other races have spread through 

Fall River 231 

the city, have intermingled by marriage, and have developed a cosmo- 
politan culture. 

Fall River, by its very pre-eminence in cotton manufacture, has been 
the hardest hit of all New England mill cities through the combination 
of general business depression, the preference of modern women for 
rayon or silk to cotton, and the removal of many textile factories to the 
cheaper operating field of the South. 


1. The Site of the Battle of Fall River is indicated by a Tablet on the City 
Hall, North Main St. Shortly before the Revolution, Tory sentiment 
was still strong, but this feeling changed, and 31 Freetown men responded 
to the Lexington alarm. Colonel Joseph Durfee, who later started the 
first cotton mill here, organized a home guard in 1777. On Sunday morn- 
ing, May 25, 1778, boats were discovered cautiously approaching the 
town. Challenged, they did not reply and were fired upon by Samuel 
Reed, one of the guards. The whole neighborhood sprang to arms. 
Colonel Durfee stationed his men behind a stone wall and maintained a 
constant fire until the British brought cannon to bear. The Colonials 
then retreated slowly to Main Street, where, near this spot, a stand was 
made and the enemy was repulsed, leaving one soldier dead, one dying 
and carrying a number of wounded with them. 

The attacking British numbered about 150, commanded by Major Ayres. 
On landing, they set fire to the home of Thomas Borden, near Anawan 
and Pond Streets, and to his saw and grist mills. They fired the build- 
ings of Richard Borden, an aged man, and took him prisoner, but re- 
leased him on parole a few days later. As the boats retreated down the 
bay the Colonials kept up musket fire, killing one soldier. 

2. The Sand Bank where the skeleton in armor was found (1831) is indi- 
cated by a tablet on the gas plant at the corner of Fifth and Hartwell 
Streets. This discovery inspired Longfellow to write a famous poem, 
'The Skeleton in Armor.' Some of the remains are now to be found at 
the Fall River Historical Society. 

3. In a haunted hut on the Banks of the Quequechan River lived for many 
years an old hag reputed to be in league with the Devil. Driven out and 
stoned by her superstitious neighbors, she was left to die while they 
burned her hut. Before setting the torch to it, however, they searched it, 
and found or so the oldsters say a letter from Captain Kidd to the 
crone which indicated that in her youth she had been his cherished 

4. The Bradford Durfee Textile School, Bank and Durfee Sts., is free to 
citizens of the State who wish to make themselves more proficient in 
this trade and for those who seek preliminary training. In 1933 the 
school had 148 students. At the present time it is giving active attention 

232 Main Street and Village Green 

to courses designed to meet new trends in the textile industry, a pro- 
gressive policy demanded by the recent hardships experienced in New 
England mills under changed conditions of trade. 

5. The Old Church House (private), corner of June St., is the oldest house 
in Fall River, a vine-covered, gambrel-roofed one-and-a-half -story frame 
structure, painted red, with a central chimney. Built about 1763, it is 
said to have been occupied by a Tory, who during the Revolutionary War 
lent his assistance to the British by using the house as one of the many 
connecting stations which sent messages to Taunton by means of flags 
and beacon lights. 

6. Fall River Historical Society (open to public weekdays 2-A, Sat. 10-12; 
adm. free), 451 Rock St. With its high-ceiled rooms and impressive dig- 
nity, the building lends itself well to museum purposes. On the first 
floor is a picture gallery with oil paintings by Bryant Chapin, Robert 
Dunning, and others. A false bookcase in the parlor once concealed the 
entrance to a wine-cellar, a station of the Underground Railroad. Mills, 
millmen, and streets of Fall River are represented in the room named 
* Down town of the Nineteenth Century,' where also are many interesting 
photographs of the steamers on the 'Old Fall River Line.' 

7. The Lafayette Monument in Lafayette Park, Eastern Ave., County 
and Mason Sts., presented to the city by the Franco-Americans in 1916, 
depicts in bronze a youthful Lafayette on horseback. It was executed 
by Arnold Zocchi in Rome. 

8. Rolling Rock, facing Lafayette Park on Eastern Ave., is a huge con- 
glomerate resting on a granite ledge. It is said that in former times the 
Indians found that, by applying force, this rock could be rolled about on 
its base without falling off, and they used this discovery as a unique 
method of torture, placing captives' arms under a raised part of the rock 
and then rolling it onto them, crushing flesh and bone. 

9. Notre Dame Church, Eastern Ave. at St. Joseph Street, contains 'The 
Last Judgment' of Cremonini painted on the ceiling of the main audi- 
torium. This is the largest work of this famous Italian mural artist in 
the United States. 

FITCHBURG, The Farmer Goes to Town 

City: Alt. 458, pop. 41,700, sett, about 1730, incorp. town 1764, city 1872. 

Railroad Station: Union Station, 264 Main St., for N.Y., N.H. & H. R.R. and 

B. & M. R.R. 
Bus Station: 261 Main St. for Blue Way Line and New England Transportation 

Co. Union Station for B. &. M. Transportation Co. 

Fitchburg 233 

Accommodations: Two hotels open all year at reasonable rates. 
Information: Chamber of Commerce, 560 Main St.; Y.M.C.A., 525 Main St. 

NESTLED among rolling hills, in the valley along a branch of the 
Nashua River, Fitchburg illustrates the almost inevitable trend of many 
Massachusetts cities which, after more than a century's existence as 
small agricultural hamlets, were transformed in a few years into in- 
dustrial cities. Second in size in Worcester County, Fitchburg is notable 
in its segregation of the industrial and residential sections. The steep 
slopes on the south side of the little Nashua River are covered almost 
entirely by dwelling houses, while the business section monopolizes the 
north side close to the river bank. The outlying portions, sparsely popu- 
lated, are used principally for pasturing and farming. 

Owing to the dominance of heavy industries, Fitchburg gives the appear- 
ance of being a man's town, although the census reports that women lead 
in actual numbers. A Yankee twang is at once detected in the voices, 
but the city is a composite of many races. There are Irish, some de- 
scended from early railroad hands, many dark French-Canadians, who 
came as mill workers about 1860, lean, blue-eyed Swedes, brought 
by Iver Johnson interests in 1890, and serious-faced Finns, introduced 
in the great immigration of 1880 to 1912, and Poles and Italians. The 
city itself has an air of substance, unleavened by imagination. It strikes 
a level midway between an impressive display of wealth and a marked 
revelation of poverty. This is due in part to the great number of small 
commercial enterprises owned principally by Germans, Jews, and 
Armenians. Racially organized co-operatives, notably the Finnish 
Co-operative Society, the Farmers Co-operatives, and the new German 
enterprise, promote an orderliness of living not usually found in ' factory 

Fitchburg for fifty years after its incorporation was primarily a dairying 
and agricultural community, largely self-contained. In 1793 an outlet 
was provided by the opening of a stagecoach line between Boston and 
Fitchburg. At the same time the industrial potentialities of the Nashua 
River were recognized. As early as 1805 General Leonard Burbank 
established a paper mill near the 250-foot fall of the river. 
The opening of the Boston and Fitchburg Railroad in 1845, an d the 
Vermont and Massachusetts Railroad in 1848, insured still more rapid 
transportation facilities and attracted new industries, many of which are 
now in operation. The quarrying of granite from Rollstone Hill is still 
an important industry. 


i. The Home of the Fitchburg Plan is the new High School, Wallace 
Ave., a red-brick building capped by a white cupola. The Plan, originated 

234 Main Street and Village Green 

in 1911, is a co-operative arrangement by which boys in engineering 
courses are allowed to spend three days a week at high school and three 
days at work in local factories, and are paid on an apprenticeship basis. 

2. The Fitchburg Historical Society (open Sun. and Thurs. 2-4), 50 Grove 
St., occupies a modern two-story brick building with limestone trim. 
Rare exhibits are a Vinegar Bible published in London in 1777 ('vinegar' 
is erroneously used in the margin instead of 'vineyard'); also a Breeches 
Bible, published in 1588 ('breeches' instead of 'apron' used in Genesis 
III, 7). A drum used by a high priest of Haiti in the voodoo dance and 
an English hurdygurdy 300 years old are on display. 

3. The Fitchburg Art Center, at the end of the Merriam Parkway (open 
weekdays except Mon. 10-12 and 2-5; Sun. 2-5), has been transformed 
into an attractive two-story building of brick and exposed timbers 
covered with woodbine. It houses a notable permanent collection of 
18th-century French provincial furniture, pottery, and glass; monthly 
traveling exhibits are shown, with emphasis on textile weaves and de- 
signs, and on color prints. 

4. Rollstone Rock, Main St. near Caldwell Place, is a huge glacial boulder 
which geologists classify as 'erratic,' since no rock of like formation or 
substance is found nearer than 100 miles to the north. As quarrying on 
Rollstone Hill progressed, it was found necessary to move the rock, but 
its loo-ton weight prohibited its removal in a single piece. It was con- 
sequently split into sections and reassembled. 

5. The Iver Johnson Arms and Cycle Co. (open to ranking technicians 
only) , River St. (State 2) , occupies a series of long two-story brick build- 
ings covered with woodbine. A tour of the plant and an explanation of 
the 4000 processes involved in the manufacture of a shotgun takes three 
hours. Iver Johnson was a Norwegian mechanic with a genius for fire- 
arms and organization, and a passion for fine materials and work- 
manship. Sporting firearms are manufactured, but not ammunition; 
bicycles, though originally a side-line, are now of primary importance. 

6. The paper industries of the city are perhaps best represented by the 
large brick Mills of the Fitchburg Paper Co., River St. (State 2), and the 
extensive series of Mills of the Crocker-Btirbank Co., Westminster St. 
(State 2) (both open to technicians only). The Fitchburg Paper Co. 
specializes in wallpaper and coated paper for lithography. 

7. Mysterious Arches, on a terraced bank 200 feet back from Blossom 
St., near the summit of the hill, somewhat resemble a Roman aqueduct 
in miniature. They are constructed of smooth field-stones the size of a 
man's palm, set in cement. Early in the 2oth century Andrew Whitney, 
a wealthy citizen with a reputation for eccentricity, started to build 
'something' whose purpose he refused to divulge. He died when the 
structure had progressed thus far. As Mr. Whitney was interested in 
theatrical ventures, it is thought that he may have had in mind an out- 
door theater or a home for retired actors. Saplings and brush have 
encroached on the arches, adding to their mystery a touch of desolation. 

Gloucester and Rockport 235 

8. The State Teachers' College, at the junction of Pearl and North Sts., 
occupies a broad three-story red-brick building on a pleasant campus. 
It is one of the largest teachers' colleges in the State, and has an especially 
good art school. It established one of the first junior high schools in 
the country. 

9. The Simonds Saw and Steel Co. (open only to visitors with special 
mechanical or mercantile interests), 5 North St., makes the largest saws 
in America, those used by the lumber trade. 

10. The Laurel St. Bridge, Laurel St. (descend on foot to see arches), is 
unique in Massachusetts in that its abutments are not at right angles to 
the river or railroad tracks, but set at an angle of approximately 45 
degrees, so that the water flows almost diagonally beneath it through a 
series of arches. It withstood the floods of 1936. 

1 1 . The Gushing Flour and Grain Co. (seen from the bridge) has occupied 
since 1868 a fascinating old stone building with a gambrel roof, small- 
paned windows, and white cupola. 

12. Coggshall Park (picnic groves, skating rink), South St., is a beautiful 
natural pine grove and lake with a combined area of 200 hilly acres, 
noted for its profusion of laurel in June. 


Mother Ann's Children 


City: Alt. 57, pop. 24,164, sett. 1623, incorp. town 1642, city 1873. 

Railroad Station: Railroad Ave. for B. & M. R.R. 

Piers: Annisquam and Eastern Point Yacht Clubs, Wonson's Cove. 

Accommodations: One year-round hotel; 12 summer hotels. 

Annual Events: Italian fishermen's three-day St. Peter festival early in July; the 
Fishermen's Memorial Service in August. 

Information: Booth in summer on Western Ave., near Fisherman Statue. 
Chamber of Commerce, Main St. 


Town: Alt. 61, pop. 3634, sett. 1690, incorp. 1840. 

Railroad Station: Rockport Station on Granite St. and Railroad Ave. for the 

B. &M. 
Piers: T Wharf off Dock Square for the Municipal Yacht Basin at the Sandy 

Bay Yacht Club. 

236 Main Street and Village Green 

Accommodations: One year-round hotel; eight summer hotels. 

Annual Event: The Artists' Ball sponsored by the Rockport Art Association, 
third week in August. 

Information: Board of Trade off Dock Square. 

GLOUCESTER and ROCKPORT comprise the whole of the granite 
peninsula of Cape Ann. Gloucester is an up-to-date industrial city, 
fringed by summer resorts ranging from fashionable Eastern Point, Bass 
Rocks, and Magnolia to quiet Annisquam. Nevertheless the persistence 
of its seafaring tradition for more than three hundred years gives its 
wharves, its narrow streets, its skyline of weathered roofs and spires, a 
unique atmosphere, of which the essence is the never-to-be-forgotten 
smell of Gloucester, a compound of tar, salt air, and the strong fresh aroma 
of codfish drying in the sun. Modern Rockport is an artist's paradise, 
with neat wooden houses crowding close around the harbor, still looking 
seaward and away from the bleak and boulder-strewn moorlands of the 
interior Cape. 

The work of innumerable artists who flock to Cape Ann every summer, 
Kipling's classic 'Captains Courageous,' and the salty yarns of James B. 
Connolly have spread the fame of the picturesque seaport of Gloucester 
and the tiny fishing villages of the outer Cape far beyond the confines of 
New England. For more than two centuries Rockport shared this tradi- 
tion and a fleet of small fishing boats still rides at anchor in the minute 
harbor, snugly sheltered from the battering surge of the open Atlantic 
by natural buttresses of sea- worn granite. 

Since 1623, when the Dorchester Adventurers' colony at Gloucester was 
established, Cape Ann men have drawn their livelihood from the sea. 
But with the mushroom growth of American cities during the boom days 
of the industrial age, Rockport found a valuable article of export in the 
high-grade granite that everywhere underlies the town. Riggers who had 
learned their trade in the lofts of Gloucester turned their talents to erect- 
ing the quarry derricks, which with their spider webs of gray wires are 
today still a feature of the Rockport landscape, as are the piles of faulted 
blocks and the deep pools of the abandoned quarries. A special type of 
vessel was perfected in the shipyards of Rockport and the near-by towns 
for carrying granite. Up to about twenty-five years ago these stone sloops 
were a picturesque sight as they lay loading in almost every narrow deep 
tongue of water along the outer Cape. The quarries attracted a colony of 
Finnish stoneworkers, who still remain, although the granite industry is 
greatly diminished in scope. 

And time has brought changes to the fisheries of Gloucester. The fast 
schooners that once sailed out past the breakwater are giving way to 
smaller trawlers and gill-netters, Diesel-powered. The Anglo-Saxon 
population that dominated the city for more than two hundred and 
fifty years has recently been given vitality and color by large immigrant 
groups of Portuguese and Italians and a sprinkling of Scandinavians. 

Gloucester and Rockport 237 

These men, seafarers all, have brought their own traditions to the fisher- 
ies and their allied industries, spar- and sailmaking, rigging and iron- 
working and to the manufactures dependent on the fisheries glue, 
isinglass, and fertilizer. The fishermen seek their living upon the most 
dangerous waters in the world, the fog-shrouded, berg-haunted Grand 
Banks, with their swift currents and steep, short seas, and the treacherous 
shoals nearer home Georges Bank, Stellwagen Bank, and the pictur- 
esquely named ledges along the coast. Although ten thousand men of 
Gloucester have been lost at sea in the three centuries of her history, the 
modern fishermen still pursue their calling without heroics but with skill 
and daring undiminished. 


E. from Legion Square on Middle St. 

1. The Joan of Arc Equestrian Statue, at Legion Square, is a distinguished 
work of Anna Vaughn Hyatt. 

2. The Universalist Church, corner of Church St., was erected in 1868, 
its octagonal steeple a copy of one on an earlier church on the same site, 
where was held in 1774 the first Universalist service in America. 

3. The Sargent-Murray-Gilman House (1768) (open in summer as a tea- 
room; no inspection charge to patrons; otherwise 25 j), 49 Middle St., has 
a gambrel roof, denticular cornice, and quoined corners. It was, some- 
time after 1788, the home of the Rev. John Murray, founder of Uni- 

4. The Sawyer Public Library (open weekdays 9-9, Sun. 2-9) is a resi- 
dence in the Federal style with white clapboards, quoined corners, a 
recessed third story and a modern red roof. The walls of the fine old 
stairway were adorned in 1934 with Murals of Gloucester Scenes, under 
the sponsorship of the Federal Art Project. 

L. from Middle St. on Dale Ave.; R. from Dale Ave. on Warren St.; L. 
from Warren St. on Pleasant St. 

5. The Cape Ann Scientific, Literary, and Historical Association (open 
daily in summer, 11-4; ddm. 25^), corner of Federal St., is a three- 
story Georgian Colonial house, containing ship models, period furniture, 
old china, pewter, costumes, minerals, and marine plants. 

R. from Pleasant St. on Prospect St. 

6. The Portuguese Church of Our Lady of Good Voyage (open), is known 
for its carillon of 32 bells. Above its door is a sensitively conceived 
figure of the Madonna holding a schooner in one hand, the other hand 
raised in blessing the waters. The Fiesta Of Pentecost is celebrated on 
three successive Sundays. Dark-skinned, brilliant-eyed children march 
with their elders to the church, where the pastor places crowns on the 

Gloucester and Rockport 239 

heads of those chosen to express the gratitude of the community for the 
intervention of St. Peter in their behalf during the past year. 

R. from Prospect St. on Main St. 

7. Below the Waterfront are the wharves where for more than 300 years 
fishing boats have discharged their cargoes. The vessels returning with 
their great catches from the Grand Banks and nearer waters were once 
all sailing ships and the crews all Yankee. Now the 40-foot power 
trawlers and gill-netters predominate, and most of the crews are Portu- 

Straight ahead from Main St. on Western Ave. 

8. The Gloucester Fisherman in bronze, executed by Leonard Craske, 
stands on the Esplanade, looking across the harbor to the open sea. By 
the statue every year on an August Sunday afternoon is held the fisher- 
men's memorial ceremony. Flowers are placed at the feet of the Fish- 
erman; from a point of land near Blynan's Bridge, the roll of those 
lost at sea during the past year is slowly read and armfuls of blossoms 
are strewn upon the water, to be carried out by the ebb tide to unknown 

The larger island in the harbor is Ten Pound Island, purchased from 
the Indians for ten pounds, and now a Coast Guard station. Farther 
east stretches Eastern Point, from the tip of which juts Dog Bar Break- 
water. Little Five Pound Island was chosen as the site of the new Fish 
Pier, in 1937. 

MOTOR TOUR 1 (Eastern Point), 7.3 m. 

S. from Legion Square on Washington St.; L. from Washington St. on 
Main St.; R. from Main St. on E. Main St. 

9. The Gorton-Pew Fisheries Plant (open) is a series of gray fish sheds, 
piers, and open-air 'flakes' for canning and drying fish. 


1. Joan of Arc Equestrian Statue 8. Gloucester Fisherman 

2. Universalist Church 9. Gorton-Pew Fisheries Plant 

3. Sargent-Murray- Gilman House 10. North Shore Art Association 

4. Sawyer Public Library n. Rocky Neck 

5. Cape Ann Scientific, Literary, and 12. Gloucester Society of Artists 
Historical Association 13. Eastern Point Yacht Club 

6. Church of Our Lady of Good 35. Stage Fort Park 
Voyage 36. Hammond Museum 

7. Waterfront 37. Rafe's Chasm 

240 Main Street and Village Green 

10. The North Shore Art Association (open in summer; weekdays 10-6, 
Sun. 2-6), on the water's edge, holds exhibitions from July to September. 

R. from E. Main St. on Rocky Neck Ave. 

1 1 . Rocky Neck is the heart of the summer colony of artists, actors and 
writers, occupying bungalows, old sail lofts and remodeled sheds along 
the narrow peninsula. To the left lies the open bay; to the right is the 
inner harbor. 

The Gloucester School of the Theater presents plays acted by its students 
in a red-shingled small barn (the Little Theater) at the end of the road, 
by the side of the marine railway. 

Retrace on Rocky Neck Ave.; R. from Rocky Neck Ave. on E. Main St. 
and straight ahead from E. Main St. into Eastern Point Rd. 

12. The Gloucester Society of Artists (open in summer, weekdays 10-6, 
Sun. 2-6, adm. 15^) exhibits paintings and sculpture through the summer 
season, and joins in August with the North Shore Art Association in the 
Artists' Ball. 

13. The Eastern Point Yacht Club (private) occupies a small promontory 
in the harbor on the edge of Niles Beach. Here begin the large summer 

Straight ahead from Eastern Point Rd. into Eastern Point Blvd. West. 

14. Niles Pond is a curious and lovely natural phenomenon, a reed- 
bordered and lily-starred fresh-water pond divided from the sea on the 
east by the narrowest of causeways. 

Beyond the pond the road (barred in summer to tourists) leads to Eastern 
Point Light and Mother Ann, a rock formation bearing a fancied re- 
semblance to a reclining woman. 

L. from Eastern Point Blvd. West, on Lake Ave.; R. from Lake Ave. on 
Eastern Point Blvd. East; Straight ahead from the boulevard on Atlantic 
Rd.; R. from Atlantic Rd. on Bass Ave. 

15. Little Good Harbor Beach (public; parking charge on Sun.), is an 
excellent sandy bathing beach at all tides. The small rocky island just 
offshore is Salt Island', and in the near distance is Thatcher's Island, 
with the granite towers of its twin lights (erected in 1771), only one of 
which is now in use. 

MOTOR TOUR 2 (Cape Ann), 19 m. 

S. from Legion Square on Washington St.; L. from Washington St. on 
Main St.; L. from Main St. on Eastern Ave.; R. from Eastern Ave. on 
Thatcher Rd.; R. from Thatcher Rd. on Long Beach Rd. 

1 6. Long Beach, one and a half miles long, is a fine sandy bathing beach 
on the open Atlantic. 

Gloucester and Rockport 241 

Retrace Long Beach Rd.; R. from Long Beach Rd. on Thatcher Rd. which 
becomes South St., Rockport; R. from South St. on Marmion Way. 

17. The Straitsmouth Inn, perched on the rocks overlooking Straits- 
mouth Island, commands a fine view. Just below the inn at the right 
is a U.S. Coast Guard Station (open) . 

Retrace Marmion Way; R. from Marmion Way, on South St. 

The tour now plunges abruptly into the heart of ROCKPORT, rival of 
Gloucester in its summer art colony. 

R. from South St. into short lane leading to docks. 

1 8. New Harbor is the joy of artists. At the left stretches little Bearskin 
Neck, crowded with weathered fishermen's shacks, small gray sail lofts 
and piers, to which are usually moored two or three fishing smacks. At 
the right is the Sandy Bay Yacht Club (private). 

' Motif No. 1 ' is the designation facetiously applied to the natural com- 
position made by a little sail loft with a siding of vertical brown planks, 
which juts out into the harbor, and a small vessel usually tied alongside, 
because the scene has been so often painted by Rockport artists. 

Retrace lane; R. from lane on South St.; R. from South St. on Bearskin 


19. Bearskin Neck takes its name, as indicated by a marker at the turn 
from South St., from the capture there in early days of a bear which 
had been caught by the tide. 

At the end of the Neck is the Site of an Old Fort which served the town well 
in the War of 1812, when Rockport was of sufficient importance to draw 
a naval attack from the British. 

Retrace Bearskin Neck; R. from Bearskin Neck on Main St. 

20. The Ebenezer Pool Mansion (private). 25 Main St., is a square white 
dwelling erected in 1805, with four great chimneys rising from a hip roof. 

21. The Rockport Art Association (open in July and Aug. daily; free), 
12 Main St., holds summer-long exhibitions, and sponsors an Artists' 
Ball, the great event of the Rockport season. The Association occupies 
The Old Tavern, erected in 1770, and considerably renovated. 

22. The First Congregational Church (1803), known as the 'Old Sloop,' has 
a steeple rebuilt in 1814 after being demolished by a shot from the British 
man-of-war ' Nymph.' 

R.from Main St. on Beach St.; straight ahead from Beach St. into Granite St. 

23. The Granite Quarries represent a nourishing igth-century industry 
which was crippled by the introduction of substitutes for stone in buildings 
and highway construction. 

24. The Old Castle (open July and Aug., and Sun. 2-5; free), at the junc- 
tion of Curtis St., is a dwelling dating to about 1700, with a lean-to roof, 
shingled sides, and a red door and window sashes, the whole set well back 
from the road in a grassy, tree-shaded yard. 

242 Main Street and Village Green 

L.from Granite St. on Curtis St.; L.from Curtis St. on Pigeon Hill St. 

25. The Paper House (open in summer daily; fee 25^f) is a bungalow (1922) 
with walls and furniture constructed entirely from newspapers, rolled and 

Retrace Pigeon Hill St.; R. from Pigeon Hill St. on Curtis St.; L. from 
Curtis St. on Granite St. 

26. The Garrison Witch House (open by arrangement), nearly opposite 
Phillips Ave., dates in part from 1670, a gray clapboarded dwelling with 
unusual roof line, a later white doorway and a side second-story overhang. 
It is the only authentic garrison house remaining near Boston, and was 
probably used as a refuge during King Philip's War. Here fled Elizabeth^ 
Proctor, condemned with her husband and four other settlers as guilty 
of witchcraft. 

R. from Granite St. on Gott Ave. 

27. Halibut Point (reached by footpath only, from a point 200 yards down 
Gott Ave.; parking 25) is a State Reservation on a jagged rocky headland. 
At the beginning of the footpath is the Gott House (open by arrangement) , 
a humble gambrel-roofed dwelling of 1702. 

Retrace Gott Ave.; R.from Gott Ave. on Granite St., which becomes Washing- 
ton St. in Gloucester. 

28. Lanesmlle offers a view of granite cliffs and sand dunes across a stretch 
of ocean. 

29. The Consolidated Lobster Company (open to visitors) is a large plant 
which makes deliveries by airplanes, keeping the crustaceans alive in pools 
until shipped. 

30. At Goose Cove, Annisquam, from the bridge crossing the inlet, appears 
the nearest view on the Cape of sand dunes, white across the Annisquam 
River, and accented with sage-green beach grass. The nearer beach is 
Coffin's Beach with Wingaersheek Beach beyond. 

31. The Annisquam Willows, through which the highway runs in a 
doubled roadbed, were planted that their interlacing roots might make 
a firm underpinning for the road. 

L.from Washington St. on Reynard St.; L.from Reynard St. on lane marked 
'To Dogtown.' 

32. Dogtown, truly a 'blasted heath,' is a vast open, rolling moor, thickly 
strewn with glacial boulders and rendered yet more desolate by a sparse 
growth of stunted cedars. It contains the cellar holes of more than 40 
dwellings, the homes in 1650 of fishermen and their families. Through 
war and wrecks at sea and the removal of remaining settlers closer to the 
harbor, the village came to be inhabited solely by poverty-stricken 
widows and children, protected by ferocious watchdogs from which the 
settlement took its name. The majority of the cellar holes have been 
numbered on adjoining boulders, to identify them under their owners' 
names in Roger Babson's 'History of Dogtown/ Here lived old Luce 

Gloucester and Rockport 243 

George, a wild-eyed hag, and her niece, Tammy Younger, who so be- 
witched the oxen hauling grain past their cabin that the animals stood 
with lolling tongues and would not move until part of their load had been 
donated to the Devil, as represented by Goody George. Here, too, dwelt 
young Judy Rhines, heroine of Percy MacKaye's poem, casting her spells 
over fine strong lads; and old Peg Wesson, who, in the guise of a black 
crow, followed a detachment of soldiers to Louisburg in 1745 and annoyed 
them until the crow was shot by a silver bullet made from the buttons of 
a soldier's coat; at which very moment, back in Gloucester, Old Peg fell 
down and broke her leg and soon died some say with a silver bullet in 

Retrace ' Dogtown' Lane; R. from ' Dogtown' Lane on Reynard St.; L. from 
Reynard St. on Washington St. 

33. The Babson House (private} (1740), 245 Washington St., a gambrel- 
roofed yellow mansion with white trimmings, contains attic pens once 
used for slaves. 

34. The Ellery House (private), directly opposite the Babson House, dates 
from 1704. Its gray walls have an overhanging second story, a lean-to 
roof, and the typical central chimney of the period. 

MOTOR TOUR 3 (West Gloucester), 11 m. 

SW '.from Legion Square on Middle St.; R.from Middle St. on Western Ave.; 
L. from Western Ave. on Hough Ave. 

35. At Stage Fort Park, overlooking Gloucester Harbor, was the first 
fishing stage and the first fort on Cape Ann. 

L. from Hough Ave. on Western Ave.; L. from Western Ave. on Hesperus 


36. The Hammond Museum (open June l-Oct. 1 on weekday mornings 
only; tours under guide at 9, 10, and 11 ; adm. 50), a stone castle in medie- 
val style in the Magnolia section, overlooks the sea. It contains a picture 
gallery, rare old furniture, wood carvings and sculpture collected and 
arranged by John Hays Hammond, Jr. 

L. from Hesperus Ave. on dirt road marked 'To Rafe's Chasm.' 

37. Rafe's Chasm is a narrow cleft in the granite coast at sea level, in 
which the tide surges back and forth with a hollow boom, and from which 
an east wind and an incoming sea send up sheets of spray high in the air. 
Offshore is the small reef of Norman's Woe, familiar from Longfellow's 
'The Wreck of the Hesperus.' 


From Hardscrabble to Hats and Shoes 

City: Alt. 59, pop. 49,516, sett. 1640, incorp. town 1645, city 1869. 

Railroad Station: Haverhill Station, Railroad Square, off Washington St., for 
B. & M. R.R. 

Bus Stations: Corner Bridge and Water Sts. for Eastern Mass. Ry. Co. ; Lyon's 
Drugstore, Merrimack St., for the Blue Way Lines, Short Line, B. & M., and 
Checker Cab Bus; 6 Washington St. for Grey Line. 

Airport: Emergency landing field only, with no refueling service; daylight land- 
ings only. Located 2 m. S. of the center of the city on State 108. 

Accommodations: Two hotels open all the year. 
Information: Chamber of Commerce, Washington Sq. 

HAVERHILL, now a typical New England manufacturing city, in its 
three hundred years' history has developed from a hardscrabble frontier 
village to its present high position in the industrial world. Something of 
its variegated past still remains to give the city a flavor quite different 
from that of its neighbor Lawrence. At HaverhiU's back door flows the 
Merrimack. New houses shoulder weathered old ones along the wide 
streets, and from the Haverhill bridge there unfolds upstream a panorama 
of factories, office buildings, and spires, while downstream lies the long, 
lovely perspective of rounded hills, neat farms, and broad river of an 
unchanged New England. 

Certainly the Reverend John Ward and his twelve followers could never 
have previsioned more than an eventual approximation of the quiet 
market town of Haverhill, England, when they landed on the muddy 
Merrimack shore in 1640 to found a new plantation. The swift wide 
waters of the river were too powerful for them to harness, but they early 
saw modest possibilities in the rapid small streams rushing down from 
the hills, and they offered grants of land and other inducements to such 
applicants as would put them to use. 

During the first century of its existence Haverhill was a frontier town cut 
off by the Merrimack from the more secure settlements of the coast. The 
settlers clearing their fields had no Indian troubles until King Philip's 
War in 1675, an d their frontier position had many advantages. The soil 
of the glacial hillsides was fertile. The forests provided oak and pine 
timber, and the wilderness trails became the avenues for a profitable trade 
in skins and furs. The oaks and pines provided frames and planking for 
the ships which were building all along the Merrimack. The first vessel 
was launched from a Haverhill yard in 1697, and for nearly one hundred 
and fifty years the town's merchants sent their goods adventuring in their 
own ships. The pelts purchased from the Indians were cured in the tan- 

Haverhill 245 

neries which had flourished from 1643, an d which are still a feature of 
the town's industrial life. 

The making of hats, recorded as early as 1747, was an important industry 
in Haverhill throughout the last century, and continues at present on 
a diminished scale. 

The mercantile boom that swept the cities of the Massachusetts coast to 
prosperity during the Federalist period gave impetus to Haverhill ship- 
building. Four shipyards in 1800 were turning out ships, schooners, and 
sloops; sometimes three were launched in a single day. Trade with the 
South and with the West Indies flourished. Haverhill's position as a port 
of entry, however, was gradually surrendered to Newburyport and other 
coastal cities. The larger vessels which gained favor after the Revolution 
were not suited to river navigation, and this was made even more difficult 
when a group of Newburyport merchants built the Chain Bridge across 
the Merrimack in 1811. Haverhill merchants turned manufacturers and 
invested their profits in shoe factories, hat factories, comb factories, and 
tanneries. In 1836 there were twenty-eight shoe factories in Haverhill. 

The invention of the Goodyear turn shoe-stitching machine, patented in 
1875, assured Haverhill's position as a manufacturing center of high-grade 
shoes. Later the local manufacturers specialized in fashionable shoes for 
women. As a center of shoe manufacture and allied industries, Haverhill 
was outdistanced only by Brockton among Massachusetts cities in 1934. 
Other manufactures are boxes and paper, woolens, food products, brooms, 
chemicals, shirts, mattresses, hats, cigars, and radio cabinets. 

Haverhill, like the other Massachusetts shoe cities, Lynn and Brockton, 
is a center of unionism. For the student, trade-union structure and opera- 
tion is vividly depicted in the activities of the Shoe Workers Protective 
Union in Haverhill from 1900 to 1930. Thomas Norton in his 'Trade 
Union Policies in the Massachusetts Shoe Industry' analyzes this union 
and its arbitration technique. Other strong unions in the city are the 
Boot and Shoe Workers' Union of the American Federation of Labor, the 
Brotherhood of Shoe and Allied Craftsmen and the United Shoe and 
Leather Workers' Union, the last two independent. Recently there has 
been a movement to amalgamate all these groups. 

The city is definitely divided into foreign quarters, whose residents are 
more or less segregated and intermingle with those from other quarters 
only during the working day at the factories. Along the Methuen high- 
way, Polish immigrants till their small farms. Between the end of this 
highway and the western side of the city, the Latin immigrants have built 
a little Italy. The Jewish quarter, complete with markets, clubs, and 
synagogues, borders both sides of Washington Street near the junction 
of River Street. The homes and societies of the French-Canadians 
dominate Lafayette Square. In the section between Washington Square, 
Essex, Emerson, and Winter Streets are the places of business, the coffee 
houses, and the homes of the Syrians and Armenians. From Winter Street 
to the northern outskirts of the city is the 'Acre,' as the Irish section of 

246 Main Street and Village Green 

Haverhill has long been called. From Monument Square toward the 
northeast extends that part of the city inhabited by families who took 
root in Haverhill soil before the industrial era. 

Haverhill is one of the few cities in the east with a commission form of 
government. Such a system is built on the theory that the modern city 
is essentially a great business enterprise and should be administered by the 
same methods which would be regarded as efficient by any successful 
commercial corporation. 

TOUR 7.5 m. 

N. from River St. into Main St. 

1. The Hannah Dustin Statue (1879), occupying a small triangular Green 
near the junction of Summer St., depicts the heroic woman who was 
abducted by the Indians in March, 1697, and escaped with the scalps of 
ten of her captors dangling from her belt. 

R. from Main St. into Summer St. 

2. The Haverhill Public Library (open weekdays 9-9, Sun. 2-6, Nov.- Apr.) 
is rich in souvenirs of the poet Whittier, and contains a complete and 
valuable collection of first editions of his works. 

R. from Summer St. into Mill St.; L. from Mill St. into Water St. 

3. The Rev. John Ward House (open Tues., Thurs., Sat. 2-5; adm. free), 
the first frame house in Haverhill, was built about 1645 for the first 
minister. The Haverhill Historical Society, present owners, have restored 
the rooms to their original condition and furnished them in 17th-century 

4. The Buttonwoods (adm. free), built in 1814 and now headquarters of 
the Haverhill Historical Society, is adjacent to the Ward House and ter- 
raced high above the Merrimack. In front of it are still standing the two 
sycamores of which Whittier wrote. Tenny Hall (open Tues., Thurs., Sat. 
2-5; adm. free), is a modern wing added to the brick-end clapboarded 
house. It houses the Archeological and Natural History Department of 
the Society, containing Indian relics and other antiquities of this section. 

5. The Spiller House or Hazen Garrison House (1680-1690) (private), 
on the corner of Groveland and Water Sts., is a charming dwelling care- 
fully restored. A two-and-a-half-story brick house, its bricks laid in shell 
mortar, it contains unusually large fireplaces with two huge ovens shaped 
like beehives. The window arrangement is unusual and the hardware, 
which includes oak latches and hinges and strap and butterfly hinges, is 
for the most part original. 

Retrace Water St.; R. from Water St. into Mill St. 

6. The Ayer Homestead (private) overlooks the Green from the northwest 

Haverhill 247 

side at the intersection of Saltonstall St. This is a 17th-century dwelling 
with a dark weather-stained exterior, steeply pitched roof, central chim- 
ney, and interesting doorway. 

R.from Mill St. into State 110 (Kenoza St.). 

7 The Winnikenni Reservation (automobiles must park at entrance) con- 
tains tennis courts, bridle paths, and hiking trails. In the background 
loom the massive gray walls of Winnikenni Castle (open on application to 
Park Dept.), built in 1873 and in imitation of a medieval castle in Bath, 

8. Kenoza Lake (Indian, meaning 'Lake of the Pickerel') lies near-by, 
mirroring the wooded banks of the Reservation. 

9. The Birthplace of John Greenleaf Whittier (open daily 10-sundown; 
adm. Wf) (on State no, 3 m. from city) is a fine example of a New Eng- 
land early American farmhouse. The house contains relics which include 
the old desk on which the poet's earliest rhymes and last poem were 
written. Built in 1688, it has been restored as nearly as possible to its 
original condition. The many landmarks identified with Whittier's poems 
are those of the old Haverhill, the quiet New England farming town. The 
gentle Quaker poet was not sensitive to the throbbing industrial city that 
was growing up along the Merrimack shore, and preferred to sing of 
country ways and the 'proud isolation' and 'self-righteous poverty' of 
the old stock from which he sprang. 

Retrace State 110; L. from State 110 into Main St.; straight ahead across 
Merrimack River on State 125. 

10. The Kimball Tavern (about 1690) (open 10-5; adm. free}, stands at 
the corner of Salem St. The first iron stove in Haverhill was set up in this 
house, which is also noted for its fine woodwork and finish, its old latches 
and panels, its old furniture and curios. 

n. The First Church of Christ (organized 1682; erected 1848) (services, 
11 Sun.; midweek services Thurs. 7.30), across the Common, is an animated 
adaptation of the late Colonial style, adorned with Corinthian columns, 
an elaborate cornice, and a graceful steeple. The tower of the church was 
used as a model for that of the Chapel of Mary and Martha in Dearborn, 
Michigan, built by Henry Ford. 

A Boulder on the church green claims the birth here in 1810 of the foreign 
missionary movement in the United States, through the organization of 
the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions. In 181 2, four 
missionaries sailed for Calcutta on the brigantine 'Caravan' 'to bring 
light to the moral darkness of Asia.' They were the famous Adoniram 
Judson (see MALDEN) and his wife Anne Hasseltine and Samuel Newell 
and Newell's wife, Harriet Atwood, the latter a resident of Haverhill. 
12. Bradford Junior College, South Main St., occupies a well-equipped 
campus of 37 acres. Founded in 1803 as an Academy, it is believed to be 
the oldest upper school for girls in New England. None of the original 
buildings are now standing. 

HOL.YOKE.The Power of Water 

City: Alt. 152, pop. 56,139, sett. 1745, incorp. town 1850, city 1873. 

Railroad Station: Mosher St. for B. & M. R.R. 

Bus Stations: 69 Suffolk St. and 443 High St. for Blue Way, B. & M., Greyhound, 

Interstate, and Vermont Transit Co. 
Airport: Barnes Airport, on Hampton Plains, between Westfield and Holyoke. 

Accommodations: Five hotels. 

Information: Chamber of Commerce, 98 Suffolk St.; County Automobile Club, 
129 Chestnut St. 

HOLYOKE, a manufacturing city lying between the Connecticut River 
and Mount Tom, is built around the numerous power canals that cut 
across the city. Entered from the north, it is modern, well-groomed, and 
prosperous. To the south are a number of imposing Catholic institutions, 
educational and charitable. The manufacturing center, lying along the 
power canals, has been unusually active throughout the depression. The 
absence of drab slum quarters usually associated with mill towns is 

One factor in creating this prosperous atmosphere is the skilled type of 
worker employed by the numerous paper mills that manufacture high- 
grade writing paper, the principal support of the town. Particularly well 
known are the Whiting Mills. This and six other important paper mills, 
attracted by cheap water-power from Hadley Falls Dam, have given the 
town the name of 'The Paper City.' 

The American Thread Company and the Skinner Silk Company are about 
all that remain of what once promised to be a great textile center. Cheap 
water-power, easily accessible wood for wood-pulp, and rag-scrap from 
near-by textile mills early diverted interests to paper-making. 

The waterworks and gas and electric plants are municipally owned. 
A daily and weekly paper in English, and one weekly each in French and 
German, are published. The City Hall, a striking building with a great 
granite tower, is an object of civic pride. Cultural pursuits are evidenced 
by the excellent small museum of natural history and a small art gallery, 
both at the Public Library, by the Holyoke League of Arts and Crafts, 
and by a number of musical organizations. 

The first foreign-born citizens to arrive were the Irish, whose descendants 
constitute one third of the present population. These, with the French- 
Canadians, make the city an outstanding Catholic center. Poles number 
ten per cent of the inhabitants, and the rest are of English, Scotch, Ger- 
man, Italian, Greek, Scandinavian, or Jewish origin. All this foreign 
growth has been made in the past ninety years, but it is the very essence 

Holyoke 249 

of Holyoke, and there is little or nothing other than the Indian arrow- 
heads at the Public Library to remind the visitor that there was a settle- 
ment as early as 1725. 

During Revolutionary years the village remained an agricultural com- 
munity centered about a tavern that served as a halfway stop on the stage 
route between Springfield and Northampton. The potential water-power 
of the Connecticut River just above Hadley Falls was not long in attract- 
ing the attention of manufacturing pioneers, and as early as 1828 a dam 
had been constructed, and a few small textile, grain, and metal mills were 
in operation. Not until 1848, however, did capital appear in the form of 
a group of New York and Boston investors and developers who secured 
the rights of the old Hadley Falls Company. In 1848 a $75,000 dam was 
completed, and on the same day it was swept away by the terrific pressure, 
incorrectly calculated, of the water behind it. The story is said to have 
been graphically told in a series of telegrams directed to the Boston office: 

10 A.M. Gates just closed: water filling behind dam. 
1 2 A.M. Dam leaking badly. 
2 P.M. Stones of bulkhead giving way to pressure. 
3.20 P.M. Your old dam's gone to hell by way of Willimansett. 

Within a year a second dam, twice as costly, was completed, which served 
until 1900. The present dam and its great waterfall are visible only from 
the uppermost of the three city bridges which cross the river. Known as 
'The Gateway of New England Waters/ this dam proved its strength by 
withstanding the destructive flood of 1936. 

TOUR 5.5 m. 

W.from High St. on Appleton 

1. The interior of Skinner Memorial Chapel (Congregational) (open daily 
9-5), Appleton and Maple Sts., is designed in Gothic style. A decorative 
panel in the choir stall represents the conversion of the Ethiopian eunuch 
by St. Philip, and is surmounted by dull stained-glass windows. The 
chancel floor is mosaic. 

L. from Appleton St. on Maple St. 

2. The Holyoke Library and Museum (open weekdays 10-5), 335 Maple 
St., contains exhibits of wild life, of prehistoric and Indian relics, and 
a gallery of paintings. Professor Burlingham Schurr, the noted naturalist, 
is the curator. The paintings include examples of the work of Twachtman, 
Whistler, Homer, Diaz, Monet, Chase, and Duveneck. 

R. from Maple St. on Cabot St. 

3. In the Skinner home, ' Wistariahurst,' at the corner of Pine and Cabot 
Sts. (open 2.30-5; permission at office of Skinner Silk Mills, 208 Appleton 
St., or from curator at house opposite: i Wistariahurst'}, is the Belle Skinner 

250 Main Street and Village Green 

Collection of musical instruments and manuscripts. The collection, num- 
bering some ninety pieces, includes a Chinese instrument, 600 years old, 
and several other ancient instruments. All are kept in such perfect con- 
dition that Conductor Koussevitzky of the Boston Symphony Orchestra 
called it 'a collection of superlatives.' 

Straight ahead from Cabot St. on Pleasant St.; L.from Pleasant St. on Dwight 
St., R.from Dwight St. on Northampton St. (US 5). 

4. Mt. Tom and Mountain Park (open in summer, fee), 3.5 m., are reached 
by a winding drive, uphill through a marked entrance. The park has pic- 
nicking facilities and an amusement center. 

Opposite the entrance, a path leads to Dinosaur Tracks, embedded in a 
ledge 150 by 30 feet.. 

Straight ahead on Northampton St. (US 5). 

5. Mt. Tom State Reservation (picnicking facilities), 5.5 m., is an extensive 
wooded area through which winds a fine road past heavy growths of 
laurel. In 1932, 10 pounds of the rare mineral babingtonite were found 
near-by. Some geologists believe Mt. Tom was once volcanic. 

LAWRENCE. Warp and Woof 

City: Alt. 43, pop. 86,785, sett. 1655, incorp. town 1847, city 1853. 

Railroad Station: B. & M. R.R., South Canal St. 

Bus Stations: Eastern Mass. Street Ry. Co., 400 Essex St.; Blue Way Line, 
Inc., B. & M. Transportation Co., Checker Cab bus, P.Q. Mass., North- 
eastern Bus Line, Mason's Bus Line, Hampshire St. 

Airport: North Andover Airport, partly owned by city of Lawrence, about 
7 m. from the city. Emergency landing field, refueling. 

A ccommodations: Two hotels open all year. 

Information: Chamber of Commerce, Essex St. 

TEXTILE mills dominate both the life and the landscape of Lawrence. 
From the heights above the Merrimack at Andover the city sprawls, with 
its forest of chimneys and acres of red-brick factory buildings regimented 
along the river-banks. The striking uniformity of the city is the result of 
a made-to-order construction program. For Lawrence is Massachusetts' 
only 'made city.' 

Lawrence 25 1 

In 1845 the Essex Company was formed by a group of Boston financiers 
to utilize the water-power of Bodwell's Falls in the Merrimack. An area 
of 6.75 miles was purchased, comprising parts of the townships of Andover 
and Methuen, which, although industrial almost since their beginning, had 
neither the capital nor the engineering skill to harness the river. The 
group of capitalists who envisioned the city on the flat plain where only 
some twenty families then scratched a living from the soil was headed 
by Abbott Lawrence as principal stockholder and first president. It 
included wealthy merchants long powerful in Boston maritime enterprise, 
who turned from foreign commerce to the mounting profits of the first 
textile centers. 

Within a month after the incorporation of the Essex Company in March, 
$1,000,000 was subscribed. During the summer, work on the great dam, 
the heart of the whole enterprise, went forward at a tremendous rate. 
In the autumn of 1848, three years after the first stone was laid, the dam 
was completed, hills were leveled, valleys filled in, buildings erected, and 
a sizable imported population installed in the rows of workers' houses. 
The vast program of the Essex Company included also the construction 
of two canals running parallel into the river, the erection of a machine 
shop for the building of locomotives, a reservoir on Prospect Hill, gas- 
works, fifty brick buildings, a large boarding-house, and plants of the 
Atlantic Cotton, Pemberton, Upper Pacific, and Duck Mills. 

The first group of immigrants were natives of England and Ireland, 
mechanics, artisans, printers, engravers, and weavers. The stream of 
immigration from other countries, mostly of unskilled workers, continued 
steadily, and by 1890 as many as forty-five languages were spoken. Today 
eighty-three per cent of the population is of foreign birth or ancestry. 
The Italians, who constitute the largest of the foreign-born population 
groups, have jealously preserved their ethnic identity. The Poles, Syrians, 
Armenians, and French- Canadians also form large and cohesive racial 
groups. The International Institute sponsors each year a three-day 
carnival in which fourteen or more national groups appear in the costumes 
of their native lands, and re-enact in exact detail the age-old pageantry 
of their countries. 

Built and populated almost overnight, Lawrence at first was totally 
lacking in many of the actual necessities of community life. There was 
no store in the town until Amos Pillsbury in 1846 brought supplies up the 
river in a gondola and set up shop near the Andover bridge. In 1847, 
passenger train service was first introduced by the Boston and Maine 
Railroad. The first newspaper, the Merrimac Courier, was issued in 1846, 
and in the same year the first religious services were held in the Free Will 
Baptist Church. Following the granting of the city charter in 1853, 
Charles S. Storrow, a director of the Essex Company, was elected the first 

The abnormally rapid growth of the town, coupled with the focusing of 
its builders' attention upon industrial production rather than on social 

252 Main Street and Village Green 

evolution, naturally resulted in unfortunate living conditions. Sanitation, 
proper heating, and ventilation were lacking. Overcrowding, low wages, 
and long working hours prevailed. Little consideration was given in the 
design of factory buildings to the health or safety of the operatives. 

In 1860 the roof of the Pemberton Mill crashed in. The debris took fire 
and 525 workers trapped within the building were killed or injured. A jury 
attributed the disaster to flimsy wall construction. In 1890 a tornado 
swept across the southern part of the city, killing and injuring many 
persons and destroying property. Though the misery caused by this 'act 
of God ' had no essential connection with the wretchedness resulting from 
labor conditions, the psychological effect was cumulative. In 1912 the 
labor problem of the city reached a climax and the workers began to 
demonstrate in protest against allegedly intolerable conditions. The 
result was a strike into which the Industrial Workers of the World, led 
by ' Big Bill ' Haywood, injected themselves with telling effect. More than 
three hundred arrests of strikers on charges ranging from riot to murder 

One of the most spectacular incidents which developed in the conflict 
was the arrest of Joseph Ettor and Arturo Giovannitti. Ettor, a member 
of the general executive board of the I.W.W., had been summoned from 
New York and elected chairman of the strike committee. Giovannitti 
was editor of an Italian labor paper. In the midst of a clash between police 
and strikers on January 25, 1912, an Italian worker, Anna LoPezzi, was 
shot and killed. The two conspicuous labor leaders were arrested as 
accessories to murder, bail was denied, and they remained helpless in jail 
until the end of the strike. 

It was in this strike that the ' Exodus of Children' occurred. Partly to 
relieve the desperate conditions which accompanied the strike and partly 
to call the attention of the country to the struggle, the strike committee 
published an appeal in the New York Call to working-class families in 
other cities to adopt workers' children during the strike. Shortly there- 
after the first group of children arrived in New York and were greeted at 
the Grand Central Station by cheering crowds. 

Subsequent investigation by a congressional committee gave the following 


Sixty thousand of the city's 86,000 people were dependent on earnings 
from the textile mills with a weekly wage averaging $8.76. The textile 
industry had become a family industry. Wives worked beside their hus- 
bands in the mill. Half the children above 14 years of age were also em- 
ployed. Many of these workers lived in wooden fire-traps of which the 
dark and damp rooms were breeding places of moral and physical disease. 
Malnutrition was universal; the chief articles of diet were oleomargarine, 
condensed milk, and a cheap meat stew. 

The strikers won, although the terms of settlement were not superficially 
impressive a wage increase of about one cent an hour, and the privilege 
of returning to work without discrimination against strikers or leaders. 

Lawrence 253 

There are today thirty-eight local trade unions in Lawrence which send 
delegates to four central labor bodies, the Allied Printing Trades' Council, 
the Building Trades' Council, the Carpenters' District Council of Law- 
rence and Vicinity, and the Central Labor Union. In 1937 Lawrence was 
made the center of a national textile organizing campaign by the Com- 
mittee for Industrial Organization. Although woolen mills still predomi- 
nate, there has been a growth in diversified industries. A report of the 
Chamber of Commerce for 1936 gave a total of 155 industries, and an 
estimated payroll of $23,560,680. Besides textiles other manufactures are 
paper and soap. The Champion-International Paper Company is one of 
the largest coated paper concerns in the world, and the Wood Mill of 
the American Woolen Company is the largest single woolen mill. 

TOUR 5 m. 

E.from Broadway (State 28) on Haverhill Si. (State 110). 

1. St. Mary's Roman Catholic Church, near Hampshire St., founded by 
the Augustinian Fathers in 1848, is in the Gothic manner. 

2. The Common, between Haverhill and Common Sts., is surrounded by 
public buildings, schools, and churches. Near the pond stands a large 
wooden flagpole which commemorates the Flag Day celebration held by 
the vigilantes in protest against the strike of 1912. In the granite founda- 
tion is a tablet which reads: 'The gift of Joseph Shattuck [a Boston, 
Springfield, and Lawrence banker] to the people of Lawrence, as a per- 
petual reminder of October 12, 1912, when 32,000 men and women of the 
city marched under the flag for God and Country.' 

L. from Haverhill St. on Jackson St.; R. from Jackson St. on Elm St.; L. 
from Elm St. on East Haverhill St. 

3. The Bodwell House (private), 33 East Haverhill St., erected about 1708 
(ells added later), is the only surviving landmark of the days before the 
made-to-order city was built. 

Retrace East Haverhill St.; L. from East Haverhill St. on Elm St.; R. from 
Elm St. on Union St.; L. from Union St. on Haverhill St.; R.from Haver- 
hill St. on Prospect St. 

4. From the grounds of the Lawrence General Hospital, Prospect St., 
there is an unparalleled View of Industrial Lawrence, red-brick chimneys 
emitting their smoke periodically; miles of red-brick factories with clock 
towers and small-paned windows; the canal with its dull look of cooling 

R. from Prospect St. on Canal St. 

5. The North Canal, Union St., is about 5330 feet in length. This and the 
South Canal across the Merrimack were startling engineering feats in their 

254 Main Street and Village Green 

day. The North Canal was built in connection with the great Lawrence 
Dam in 1845, and diverts the Merrimack waters to supply the great mills 
which lie on the left along Canal St. The South Canal was built in 1866 
and is about 2000 feet in length. 

L. from Canal St. on Island St. 

6. The Lawrence Experimental Station of the State Board of Health 
(open), the first institution of its kind in America, was established in 1887 
for bacteriological and sewage disposal research. One of the early results 
of experimentation was the construction of the municipal filter, the first 
large sand filter in the country. The Station has been visited by sanitary 
and medical experts from many countries. 

Retrace Island St.; L. from Island St. on Canal St. 

7. The Pacific Print Works is the largest print works in the world. The 
Lower Pacific Mill is a worsted plant. Also in the same group is the Pacific 
Cotton Mill (all open by permission at the office). Extending for more than 
half a mile, they occupy the entire block beyond the intersection of 
Amesbury St. The first combing machines in the country were set up 

Retrace Canal St.; R. from Canal St. on Union St. 

8. The Wood Mill (open by permission), near Merrimack St., built in 1905 
by the American Woolen Company, is the largest woolen mill in the world, 
more than one third of a mile long, 126 feet wide, and 6 stories high. It 
contains under one roof more than 30 acres of floor space. 

R.from Union St. on Merrimack St.; R.from Merrimack St. on Broadway. 

g. The Great Stone Dam, immediately above the O'Leary Bridge, was 
built in 1845 to furnish water-power from the falls of the river, and was 
a notable engineering achievement of the time. It withstood the floods of 
1936, which otherwise must have devastated the city. 

10. The Arlington Mills (open by permission before 1), established in 1865, 
were the first in the country to manufacture black alpacas and mohairs. 
They are devoted largely to worsted manufacture and carding and comb- 
ing wool for spinners. The mills have also an exclusive process for the 
removal of grease from wool. 

LEXINGTON. ,4 Town of Heroic Past 

Town: Alt. 201, pop. 10,813, sett - 1640, incorp. 1713. 

Railroad Station: Lexington Station, Massachusetts Ave., serving B. & M. R.R. 

Bus Stations: Lexington R.R. Station for B. & M. Transportation Co. Lexington 

Center for Granite Stages. 
Local Busses: Frequent service to neighboring towns, 10^. 

Accommodations: No hotels; several inns and boarding-houses. 

Swimming: Parker Field (pool). 

Information: Gary Memorial Library, 1874 Massachusetts Ave. 

THE town of Lexington today presents nothing of its heroic past, little 
of its ancient rustic calm, and still less of its brief industrial fever. It is 
a haven of quiet streets and comfortable homes, free of industrial ugliness 
and urban squalor. For 364 days of the year Lexington runs along in the 
placid groove of a suburb of Boston. But on each April 19 the town 
plunges back into the past and relives its part in ushering in the American 

There was no permanent settlement at Cambridge Farms, as Lexington 
was first called, until about 1642. The settlers supplied the main town of 
Cambridge with hay and wood, raised food for themselves, wove coarse 
fabrics for clothing, and erected a few rude houses. In 1691 the General 
Court recognized the community as a separate parish. 

Lexington furnished 148 men for the wars against the French and the 
Indians between the years 1756 and 1763. Those who survived formed the 
nucleus of the militia that gathered when the threat to Boston by the 
British in April, 1775, roused Lexington to a quick response. The town's 
minister, the Reverend Jonas Clarke, sympathetic to the cause of the 
rebellion, led his fellow townsmen to join with Boston in resistance. He 
formed a Committee of Correspondence to keep in touch with develop- 
ments. So lively was the resentment of Lexington's patriots that in 1773 
resolutions were sent to the Legislature affirming that their people ' would 
be ready to sacrifice our estates and everything dear in life, yes, and life 
itself, in support of the common cause.' 

On April 19, 1775, local farmers gathered on Lexington Green to resist 
the troops of General Gage. Gage had laid plans to confiscate the stores 
of muskets and ammunition at near-by Concord. It was believed at the 
time that he was also planning to capture the Revolutionary leaders, 
Samuel Adams and John Hancock, who had fled to Lexington after re- 
ceiving a report early in April that Parliament had ordered their arrest 
for trial in England. It now seems probable, however, that Gage did not 
even know that Adams and Hancock were hiding in the region. The 

256 Main Street and Village Green 

purpose of this expedition was undoubtedly twofold: to overawe the 
people by a show of British strength and thus to check a movement toward 
unity that was beginning to grow in the New England Colonies; and to 
capture the stores at Concord. 

Despite the care with which Gage's plans were laid, news of them leaked 
out, and Dr. Joseph Warren on the eve of the battle dispatched Paul 
Revere and William Dawes to Concord and Lexington to warn the patriot 
leaders of the danger. By two o'clock in the morning the Green at Lexing- 
ton was swarming with Minutemen, and the roll was called by Captain 
John Parker, veteran of the French wars. 

At four- thirty in the morning word reached Parker that the enemy was in 
sight. Some fifty or. sixty Minutemen lined up hastily on the Green and 
received the famous order from Parker: 'Stand your ground; don't fire 
unless fired upon, but if they mean to have a war, let it begin here.' A few 
minutes later the little band of farmers faced four hundred redcoats, the 
advance guard of British regulars, under Major Pitcairn. 

' Disperse, ye rebels!' shouted Pitcairn. The men of Lexington did not 
stir. Twice the major repeated his command; then a musket shot rang 
out. The British officer ordered his regulars to open fire. The Minutemen 
returned it, but so inferior were their numbers that Parker ordered an 
immediate retreat. 

When the regulars had passed on, marching toward Concord, they left 
behind them eight patriots dead and nine wounded. The British casualties 
were only two wounded. The stores at Concord were destroyed. The 
British retreated to Boston, harassed by the Minutemen, who followed 
them, firing from behind stone walls and trees. The battle had small im- 
mediate result, but the stand of the Lexington farmers was the beginning 
of a dogged resistance which ultimately ended in defeat for the forces of 
the King. 

Meanwhile Adams and Hancock were hiding a few miles out of Lexington. 
As they ran across a field, Adams shouted, 'It is a fine day!' 'Very 
pleasant,' answered one of his companions, taking it to be a reference to 
the weather, and rather surprised at such small talk. 'I mean,' said 
Adams, 'this day is a glorious day for America.' 

The name of Lexington spread over the land. Hunters in Kentucky 
baptized their camp Lexington. Twenty-four counties, cities, and towns 
by the name of Lexington scattered over the country testify to the pride 
awakened by the events of April 19, 1775. 

Exhaustion and unrest were the post-Revolutionary lot of Lexington, as 
of most communities in Massachusetts. Debts mounted as business 
stagnated. Despite their passion for liberty and democracy, however, 
Lexington farmers did not join the insurrection of embittered debtors 
led by Daniel Shays; on the contrary, the town sent militia to aid in 
putting it down. 

By the end of the eighteenth century the town had recovered a peaceful 

Lexington 257 

prosperity. Its population at that time was sixteen hundred, most of 
whom were engaged in farming. The Industrial Revolution brought 
a spurt of manufacturing which lasted for the first quarter of the nine- 
teenth century. The activity had no sound basis, however, and when 
neighboring towns more advantageously located for power and markets 
surpassed it, Lexington returned to the less eventful pursuits of agricul- 
ture. In later years the town has been transformed gradually into a 
residential community. 

TOUR 6 m. 

N '. from junction ofWaltham St. and Massachusetts Ave., Lexington Center, 
on Massachusetts Ave. 

1. The Lexington Battleground, 'Birthplace of American Liberty,' a 
triangular level Green, is marked by the arresting Minuteman Statue of 
H. H. Kitson. 

2. The Marrett and Nathan Munroe House (private), 1906 Massachusetts 
Ave., facing the Green, originally (1729) had a hip roof sloping to the 
ground in the rear from the third story. The line of the roof has been 
broken by the addition for the back porch, but the effect is not inhar- 

R. from Massachusetts Ave. on Elm Ave. along N. edge of Green. 

3. The Old Burying Ground lies just behind the white-steepled church, 
overlooking pleasant meadows rimmed by distant hills. Some of its 
slate stones with their bas-relief skulls date back to 1690. Here are 
graves of Revolutionary patriots and their 'agreeable consorts.' The 
Rev. John Hancock and the Rev. Jonas Clarke, whose successive local 
pastorates covered the entire i8th century, rest beneath the same stone. 

4. The Jonathan Harrington, Jr., House (private], corner of Elm Ave. 
and Bedford Sts., is a rectangular white, two-storied frame dwelling, 
with green shutters. It has a Georgian Colonial doorway. The rear 
enclosed porch is a modern addition. During the battle on the Green, 
Jonathan Harrington was wounded by the British. He dragged himself 
to the door of his home, where he died at his wife's feet. 

5. The First State Normal School in the United States, opposite corner 
of Bedford St., was founded in 1839 under the direction of the Rev. 
Cyrus Pierce, with three pupils. It is a two-story white building, now 
a Masonic Temple, at the northeast corner of the Green. 

R. from Elm Ave. on Bedford St. 

6. The Buckman Tavern (open summer, weekdays 10-5; Sun. 2-5), built 
in 1690 and later the rallying-place of the Minutemen, retains some 
interesting interior features of the iyth century, but has been greatly 
altered in appearance by the addition of a hip roof with dormer windows, 




Lexington 259 

forming a third story. Here, about the great fireplace on the morning 
of April 19, the Minutemen assembled to await the approach of the 
British troops; from the chamber windows above Paul Revere witnessed 
their arrival; across its threshold that afternoon were brought two 
wounded British soldiers, one of whom died. Since 1921 it has been 
maintained as a community meeting place. The inn has a small collec- 
tion of old bottles, jugs, flip mugs, loggerheads, and tavern table and 

L. from Bedford St. on Massachusetts Ave.; R from Massachusetts Ave. 
on Clark St. 

7. A reproduction of the Belfry from which sounded the alarm to the 
Minutemen stands on the original site on a low hill, a stone's throw to 
the southwest of the Green. The bell long ago disappeared, but these 
weather-beaten timbers vividly commemorate the humble daily functions 
of its tongue, faithfully year in and year out ' summoning the people to 
worship, warning them at night to rake up the fires and go to bed, and 
tolling for them when one after another they passed away.' 

Retrace Clark St.; L.from Clark St. on Massachusetts Ave.; R.from Massa- 
chusetts Ave. on Bedford St.; R.from Bedford St. on Hancock St. 

8. The Hancock-Clarke House, 35 Hancock St. (open weekdays 9.30-5, 
Sun. 2-5, Apr. l-Nov. 1; -weekdays 11-4, Sun. 2-4, Nov. Dec. March; 
not open during Jan. and Feb.; adm. free), is the eleventh house across 
the railroad track. The one-story gambrel-roofed ell was the original 
dwelling, built in 1698 by the Reverend John Hancock, whose son John, 
father of Governor John Hancock, was born here. The frame is of hand- 
hewn oak and shows little sign of decay. Enlarged in 1734, at the out- 
break of the Revolution it was the home of the Rev. Jonas Clarke. 
Here John Hancock and Samuel Adams lay hidden on the night of 
April 1 8, 1775, when Paul Revere sounded his alarm; and Dorothy 
Quincy, Hancock's betrothed, met them there, bringing a 'fine salmon 
for their dinner.' An ell contains Revolutionary costumes and the drum 
beaten at the battle. The large, low-ceilinged kitchen, then the real 
center of family life, exhibits utensils in use at the time. In all, there 
are 2400 pieces owned by the Lexington Historical Society which has 
maintained headquarters in this house since the date of its purchase by 
the Society in 1896. 

9. The Botanic Garden (open daily; free), 91 Hancock St., was begun in 


1. Lexington Battleground 7. First State Normal School 

2. Marrett and Nathan Munroe House 8. Hancock-Clarke House 

3. Old Burying Ground 9. Botanic Garden 

4. Jonathan Harrington, Jr., House 10. Gary Memorial Building 

5. Buckman Tavern u. Munroe Tavern 

6. Belfry 

260 Main Street and Village Green 

1930 to 'grow, test and display all hardy herbaceous plants.' Most of 
the labor is voluntarily contributed by friends and members of garden 
clubs. Beginning with the summer of 1937 the Garden was used as a 
classroom for the Summer School of the School of Landscape Architec- 
ture of Harvard University. 

Retrace on Hancock St., back to Green; L. from Hancock St. on Bedford 
St.; L.from Bedford St. on Massachusetts Ave. 

10. The Gary Memorial Building, 1605 Massachusetts Ave., a modern 
low brick structure which serves as a town hall, is worth a brief visit 
for the purpose of seeing the painting of the Battle of Lexington, 'The 
Dawn of Liberty,' by Henry Sandham, and a portrait of Lady Lexington. 

11. The Munroe Tavern (open weekdays 9.30-5, Sun. 2-5, April 19- 
Nov. 11; free), 1332 Massachusetts Ave., built in 1695 and subsequently 
altered, now houses beneath its hip roof a museum collection. Its old 
rooms, which retain many of their original features, are furnished in the 
manner of the period. In 1789 Washington was entertained here at a 
testimonial dinner and the chair, table, dishes, and hatrack which he 
used are preserved. 

12. The Mason House (private), almost opposite, 1303 Massachusetts 
Avenue, was built in 1680 but is still in a good state of preservation. 

13. Another Jonathan Harrington Home (private) is at 955 Massachusetts 
Ave. near Joseph Rd. Its builder, a relative of the Jonathan Harrington 
killed in the battle, was the fifer of the Minutemen and the last survivor 
of the battle. Seventeen years old in 1775, he lived to be 95 and occupied 
a front seat at commemorative exercises of the 25th, soth, and 75th 
anniversaries of the battle, shaking the hands of famous statesmen and 
always referring to himself as the Minute Boy. 

14. The Ben Wellington Tablet (R), Massachusetts Ave. and Follen 
Rd., commemorates ' the first armed men taken in the Revolution.' 

L O W ELL. Company Founders and City Fathers 

City: Alt. no, pop. 100,114, sett. 1653, incorp. town 1826, city 1836. 

Railroad Station: Northern Depot, Middlesex St., for B. & M. R.R. and N.Y., 
N.H. & H. R.R. 

Bus Stations: Railroad Station and Lowell Bus Terminal, 44 Bridge St., for 
B. & M. Transportation Co., Vermont Transit Co., Frontier Coach Lines, 
Champlain Coach Lines, and Blue Way Line; 70 Central St. for Grey Line. 

Accommodations: Four hotels. 

Information: Lowell Chamber of Commerce, Merrimack St. 

Lowell 261 

ONE hundred feet above sea level, on a plateau where the powerful Mer- 
rimack joins the sluggish Concord River, stands Lowell, one of the leading 
manufacturing cities of New England. Canals and grassy plots criss- 
cross the crowded metropolitan business section. On the hills beyond are 
a city's homes from mansion to tenement. 

The early history of this region is identified with the town of Chelmsford, 
of which it was for many years a remote and insignificant part. At that 
time only a settlement existed here, supporting itself by the handicrafts 
of the home and the fisheries of Pawtucket Falls. 

At the turn of the eighteenth century, the name of Francis Cabot Lowell, 
known as the originator of American cotton manufacturing, enters the an- 
nals of this city. In England he had studied British methods of textile 
operations. Returning to this country he devised and financed a practical 
power loom for American use. Through Ezra Worthen, the possibilities 
of the river Merrimack and the recently constructed Pawtucket Canal 
were investigated. Lowell was enthusiastic, and in February, 1822 (five 
years after Lowell's untimely death), the Merrimack Manufacturing Com- 
pany was formed by his associates. Overnight the company founders be- 
came the first city fathers in what would today be called a huge company 
town. Both men and women slept in corporation lodging houses, ate in 
company dining-rooms, shopped in company stores, and were buried in 
company lots. Employees worked from five in the morning to seven at 
night. Women received from two dollars and twenty-five cents to four 
dollars a week, men about twice that. On March i, 1826, the district was 
incorporated as the township of Lowell in recognition of its sponsor, and 
the company associates promptly took over the political reins. Outside 
capital poured in from the merchants of Boston and many other sources. 
To the cotton manufacturing of the Merrimack Company was added the 
Print Works in 1824. The Hamilton Company, with a capital of $600,000, 
and the Appleton and Lowell Manufacturing Companies were among the 
many that rushed in to exploit the miraculous water-power of the Merri- 
mack. Agents of these various companies scoured Europe in search of 
cheap labor, painting glowing pictures of the promised land across the sea 
and luring thousands of immigrants into the maw of the hungry, growing 

Canals formed an integral part of this expansion. The Middlesex Canal, 
built in the first years of the nineteenth century, was the first American 
traction canal of a type already familiar in England and on the Conti- 
nent. Much of the freight and passenger traffic of the new community 
flowed between its banks. 

Europe watched Lowell with something like amazement. Its rapid rise to 
industrial eminence interested and astounded economists, historians, and 
writers all over the world. Many of the skilled workers who first came to 
the factories were the Irish and English, who now occupy prominent 
places in the city life. After thorn came the non-English-speaking groups 
who settled in their own little communities, building their churches, 


Lowell 263 

schools, and convents and preserving the culture of their homeland. The 
French-Canadians, the Poles, and the Greeks today have their own clubs 
and newspapers. The Greeks dominate so large a section of the city that 
Lowell has often been called a modern American Athens. 

The peak of the city's industrial development was achieved in the period 
of artificial prosperity preceding 1924. After 1924 there was a general de- 
crease, ending in the devastating debacle of 1929. Many of the mills 
moved south. Other industries were liquidated. The whole textile indus- 
try of the city was reduced by fifty per cent, and thousands of workers 
were left jobless and homeless. Lowell lost its position as the most impor- 
tant textile center in the world. It ceased to be the 'Spindle City.' Yet 
in place of these losses, it began slowly to make gains and to change its 
aspect. From a concentration on textiles it broadened its scope to include 
many kinds of manufactures. By 1934 it seemed to have entered the up- 
ward grind toward recovery. 

TOUR 11.7 m. 

S.from Appleton St. on Thorndike St. 

1. South Common is a 22-acre recreational center. 

L. from Thorndike St. into Central St.; R. from Central St. into Wamesit 
St.; L.from Wamesit St. into Rogers St., crossing the Concord River, tribu- 
tary to the Merrimack. 

2. Rogers Hall, 196 Rogers St., facing a hilly park, is a preparatory school 
and junior college for girls. 

R.from Rogers St. into Park Ave. and straight up the hill. 

3. Fort Hill Park, beautifully planted in open vistas framed by birches, 
maples, beeches, poplars, oaks, pines, spruces, cedars, and tamaracks, has 
from its crest a magnificent view. 

Down the hill into Park Ave.; E., as a direct return is prohibited; L. from 
Park Ave.; E. at cemetery into unmarked Knapp Ave.; L.from Knapp Ave. 
on Rogers St., bearing R.from Rogers St. into Nesmith St.; L.from Nesmith 
St. into E. Merrimack St. 


i. South Common 10. St. Patrick's Church 

4. Immaculate Conception Church n. North Common 

5. St. Anne's Church 12. Statue of Father Garin 

6. Lucy Larcom Park 13. Lowell Textile Institute 

7. Cardinal O'Connell Bust 14. Wannalancit Park 

8. Birthplace of Whistler 15. Spaulding House 

9. Greek Orthodox Church 16. The Francis Floodgate 

264 Main Street and Village Green 

4. The Immaculate Conception Church (Catholic), corner of Fayette St., 
is a Gothic edifice of the gray granite which abounds in this region. 
The truncated tower of the church, its delicate spires, and its great rosette 
window on the side are reminiscent of the cathedrals of France. 

5. St. Anne's Church (Episcopal), corner of Kirk St., is the gem of the 
city's smaller churches. This is a plain Norman house of worship with a 
square tower, constructed almost entirely of small, irregular field-stone 
blocks, smooth-faced and almost slate in color. The low wing of the 
church vestry and the rectory at its farther end break the monotony of 
the line. 

6. Lucy Larcom Park, adjacent to St. Anne's, is a long, narrow strip of 
greensward extending -along the Pawtucket Canal, which here swirls sud- 
denly up from gatelocks after flowing for some distance beneath the city. 
This parkway was named in honor of Lucy Larcom, a 19th-century New 
England poet who wrote 'Hannah Binding Shoes' and the prose 'New 
England Girlhood,' which tells of her early days as a mill hand at Lowell. 
At the Merrimack St. end of the park is a section of the Railroad Track 
laid in 1835 for the Boston and Lowell Railroad, the first steam railroad in 
New England. 

L. from Merrimack St. into Cardinal O'Connell Parkway. 

7. The Cardinal O'Connell Bust surmounts a granite bird bath in the mid- 
dle of the Green, commemorating the fondness of St. Francis of Assisi 
for the winged creatures of God. The bust is an excellent likeness of the 
Cardinal, a native of Lowell. 

L.from the Parkway into Market St.; R. from Market St. into Worthen St. 

8. The Birthplace of Whistler (open weekdays 10-5 except Mon.; Sun. 12-5) , 
243 Worthen St., is a shrine for artists who often know nothing of Lowell 
except that it is the birthplace of James Abbott McNeil! Whistler (1834- 
1903), America's most renowned painter, dandy, and wit, son of an Army 
engineer. The house, built in 1824, stands directly on the sidewalk in 
what is now a shabby but quiet byway near the Greek quarter of the city. 

R. from Worthen St. into Broadway; R. from Broadway into Lewis St. 

9. The Greek Orthodox Church, corner of Jefferson St., established in 1907, 
was the first of its denomination in America. It is a Byzantine structure in 
yellow brick, with a squat central red dome surmounted by a gilded Greek 
cross and fronted by two still lower domed towers. This section is Little 
Greece, a center of humble, nondescript frame dwellings and small variety 
shops bearing signs in modern Greek. 

L.from Lewis St. into Jefferson St., crossing the canal. 

10. St. Patrick's Church, on Suffolk St. facing Jefferson St., is an im- 
pressive Gothic gray-stone church, distinguished by its very tall tower 
with tapering spire. 

L. from Je/erson St. into Suffolk St.; R. from Suffolk St. into Cross St. 

Lowell 265 

11. North Common is a recreational center, serving the Acre, a section 
tenanted by Irish, French, and Greeks. 

Retrace Cross St.; L.from Cross St. into Suffolk St.; L.from Suffolk St. into 
Merrimack St. 

12. The Statue of Father Garin, on the small side lawn of St. James's 
Catholic Church, was erected by the French-Canadians to their parish 
priest of this name. A fine bronze statue of heroic size, by Philippe Heber, 
it presents a tall, bareheaded, commanding figure, with strong but sensi- 
tive scholarly face. 

R. from Merrimack St. into Pawtucket St.; L. from Pawtucket St. into 
Moody St. 

13. The Lowell Textile Institute (co-educational), corner of Colonial Ave., 
established in 1897, is probably the largest school of its kind in the world 
and the only one offering instruction in textile processes. Among technical 
schools of every nature, it ranks at the top. Of especial interest is an ex- 
hibit (open) of the various processes undergone by cotton from the boll to 
the finished cloth. In connection with this exhibit are spindles and looms 
in full operation. 

L. from Moody St. into Riverside St.; straight ahead on Varnum Ave., the 
continuation of Riverside St. 

14. Wannalancit Park, a grassy embankment shaded by trees, traversed 
by footpaths and dotted with benches, extends for several miles along the 

Retrace Varnum Ave.; R.from Varnum Ave. into Mammouth Rd., crossing 
the bridge; R. from Mammouth Rd. into Pawtucket St. 

15. The Spalding House (private), 275 Pawtucket St., originally a tavern, 
erected in 1760, presents a carefully restored exterior of two-and-a-half 
stories with hip roof, its twin chimneys, later than the single central type, 
its yellow clapboards with white trim, and its i8-paned windows. The 
narrow black blinds are a variation from type. The curved iron hand rail 
with brass knob, at the front steps, and the green-paneled front door are 

L. from Pawtucket St. into Wannalancit St.; R. from Wannalancit St. into 
Clare St.; R. from Clare St. into Broadway. 

1 6. The Francis Floodgate consists of a guard lock of massive timber 27 
feet wide, 25 feet deep, and 2 feet thick, built in 1848 and at the time known 
as 'Francis' Folly.' Major Francis, its builder, at that time chief engineer 
of the Locks and Canal Co., was the target of sharp criticism and caustic 
derision to the day of his death. But 88 years after its construction the 
gate was dropped and reinforced by sandbags, just in time to save Lowell 
from the havoc wrought by the river in cities to the north. 

L. from Broadway into Wilder St. 

17. The Lowell State Teachers' College (1894), 850 Broadway, is con- 
structed of the yellow brick which Lowell favors whenever tempted from 

266 Main Street and Village Green 

its allegiance to gray granite. It is notable for its beautiful location in a 
broad-landscaped campus on a spacious hilltop. 

L. from Wilder St. into Liberty St. 

1 8. The Lincoln Memorial, in Lincoln Square, is a medallion head of the 
Emancipator by Bela Pratt, given to the city by its school-children. 

LYNN". Machine City 

City: Alt. 34, pop. 102,320, sett. 1629, incorp. town 1631, city 1850. 

Railroad Stations: Central Square for B. & M. R.R.; Market and Broad Sts. for 

Boston, Revere Beach, & Lynn (Narrow Gauge). 

Bus Station: Costello's Book Store, Lambert Square, for Greyhound Lines. 
Piers: Yacht Basin, Lynn Harbor, end of Washington St. 

Accommodations: One first-class hotel, rates same winter as summer. Apart- 
ment hotels, tourist homes. 

Swimming: Lynn Beach, two miles in length, end of Nahant St. Fresh water, 
Flax Pond, bath-houses, etc. 

Information: Hotel Edison, Lynn Chamber of Commerce. 

FROM the General Edwards Bridge, the industrial city of Lynn sprawls 
across a plain flanked by rocky hills to the north and west, and by the 
sea and miles of tidal flats to the east and south. The vast River Works 
plant of the General Electric stretches beyond the Saugus River, and 
ahead are the dreary Victorian buildings of the shoe factories. From the 
congested heart of the industrial district tenement roofs, spires, and 
brick walls rise in a chaotic jumble to the distant city heights, in fantastic 
contrast with the great woods and the several quiet lakes which lie, sur- 
prisingly, within the limits of this noisy machine city. 

Lynn, first known as Saugus, was named in honor of King's Lynn in 
Norfolk County, England. Appropriately, Lhyn to the ancient Britons 
signified 'Place of the Spreading Waters.' Very early the town began to 
swing toward industrialism. 

One of the first settlers was a tanner, and his establishment laid the 
foundation of a related industry that was to make Lynn famous through- 
out the industrial world. Two highly skilled shoemakers, Philip Kirtland 
and Edmund Bridges, settled near the tannery in 1635 and began to fash- 
ion shoes that compared favorably with those produced elsewhere. By 
the beginning of the eighteenth century almost every house had its 

Lynn 267 

' back-yard' shop, and presently Lynn was supplying most of the foot- 
gear for Boston. John Adam Dagyr (1750), a Welsh shoemaker, set a 
high standard of workmanship which lasted for many years after his 

The beginning of the nineteenth century brought new life, resulting in 
part from the activities of Ebenezer Breed, who was influential in per- 
suading Congress to protect the growing industry with a tariff. In 1800 
the State Legislature passed an act to encourage the manufacture of 
shoes, boots, and * arctics ' (galoshes) . An army of craftsmen toiled early 
and late in their small shops, and in 1810 manufactured about one million 
pairs of shoes. 

With the introduction of the first shoe sewing machine in 1848, the fac- 
tory system began to take over. The domestic production units of the 
craftsmen were liquidated and the workers were absorbed into huge 
plants. With bewilderment and resentment, they saw their craftsmen's 
status fade into insignificance when they took their places at the alien 
machines. The ensuing friction brought about the shoe strike of 1867, 
when all shoe factories were closed down for seven weeks. Demanding 
better living conditions, the employees organized parades in which several 
thousand men and women marched with brass bands, fire companies, 
military organizations, and sympathizers from neighboring towns. 

The new system attracted foreign workingmen by the thousand and al- 
tered the racial complexion of the city. The French-Canadians, the 
largest racial group, dispersed through the city. The Irish, second in 
numbers, were forced by religious intolerance to settle in a compact dis- 
trict. The third most numerous group, the Italians, as well as Greeks, 
Poles, and Armenians, formed distinctly bilingual communities but lost 
most of their picturesque color. The Greek district in the vicinity of Pleas- 
ant and Tremont Streets has several restaurants which feature native 
dishes, notably Turkish coffee, nutritious yoghourt, and badava. There 
are five large Jewish districts where Yiddish is still widely spoken and 
orthodox customs are maintained. 

An interesting episode of the period of immigration was the sojourn of 
Charles Bata, a Czechoslovakian, who came here to learn the trade. 
Having observed factory methods, he returned to Czechoslovakia, and 
built one of the largest and most modern shoe factories in the world, 
capable of producing footgear at a very low cost, somewhat to the resent- 
ment of his industrial alma mater. 

Until the last decade of the nineteenth century Lynn was the leading shoe 
center in the country. In November, 1889, fire ravaged thirty-one acres 
of the business section, with a property loss of about $5,000,000. By 
1915, it had fallen to third place. The introduction of modern machinery 
decreased the reliance on skilled craftsmen, and manufacturers began to 
remove into areas of cheaper, less-skilled labor. Recently, this migration 
seems to have halted. There has also been a recent noticeable expansion 
of the leather industry. 

268 Main Street and Village Green 

In the period immediately following the Civil War, Lynn shoe workers 
joined the powerful Knights of St. Crispin, but this union declined. 
Never since has there been a long period when the principal crafts were 
unorganized, but the unions in the several crafts have not always co- 
operated well. At present most of the Lynn shoe workers belong to the 
United Shoe Workers of America, affiliated with the Committee for In- 
dustrial Organization. A company union in the Lion Shoe Company was 
recently dissolved by the National Labor Relations Board. 

The General Electric Company set up a system of works councils in its 
huge plant just after the World War. In 1934, the workers organized an 
industrial union, and secured recognition. This union spread to other 
centers, and as the United Electrical and Radio Workers is affiliated with 
the C.I.O. The leather workers of Lynn also belong to a C.I.O. affiliate, 
the National Leather Workers. The workers in a number of other trades 
hold charters from unions affiliated with the American Federation of 

Lynn's varied industries have made it possible for the city to withstand, 
somewhat better than single-industry communities, the tremors of 
economic instability. Although the shoe factories and their allied trades 
predominate numerically, the General Electric Company is the largest 
industry of the city, and in 1935 its two Lynn plants employed more 
workmen than any other concern in the State. 

TOUR 10m. 

E. from Central Square on Exchange St.; L. from Exchange St. into Broad 
St.; R.from Broad St. into Nahant St.; L.from Nahant St. into Lynn Shore 

1. Lynn Beach (restaurants, amusements, municipal bathhouse), bordering 
on Nahant Bay, is a vast playground crowded in summer with throngs 
almost as brown as were the Indians who once gathered here to watch 
their braves in contests of strength and skill. 

L. from Lynn Shore Drive into Ocean Ter.; L. (straight ahead) from Ocean 
Ter. into Lewis St. and then into Broad St. 

2. The Mary Baker Eddy Residence (free Christian Science Reading Room; 
open weekdays, 10-5.30), 12 Broad St., is the house where it is thought the 
Founder of Christian Science (see Tour IA, SWAMPSCOTT) wrote the 
major part of 'Science and Health.' 

R. from Broad St. into Green St. 

3. The Lynn Historical Society (open summer Wed. 2.30-4), 125 Green St., 
exhibits in its museum wing a collection of early furniture, household 
utensils, pewter, glassware, and historical records. 

L. from Green St. into Union St.; R. from Union St. into Ireson St.; cross 

Lynn 269 

Morrison Sq. into Rockaway St.; L. from Rockaway St. into High Rock 
St.; L. from High Rock St. into Circuit Ave. 

4. High Rock is a bold promontory, from the summit of which an observa- 
tion tower 275 feet above sea level affords a magnificent view of the indus- 
trial panorama of Lynn and also of the ocean and the rocky rim of the 
Massachusetts Basin. 

5. The Home of Moll Pitcher (inaccessible), built in 1666, stands in the 
shadow of this dull purple porphyry cliff. Moll's fame as a fortune- 
teller spread to most of the principal parts of Europe, and her memory is 
perpetuated in a poem of Whittier's named for her, and by a melodrama 
entitled 'The Fortune Teller of Lynn,' popular on the New England 
stage for 30 years. 

Retrace on Circuit Ave.; R. from Circuit Ave. into High Rock St.; L. from 
High Rock St. into Rockaway St.; straight ahead into Rock Ave.; R. from 
Rock Ave. into Grant St.; L. from Grant St. into Rockingham St.; R. from 
Rockingham St. into Western Ave. 

6. The Lydia E. Pinkham Medicine Company (open by permission}, on 
Western Ave., manufactures a famous medicinal compound first made by 
Lydia E. Pinkham in her kitchen. Financial losses in the panic of 1873 
led her to capitalize on her remedy. Once started, the fame of the cure 
spread rapidly through the world, and as a favorite ballad stated, ' the 
papers printed her face.' According to recent international advertising 
programs, ' although dead, she still sends her messages of hope to millions 
of women.' 

L. from Western Ave. into Chestnut St.; straight ahead into Broadway. 

7. At Flax Pond (public bath-house; boating}, the pioneer women of Lynn 
retted flax from which to spin thread for weaving linen. 

L. from Broadway into Lynnfield St. 

8. The Lynn Woods, a 2ooo-acre park of wild natural beauty, begins at 
Lynnfield St. and Great Woods Rd. by the Happy Valley Golf Course 

On Burrill Hill is an Observation Tower, from which there is an excellent view of 
the Blue Hills, Bunker Hill Monument, and the golden dome of the State House. 
Great Woods Rd. leads to a lovely ravine, framing the long slender mirror of 
Walden Pond with overhanging branches of birches and elms. 

Dungeon Rock is one of the most interesting landmarks in the Woods. According 
to tradition a group of buccaneers hid vast treasures here in a huge cave whose 
entrance was closed by the earthquake of 1658. 

Approaching the Penny Brook entrance the trail passes Lantern Rock, where 
pirates once hung signal lights for small boats stealing up the Saugus River under 
cover of night. Near Lantern Rock is Circle Trail, with signs designating the 
unusual minerals and glacial deposits, and the varieties of flora indigenous to Lynn 
Woods. Near-by is the Botanical Garden with its multitude of rare blooms. 

L.from Penny Brook Entrance into Walnut St., and, following State 129, R. 
from Walnut St. into Kirtland St.; L. from Kirtland St. into Boston St.; R. 
from Boston St. into Federal St. 

270 Main Street and Village Green 

9. The General Electric Company occupies both sides of Federal St. in 
West Lynn (open by permission) . Turbines, arc lights, and generators are 
manufactured here. 

R. from Federal St. into Western Ave. 

10. The River Works Plant of the Lynn General Electric Co. (open by per- 
mission), together with the West Lynn Plant, employs about 10,000 
workers and is the city's ranking industry. Here Elihu Thomson, one of 
the founders of the General Electric Company and world-famous as an 
inventor and electrical engineer, carried on most of his experiments. 

M A L D E.JST . Neighbor of Boston 

City: Alt. 9, pop. 57,277, sett. 1640, incorp. town 1649, city 1881. 

Railroad Stations: Maiden Station on Summer St. near Pleasant St. ; Oak Grove, 

277 Washington St., for B. & M. R.R. 
Bus Station: Eastern Mass. R.R. Busses for Lowell and Lawrence stop at 

Maiden Square (opposite Baptist Church). 

Accommodations: One hotel at reasonable rates; tourist camps. 

Riding: Several miles of bridle paths, carriage roads, and trails in Middlesex 

Information: Chamber of Commerce, Pleasant St. 

FROM the summit of Waitt's Hill, Maiden is seen to be both a resi- 
dential and a manufacturing city, tree-shaded, and girt on the north 
and northwest by the rugged, wooded cliffs of the Middlesex Fells. 
Although manufacturing is actually of prominence, it is largely confined 
to a limited area near the Everett border, and the main impression 
gained by a drive through the city is of frame dwelling houses mainly 
of the parvenu era, schools, churches, community centers, and a number 
of small but pleasant parks. The proximity of Maiden to the great 
metropolitan center of Boston is both an advantage and a drawback to 
its residential appeal. Inevitably with the years, its suburban identity 
tends to be swallowed up in the overflowing tide from the greater city. 
Yet there are not many apartment houses, and if there are no preten- 
tiously wealthy districts, neither is there shabby poverty. Maiden re- 
mains what it has long been, a good-sized city of comfortable middle-class 

The settlers of Maiden, mainly Puritans, landed at Charlestown, situ- 
ated in a part of the grant made in 1622 to Robert Gorges by the 
Northern Virginia Company. However, in 1628 the Council at Plymouth 

Maiden 271 

disregarded this grant and the subsequent lease and sold the land to 
the Massachusetts Bay Colony. 

After the arrival of Governor Winthrop, in 1630, Charlestown grew 
rapidly and extended its boundaries. Within ten years a few settlers 
had crossed to the north side of the Mystic River, built homes, and 
founded a new town. Upon the petition of a committee chosen from 
among these persons the General Court granted, in 1649, the charter. 
Maiden's first free school was established in accordance with the terms 
of the will of William Gooden, who left a portion of his estate in trust 
for this purpose. 

Difficulty was experienced in securing men competent to teach. More 
than once an hiatus occurred between the release of a schoolmaster and 
the appointment of his successor, so that on one occasion the town was 
presented at Court sessions on the charge of not maintaining a school. 
The first schoolhouse, built in 1712, saw only eighteen years in the 
service of education; in 1730 it was sold to the town bellman and grave- 
digger. Private homes were again requisitioned for use as schoolhouses. 
Not until 1783, after much discussion and long delay, was the nucleus 
of the present school system created. 

A company of soldiers known as the Maiden Band was formed shortly 
after the incorporation of the town. Citizens also organized a company 
of cavalry, which saw service in King Philip's War. On September 23, 
1774, the townsmen voted to instruct Captain Ebenezer Harnden, their 
representative in General Court, that it was their 'firm and deliberate 
resolution rather to rule our lives and fortunes than submit to those 
unrighteous acts of the British Parliament which pretends to regulate 
the government of this Province.' This resolution was translated into 
action at the outbreak of the Revolutionary War. 

Until it received its city charter Maiden was regulated by five selectmen 
chosen from churchmen in good standing. The granting of the city 
charter in 1881 made necessary a different form of government, and 
city affairs have since been administered by a mayor, a board of alder- 
men, and a city council. 

Maiden is now primarily a manufacturing center. It is within twenty- 
four-hour rail delivery of three quarters of the nation's markets and has 
easy access to the major trans-Atlantic and coastwise passenger and 
freight lines. Its factories, of which there are approximately one hundred 
and fifty, are widely representative of varied industries. 


i. The Maiden Public Library, Maiden Sq., was built 1879-85, and de- 
signed by H. H. Richardson. Characteristic of his work, it is a personal- 
ized adaptation of Romanesque forms. It is an excellent example of his 

272 Main Street and Village Green 

later and more mature designs which came to be known as 'Richard- 
sonian Romanesque/ Its simple and well-studied masses are entirely 
of brownstone, and its interior is enhanced by Romanesque-Byzantine 

The library contains a small but distinguished art gallery, displaying 
works of noted French and American artists dating from Claude Lorraine 
to the present day. Of historic interest is Albion H. Bicknell's large 
group portrait, 'The Gettysburg Address.' 

2. The Parsonage House (private), 145 Main St., is a two-and-a-half- 
story white structure built in 1724 and first occupied by the Rev. Joseph 
Emerson, who has been piquantly characterized by his son: 'He was a 
Boanerges, a son of .thunder, to the workers of iniquity; a Barnabas, a 
son of consolation, to the mourners in Zion.' In this house in 1788 was 
born Adoniram Judson, the famous missionary to Burma. Judson 
attended Brown University and after graduation opened a private 
school at Plymouth, where he prepared a book entitled ' Young Ladies' 
Arithmetic' presumably a gentle adaptation of the knotty subject to 
the young female brain. In 1808, while traveling through the United 
States, his mind became affected by 'infidel views' of religion and, with 
no decided plan for his life, he became a member of a theatrical company. 
In 1809, after a short but wretched period of skepticism and doubt, he 
joined the Third Congregational Church in Plymouth. After his ordina- 
tion in 1812, he married and set out with his young bride for India, 
but was converted to the Baptist denomination while on board ship. 

3. Bell Rock Memorial Park is opposite the Parsonage, near which stood 
the house in which the congregation of the Church of Mystic Side 
gathered and where preached Marmaduke Matthews, the first pastor in 
Maiden. The bell that summoned the people to worship, sounded the 
alarm in times of danger, and called the freeholders to meet for action 
in public affairs was hung upon a rock of which only a part now remains. 
In the park is a replica of a small fortress, accessible from the street by 
a stairway, and at its summit stands a modern Civil War Soldiers' and 
Sailors' Monument by Bela Pratt. 

4. The Greene House (private), 51 Appleton St., is also known as the 
Perkins House. On what was then known as Greene Hill, James Greene 
built a house in 1648. The present dwelling was constructed of timbers 
taken from its predecessor. In 1686 a council was held in the old house 
to try a man named McCheever for alleged irregularities of speech and 
conduct. Increase Mather was the moderator, but the council, which 
included five ministers from Boston, could not arrive at an agreement. 
The upshot of the matter was that 'they left the whole matter in the 
hands of the Lord as an easy way out of it.' 

5. WaitCs Mount, Leonard St., a small park which crowns the highest 
hill in the city, affords a fine panoramic view of the surrounding country. 
During the months of July and August a camp is maintained here for 
undernourished children. 

Marblehead 273 

6. Pine Banks Tourist Camp (free), Main St., at the Malden-Melrose 
city line, is situated in a beautiful natural wooded park. It was be- 
queathed to the cities of Maiden and Melrose by the children of Elisha 
Slade Converse, first mayor of Maiden and former director of the Boston 
Rubber Shoe Company. 

MARBLEHEAD. Where Tradition Lingers 

Town: Alt. 15, pop. 10,173, sett - 1629, incorp. 1649. 

Railroad Station: 97 Pleasant for B. & M. R.R. 

Piers: Marblehead Neck for Eastern Yacht Club and Corinthian Yacht Club. 

Front St. for Boston Yacht Club. Public landing at foot of State St. The 

Ferry, Ferry Lane (harbor trips, 10^). 
Accommodations: One large hotel, several small first class hotels and boarding 

houses. Winter accommodations limited. 

Information: Rotary Club, Washington St. 

MARBLEHEAD, in whose narrow, twisted streets traditions linger, is 
built upon a rock, and everywhere through the thin garment of turf 
protrude knobs and cliffs of granite. Along the steep, winding ways 
weather-beaten houses shoulder each other, with intermittent glimpses 
of the harbor and the sea between their grayed walls. A mass of tumbled 
rocks chiseled by the sea forms the grim profile of the 'Neck.' 

Reckless, hardbitten fishermen from Cornwall and the Channel Islands 
settled Marblehead (Marble Harbor) in 1629 as a plantation of Salem. 
Their rude huts clung to the rocks like sea-birds' nests. Said a Marble- 
header of a later day ' Our ancestors came not here for religion. 
Their main end was to catch fish.' As might have been expected from 
such ungodliness, early Marblehead was a favorite with the powers of 
darkness. Many a citizen met Satan himself riding in state in a coach 
and four, or was chased through the streets by a corpse in a coffin. The 
eerie lament of the ' screeching woman of Marblehead' resounded across 
the harbor, and Puritan Salem hanged old ' Mammy Red ' of Marblehead 
who knew how to turn enemies' butter to blue wool. Within a decade 
unruly Marblehead was without regret permitted to become a separate 
town, 'the greatest Towne for fishing in New England.' 

The early prosperity of the fisheries was short-lived. The Reverend 
John Barnard, who came in 1715 to minister to the heathen, wrote, 
1 Nor could I find twenty families that could stand upon their own legs, 
and they were generally as rude, swearing, drunken and fighting a crew 

274 Main Street and Village Green 

as they were poor.' Under his guidance markets were sought in the 
West Indies and Europe for the carefully cured fish, and a class of mer- 
chants began to send larger vessels to more distant ports. 

As war with England approached and His Majesty's frigates lay threat- 
eningly in the harbor, the rafters of the Old Town House thundered to 
revolutionary speeches and all Marblehead blazed with patriotism. Her 
merchants patriotically extended shipping privileges to the merchants of 
Boston when Marblehead took Boston's place as the port of entry after 
the passage of the Boston Port Bill (1774). The Tory merchants fled 
for their lives, seafaring men turned to privateering with its promise of 
prize money and adventure or joined General John Glover's famous 
'Amphibious Regiment' which was later with muffled oars to row 
Washington across the Delaware. The Marblehead schooner 'Lee,' 
manned by a captain and crew of this regiment, flew the Pine Tree flag 
and took the 'Nancy,' the first British prize. 

Privateering became unprofitable as the British blockade tightened. 
The close of the war found Marblehead economically prostrate, the 
merchant fleet captured or sunk, the fishing fleet rotting at the wharves. 

To relieve the distress two lotteries were organized and the fishing 
fleet was reconditioned with the proceeds, but just as prosperity again 
seemed assured, the War of 1812 tied up the fleet once more and embargo 
closed the ports of trade. After the war the fishing fleet gallantly put 
to sea, but the town with little capital could not compete with the more 
fortunately situated ports of Boston and Gloucester. The great gale of 
1846, which took a frightful toll of men and ships, hastened the end. 

Undaunted, Marblehead turned to industry. The back-yard shoe shops, 
a feature of every fisherman's cottage, were amalgamated into factories 
after 1840, and within a decade, trained hands and mass production 
methods were turning out a million pairs of shoes a year. Other factories 
produced glue, rope, twine, barrels, paint, and cigars. But the spider 
web of railroads that spun out across the country, tapping the resources 
of the West and concentrating manufacturing in the larger cities, spelled 
doom to Marblehead as an industrial center, a doom hastened by two 
disastrous fires. 

Ultimately it was the sea that once more brought prosperity. The 
harbor, where long ago the high-sterned fishing boats rode to tree-root 
moorings, has become the yachting center of the eastern seaboard. 
Summer estates line the once bleak shore of the Neck and overlook the 
harbor where hundreds of sleek-hulled craft ride at anchor. In the 
yachting season more sails slant out past Halfway Rock, where once 
the fishermen tossed pennies to buy good luck and safe return, 
ever did in the days of Marblehead's maritime glory. 

Marblehead 275 


E. on Washington St. through Washington Square. 

1. Abbot Hall, the Victorian Town Hall and Public Library, in the 
center of the Square, houses Willard's 'The Spirit of '76,' the familiar 
historical painting. 

2. The Colonel William Lee House (private), 185 Washington St., is one 
of the network of old houses, nearly all of them pre-Revolutionary, 
which form the heart of Marblehead. Colonel Lee was an early merchant 
prince of the town, and a Revolutionary army officer. The house dates 
from the mid-i8th century, and has the wood-block front, popular in 
Marblehead's fashionable dwellings. An Ionic portico and octagonal 
cupola add distinction. 

3. The Jeremiah Lee Mansion (1768) (open weekdays 9-5; adm. 25), 
opposite Mason St., is one of the finest examples of the second phase of 
New England Georgian architecture. A three-story building, rusticated 
over the entire surface and accented by quoined corners, it is surmounted 
by an octahedral cupola. The chief embellishment is a simple portico of 
two fluted Ionic columns. The elaborate paneling of the 'mahogany 
room/ the magnificent staircase, and the rich variety of detail in wood 
finish give the interior exceptional interest. 

R. from Washington St. on Hooper St. 

4. The King Hooper House (private), 8 Hooper St., which was built in 
1745, is the third of three houses built by early merchant princes. The 
three-story front is of wood executed to give the effect of stone cours- 
ing. Robert Hooper, the builder of the house, was nicknamed ' King' 
because of his great wealth and royal manner of life. 

Retrace on Hooper St.; straight ahead on Washington St. 

5. St. Michael's Church (Episcopal) (open daily 9-5), corner of Sum- 
mer St., was erected in 1714, and is probably the oldest Episcopal church 
edifice in New England. The interior has gate pews and the typical 
Colonial raised pulpit, reached by a winding stair and surmounted by an 
overhanging sounding board. 

6. The Old Town House (1727) needed to be sturdy of rafters to with- 
stand the turbulent shouts of pre-Revolutionary town meetings. It is 
a pleasing example of the first phase of New England Georgian design 

a two-story clapboarded building set high upon a granite walled 
basement, its corners flanked with quoins, its low gabled roof enhanced 
by a simple cornice. 

7. The Marblehead Art Association (open publicly in August for an annual 
exhibition, free), 65 Washington St., has a membership of 400, with head- 
quarters at this Colonial house. 


Marblehead 277 

8. The Major Pedrick House (now a rooming house, but also open as a 
Colonial dwelling, 10-11 and 2-4 daily; adm. 15ff), 52 Washington St., 
is almost as fine architecturally as the Lee and Hooper mansions. It 
was built in 1756, a square three-story house, with wood front repre- 
senting stone coursing, elaborate cornice, and huge, square chimneys. 

9. The Elbridge Gerry House (private), 44 Washington St., is marked by 
a tablet as the birthplace of Elbridge Gerry (1744-1814), a member of 
the Continental Congress, Governor of Massachusetts, Vice-President 
of the United States during the War of 1812, and popularly known as 
the originator of the device of 'gerrymandering.' 

10. The Old North Church (Congregational), opposite the Gerry House, 
was erected in 1824, but is the first parish in the town. The vine-covered 
stone church has a characteristic Colonial Georgian steeple. 

L. from Washington St, into Orne St. 

11. The Azor Orne House (private], 18 Orne St., was the home of 
Colonel Azor Orne, a member of the Revolutionary Committee of 
Safety which included Elbridge Gerry, John Hancock, and Samuel and 
John Adams. 

This district is Barnegat, long ago named for the town on the New 
Jersey coast where ' mooncussers ' lured vessels to destruction by false 
lights from shore, with the purpose of plundering their cargoes. (A 
mooncusser is one who curses the moon for its hindrance to his nefarious 


12. The Agnes Surriage Well (see Tour 1C, Ashland] is at the end of 
the grassy lane leading (R) from Orne St. just beyond the Orne House. 

13. The Old Brig (about 1720), known also as the Moll Pitcher House, 
on Orne St. opposite the lane leading to the Agnes Surriage W^ell, is 
the unnumbered low white gabled roof Colonial house with the big 
central chimney. It was the home of the famous psychic fortune-teller, 
Moll Pitcher, born here about 1743, and of her ancestor the wizard 
Dimond. Above this house, on the rocky summit of Old Burial Hill, 


1. Abbot Hall 12. Agnes Surriage Well 

2. Colonel William Lee House 13. Old Brig 

3. Jeremiah Lee Mansion 14. Old Burial Hill 

4. King Hooper House 15. Parson Barnard House 

5. St. Michael's Church 16. Fort Sewall 

6. Old Town House 17. Old Tavern 

7. Marblehead Art Association 18. General John Glover's House 

8. Major Pedrick House 20. Gove House 

9. Elbridge Gerry House 21. The Churn 
10. Old North Church 22. Castle Rock 
n. Azor Orne House 23. Lighthouse 

278 Main Street and Village Green 

among gravestones outlined against the sky, the awed townsfolk often 
saw Old Dimond's shadowy form swaying in a wild northeaster, as 
with brandished arms he defied the gale and shouted to invisible satanic 
thralls his orders for the safe guidance of the Marblehead fleet. 

14. Old Burial Hill, just beyond the Old Brig on Orne St., dates from 
1638 and contains the graves of no less than 600 Revolutionary heroes. 
The low white Obelisk on the crest of the hill honors 65 Marblehead 
fishermen who lost their lives in a great gale in 1846. From the hill is 
obtained a panoramic view of Marblehead Harbor, the summer yachting 
center of the eastern seaboard. 

Retrace on Orne St.; L. from Orne St. on Franklin St. 

15. The Parson Barnard House (open by arrangement with its resident 
tenant), 7 Franklin St., was the home of Marblehead's second and most 
famous pastor, during his 54-year ministry from 1716 to 1770. It was 
Parson John Barnard who schooled the rude fishermen in the foreign 
commerce which brought such great prosperity to the town before the 
Revolution. And it was Parson Barnard who declined the presidency 
of Harvard University, referring the Committee of Invitation to his 
rival pastor in the town, the Rev. Edward Holyoke, who accepted. 
When Marblehead objected strenuously to losing either clergyman, 
Parson Barnard appeared in his colleague's pulpit and told the Holyoke 
flock in no uncertain terms how great was the honor to their leader. 
A visitor afterward inquired for Mr. Holyoke, and was told, ' Old Barnard 
prayed him away.' 

L. from Franklin St. on Front St. 

16. Fort Sewall, at the end of Front St., was erected in 1742 and did 
good service in keeping the British at bay in the Revolution, but has 
long been abandoned to the pacific uses of a small seaside park. 

Retrace on Front St. 

17. The Old Tavern (open), 82 Front St., corner of Glover St., was built 
in 1680 and is now an antique shop. Its clapboards long held British 
shot fired at it from the harbor after a Marblehead patriot had disarmed 
several British officers in its bar by fencing with a mere stick against 
their rapiers. 

R. from Front St. on Glover St. 

1 8. General John Glover's House (private), n Glover St., built in 1762, 
bears a tablet recording the General's crossing of the Delaware and 
other military services. Glover was actually a sailor rather than a 
soldier, and his privateer vessel, the 'Hannah,' manned by Marble- 
headers, was the first ship of what came to be the American Navy. 

Medford 279 


W. from Washington Square on Washington St.; L. from Washington St. 
on Atlantic Am.; L. from Atlantic Ave. on Ocean Ave. 

19. The Causeway and Bathing Beach (bathhouses') continue Ocean Ave. 
from Marblehead to Marblehead Neck. On the left is Marblehead Har- 
bor, gay in summer with yachts. On the right is the long sandy, shelving 
beach, facing Massachusetts Bay. 

Ocean Ave. bears (R) around the ocean side of the Neck, which until 
the Civil War was one great cow pasture, dotted alongshore with an 
occasional fisherman's shack. It is now the home of an exclusive summer 

20. Outstanding among the residences at Marblehead Neck is the Gave 
House on Ocean Avenue, designed by Smith and Walker of Boston 
after the ancient Castle of Carcassonne in Southern France and built 
about 1934 for the daughter of Lydia Pinkham. 

21. The Churn, on Ocean Ave., reached by an unmarked path leading 
through a field (R) where the latter makes a short turn west, is a fissure 
in the rocks at tide level from which under an east or northeast wind 
great billows of spray rise to a height sometimes of 50 feet. 

22. Castle Rock, adjoining the Churn (R), a rugged granite bluff rising 
sheer from the sea, offers a beautiful ocean view with a long line of 
shore breakers. 

L. from Ocean Ave. on Follett St. 

23. The Lighthouse (open daily 10-12 and 2-4) is a circular iron tower 
at the tip of the Neck. From the rocks at its base is obtained the best 
view of the yacht races. Just offshore, northeast, is Children's Island, 
its rocky reaches covered with the buildings of a hospital for tubercular 

MEDFORD. Rum, Ships, and Homes 

City: Alt. 12, pop. 61,444, sett. 1630-35, incorp. town 1684, city 1892. 

Railroad Stations: Tufts College, Boston Ave. ; Medford Hillside, Boston Ave. 
and Winthrop St.; West Medford, High St., for Lowell Division of B. & M 

Accommodations: Boarding and rooming houses; some tourist places. 

280 Main Street and Village Green 

Swimming: Municipal pool, Tufts Park, Main St. 
Riding: Bridle trails through Middlesex Fells Reservation. 
Information: Public Library, 117 High St. 

MEDFORD rum and Medford-built ships, once staples of world-wide 
repute, today are only legend. Still Medford thrives; a paradox accounted 
for by its proximity to Boston, its residential attractiveness, and a fine 
educational system reaching its climax geographically as well as peda- 
gogically in Tufts College. Its hustle and bustle over, today Medford 
has closed shop and settled back to its destiny as a community of homes. 

In the early days of its settlement, rich loam near the river banks beck- 
oned farmers, and the surging tides of the Mystic River offered thriving 
fisheries. Shipbuilding was soon under way. John Winthrop, a year 
before settling on Ten Hills Farm at Somerville, had launched the 
'Blessing of the Bay' at Medford. Then followed a century of depression, 
until the New England rum and slave trade sprang up. 

Medford rum had its start when the Hall family set up a wooden still 
on the site of a spring, to which the special flavor of the rum was attrib- 
uted. The Hall formula, used for two hundred years, was finally de- 
stroyed by General Samuel C. Lawrence, when Medford distilling came 
to an end. 

The navigable Mystic River was the direct cause of the other very 
substantial economic activity of Medford. Freighting produce to the 
State capital by boat became a bustling enterprise. 

Medford developed into a supply shop for New Hampshire and Vermont, 
furnishing iron, steel, lead, salt, molasses, sugar, tea, codfish, chocolate, 
gunpowder, and rum at lower than Boston prices. In addition Medford 
merchants engaged directly in extensive trade with foreign and domestic 
ports. Barrel-making and slaughtering thrived. 

One day in the year 1802, Thatcher Magoun, a youth on a holiday from 
a Charlestown shipyard, was rambling about Winter Hill. In a vision he 
saw a thriving shipyard on the river banks below him, himself its master. 
Excitedly he clattered down the hill and boarded a two-masted schooner 
lying alongside a distilling-house wharf. Breathlessly he plied the 
amazed captain with all sorts of questions. A year later he returned and 
laid the keel of his first ship. 

Thatcher Magoun's project came at a critical moment. The English 
navigation laws, after the Revolution, ended American trade with the 
British West Indies, and New England merchants were frantically 
seeking new markets. 

Finally Yankee ingenuity found a way out, in a new trade with China. 
Because their two hundred to three hundred ton capacity made possible 
the navigation of the shallow bays of the northwest coast, many Medford 
vessels were dispatched to the Pacific. 'Medford-built' found its way 
into the idiom of the sea. 

Medford 281 

Such Medford builders as J. O. Curtis, Hayden and Cudworth, and S. 
Lapham had more fast California passages to their credit, in proportion 
to the number of clipper ships built, than those of any other town. 

Sailing vessels became definitely unprofitable with the Civil War and 
the introduction of steamships. In 1873 the last Medford-built ship 
was launched. Nor did the distilleries long survive; by 1905 they, too, 
had ceased. 

TOUR 10.7 m. 

W. from Medford Sg. on High St. 

1. Three Hall Houses (private), homes of early Medford merchants and 
patriots, 45, 49, and 57 High St., offer an unusual chance to compare at 
close range varying details of Colonial architecture. No. 57, the most 
ornate, has the familiar broad, square lines and cornice of the prosperous 
town houses of the i8th century. No. 49 has a wood front and brick 
ends, U-shaped double end-chimneys which serve to add height and 
pride, and an ornamental rail across the sloping roof. No. 45, the smallest, 
of frame and clapboard, is the plainest. 

R. from High St. on Governors Ave.; L. from Governors Ave. into South 
Border Rd. 

2. Pine Hill is approached by a wooded lane (vehicles excluded] which 
skirts a small pond. A number of footpaths wind to the summit, from 
which there is an excellent view of the Mystic Valley. 

3. Lawrence Observatory (marked footpath), an iron tower the summit of 
which is 310 feet above sea level, offers a beautiful panorama of pond- 
studded woodland and fields, with Medford and the Mystic River water- 
front in the foreground. 

L. from South Border Rd. by foot on bridle path; R. from bridle path into 
first wagon path; L. from wagon path one-fourth mile to an open field. 

4. A Cedar Tree, 15 ft. tall, growing out of a solid boulder, is a curious 
natural wonder. Its age is estimated at about 400 years. 

Retrace on South Border Rd.; R. from South Border Rd. on Governors Ave.; 
R. from Governors Ave. on High St. 

5. The Medford Public Library (open weekdays 9-9), 121 High St., 
formerly the residence of Thatcher Magoun 2d, was built in 1835. With- 
in are several autographed letters of George Washington written to 
Medford patriots; and one of the 100 existing copies of 'The Catalogue 
and Investigation in Jade,' edited by George F. Kunz, Tiffany expert 
in precious stones, for the estate of Heber Bishop, a Medford collector 
of jade. 

6. The Charles Brooks House (private), 309 High St., is a notable ex- 


Medford 283 

ample of the white wood front and brick-ends type, with a pair of chim- 
neys at each side. 

7. The West Medford Railroad Station, West Medford Square, is a bizarre 
structure built about 1880. In its outside walls were embedded, when it 
was built, various glittering minerals and semi-precious jewels, a whale's 
tooth, fluted seashells, and an eroded boulder which is supposed to bear a 
natural resemblance to the head of George Washington. Unfortunately 
the building has been denuded of most of its jewels, which have been 
picked out of their cement bed by souvenir hunters. 

8. The Route of Paul Revere to Lexington is indicated by a board on a 
tree at the corner of Grove and High Sts., with the following addendum: 
'On Grove St. was the home of Rev. Edward Brooks where the returning 
Minute Men were served with food and chocolate, BUT NO TEA.' 

L. from High St. into Boston Ave.; R. from Boston Ave. into College Ave. 

9. Tufts College, co-educational, crowns the summit of the hill. It was 
founded in 1852 by Hosea Ballou 2d, nephew of the famous Universalist 
divine of the same name, with endowment funds and land given by 
Charles Tufts. The Goddard Chapel (1882-83), of early Gothic style, is 
built of field-stone. 

At one time consisting only of Ballou Hall, the college now forms an impressive 

In the Barnum Museum (open weekdays, 9-5; Sat. 9-12) is the famous showman's 
extensive zoological collection, including the stuffed hide of Jumbo, an elephant be- 
loved by the circus crowds of a past generation. 

Tufts College had its origin primarily in the fact that dogmatic proselyting was 
an approved function of the igth-century American college. When someone asked 
Charles Tufts of Somerville, a man of open mind in sympathy with liberal religion, 
what he intended to do with the windswept heights of Walnut Hill, in a prophetic 
flash, he answered, 'I will put a light on it!' 

Courses are given in liberal arts, theology, engineering and law. Of particular 
interest is the recently founded Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy adminis- 
tered in co-operation with Harvard University. Training is offered for government 
foreign service, international business, and research in international relations. 

Tufts College is now affiliated with Jackson College for women. The total enroll- 
ment of students is 2,104, including those in attendance at Tufts Medical and 
Dental Schools in Boston. 

Retrace on College Ave.; R.from College Ave. into George St. 

10. The Usher Roy all House (open May-Nov. daily except Mon. and Fri. 


1. Three Hall Houses 9. Tufts College 

2. Pine Hill 10. Usher Royall House 

3. Lawrence Observatory n. Craddock Bridge 

4. Cedar Tree 12. Old Sawyer House 

5. Medford Public Library 13. Peter Tufts House 

6. Charles Brooks House 

284 Main Street and Village Green 

1-5; adm. 25^) is at 15 George St. A three-story mansion, it derives from 
the Usher nucleus; it was built before 1697 and is one of the few existing 
brick houses of the iyth century. Successive alterations, mainly before 
1750, have created a three-story mansion, the gabled brick ends terminat- 
ing in tall chimney stacks, the wooden west front rusticated and adorned 
with a colossal order, the angles decorated with quoins (among the 
earliest examples) and the windows richly framed, with cornices one 
of the most elaborate dwellings of its period extant in Massachusetts. 

L. from George St. into Main St. 

11. Craddock Bridge, a small concrete span over the Mystic River, takes 
the place of a timbered draw said to have been the first toll bridge in 
New England. To the right are replacements of the docks from which 
ships were launched and the famous Medford Rum was exported. 

R. from Main St. into Riverside Ave. 

12. Old Sawyer House (private), 306 Riverside Ave., is an unpainted 
story-and-a-half dwelling, with clapboarded front, shingled sides, and 
central chimney, typical of the more modest Colonial dwellings. It is 
at least 200 years old, and its present resident is a descendant of the 
original owner. 

13. The Peter Tufts House or 'Old Fort 1 (open on request; adm. 25^), 350 
Riverside Ave., sometimes called the Craddock House, is a landmark 
dating from 1677-80. It is interesting to architects as one of the earliest 
brick houses built from the start with a depth of , two rooms in each story. 
Porthole windows from which to fire revivify in the mind the terrors of 
Indian attack. Some antiquarians believe this to be the house built in 
1638 for Governor Matthew Craddock. 

NEW BEDFORD. Thar She Blows 

City: Alt. 9, pop. 110,022, sett. 1640, incorp. town 1787, city 1847. 

Railroad Stations: New Bedford Station, 624 Acushnet Ave.; New Bedford 

Wharf Station, 41 Front St.; Weld St. Station, 81 Weld St.; all for N.Y., 

N.H. & H. R.R. 
Bus Stations: Middle St. for Union St. Ry. Co.; Vineyard Steamboat Line 

Dock, Front St., for New England Transportation Co.; 'Times Lot/ 911 

Purchase St., for I.C.T. Bus Co. 
Piers: Homer's Wharf, from n Front St. to Acushnet River, for New Bedford 

Cuttyhunk Line; Vineyard Steamboat Line, from 41 Front St. to Acushnet 

River, for the New Bedford, Martha's Vineyard and Nantucket Steamboat 


New Bedford 285 

Accommodations: Three hotels, adequate modern inns and transient facilities. 

Information Service: Board of Commerce, Pleasant and William Sts. ; New Bed- 
ford Auto Club, 628 Pleasant St. 

NEW BEDFORD, once a famous whaling port, now a textile center at 
the mouth of the Acushnet River, is made up of a number of interesting 
contradictions. Gone are the whalers, but the harbor is still busy with 
small Portuguese fishing craft, with steamers plying between New Bed- 
ford and Martha's Vineyard and Nantucket, and with coastwise freight- 
ers. New Bedford, once the fourth in the United States, is still a busy 
secondary port. 

Even the mills, employing large numbers of English and French-Canadian 
operatives, have not destroyed this nautical flavor, perpetuated by a 
whaling museum, a seamen's Bethel, and substantial old houses once the 
homes of captains and wealthy traders. Twelve thousand Portuguese 
live in the town. 'The Crowning,' a Portuguese religious festival, takes 
place the sixth Sunday after Easter and any Sunday thereafter through- 
out the summer. It takes its name from the custom established by an 
early queen of Portugal who, legend reports, performed miraculous cures 
of the sick by placing her crown on their heads. A heavy silver crown, 
a replica of the queen's, is kept at one of the Portuguese churches for 
repetitions of these crownings, performed by a priest. 'The Charmarita,' 
the other annual festival, is a summer carnival and food fair, the proceeds 
of which go to the church. 

Until its incorporation as New Bedford, ' Bedford Village' was a part 
of the town of Dartmouth. Up to 1760 there were no more than a dozen 
scattered farms in the village, the homes chiefly of Quakers from Rhode 
Island and Cape Cod. But Joseph Russell, known as the ' Father of New 
Bedford ' because he gave it its name in honor of the Duke of Bedford, a 
relative, was already engaged in whaling on a small scale, and soon 
afterward Joseph Rotch arrived from Nantucket, extended the industry, 
and presently attracted shipbuilders including George Claghorn, later 
to build the U.S. Frigate 'Constitution' at Boston. New Bedford's first 
ship, the 'Dartmouth,' was launched in 1767. In 1773 she was one of the 
ships whose cargoes of tea were dumped into Boston Harbor on the eve 
of December 16. 

The Revolution temporarily halted local expansion, and New Bedford 
saw the first clash between the British and the Colonials on water. Gen- 
eral Gage, isolated in Boston since April 19, 1775, had sent ships of war 
scouting southward for food supplies, and one of these, the 'Falcon,' 
seized two sloops in Vineyard Sound for use as decoys, and advanced 
slowly toward New Bedford. An unknown messenger made a gallant 
ride from Wareham with the news. Twenty-five men in a small vessel 
at once set out to intercept the British, and on May 14 and 15 captured 
both sloops, thereby discouraging the 'Falcon.' Thereafter, New Bedford 
Harbor was a rendezvous for American privateers, who turned the tables 
by preying upon British shipping. This fact prompted a British invasion 

286 Main Street and Village Green 

of the town on September 5, 1778, with five thousand soldiers, who met 
with little resistance and who burned all patriot homes, vessels, and 
business houses, but spared those of the Tories. 

Nan tucket was the leading whaling port until after the War of 1812, but 
by 1820, with a population of 3947, New Bedford had outstripped it and 
thereafter led the industry, gradually absorbing almost the entire whaling 
of the Atlantic seaboard. The year 1845 saw New Bedford's greatest 
receipts from its fleet 158,000 barrels of sperm oil, 272,000 barrels of 
whale oil, and 3,000,000 pounds of whalebone. Ten thousand seamen 
manned the ships. 

While this industry brought wealth to certain sections, to the waterfront 
it brought rough living and exploited vice. A notorious district known 
as 'Hard Dig' was burned in 1826 by a mob of zealous citizens. 

The discovery of petroleum in Pennsylvania in 1857 spelled the doom of 
the whaling industry, hastened to some extent by the growing scarcity 
of whales. Today almost the entire product of blackfish oil (derived 
from a species of small whale and by sailors called porpoise jaw oil), a 
lubricant for clocks and watches, is refined here. 

In the years just before the Civil War, New Bedford was a station of the 
Underground Railway for smuggling runaway slaves into Canada. Aboli- 
tion sentiments were fostered by the Quakers and by Frederick Douglass, 
a distinguished Negro orator, who aided in recruiting Colonel Robert 
Gould Shaw's Negro troops. New Bedford had a number of ships in the 
Stone Fleet which blockaded Southern ports by sinking vessels laden 
with granite at Southern harbor entrances. 

The Wamsutta Mills, the first important textile plant, were chartered 
in 1846, but the industry grew slowly, owing to the fact that whaling was 
still dominant. New Bedford shared, however, in the New England 
textile boom of 1881-83, an d from that time on the city was in the front 
rank as a manufacturer of fine cotton fabrics. Its mild damp climate is 
favorable to the handling of cotton. 

About 1921 came the turn. Even before the general business depression 
of 1929, low-cost Southern production began to cut into New Bedford's 
business. A number of mills went into liquidation; others operated on 
greatly curtailed schedules, creating a major unemployment problem. 

Matters were precipitated, April 9, 1928, by a ten per cent cut in the 
wages of all textile operatives except those of the Dartmouth and Beacon 
Mills. A six-months strike followed in which twenty-seven thousand 
workers were involved. About three thousand skilled workers in the 
Textile Council of the American Federation of Textile Operators joined 
with the United Textile Workers during the strike in order to gain the 
support of the American Federation of Labor. The more radical workers, 
chiefly unskilled and foreign-born, found leadership in the Textile Mill 
Committee, a national organization. During the course of the strike, the 
latter joined the vertically organized New Bedford Textile Workers' 

New Bedford 287 

Union, which later became the chief local of the National Textile Workers' 
Union, an industrial union. 

A summary of national press comment showed practically unanimous 
country-wide sympathy with the workers. Settlement was eventually 
made on the basis of a five per cent reduction in wages, to be restored as 
soon as conditions might warrant; agreement by the manufacturers to 
give thirty days' notice of any future reductions; and agreement of the 
operatives to co-operate in a study designed to increase, if possible, the 
efficiency of production in the mills. Several plants, however, failed to 
resume operations and eventually went into liquidation. 

Nevertheless, New Bedford's textile history is by no means a closed 
chapter. During readjustment a number of new industries have been at- 
tracted to the city, including needle industries employing thirty-five 
hundred in the manufacture of cotton garments. 

In addition, the development of truck transportation has made New 
Bedford a modern fish-shipping center. Many fishing boats from Cape 
Cod waters which formerly unloaded their cargoes directly in Boston 
or New York now trans-ship their haul at New Bedford. Ten million 
pounds of fish were brought here in 1934. 

FOOT TOUR 1.5 m. 

S. from Middle St. into Pleasant St. 

1. The Public Library (1856) (open 9-9), between William and Market 
Sts., an impressive building fronted by massive columns, contains a col- 
lection of Quaker relics and whaling logs. Established in 1852, it is one 
of the oldest free public libraries in the country. 

2. The Whaleman Statue, executed in granite by Bela Pratt, stands on 
the north side of the Library lawn. It was dedicated (1913) to the 
whaler's motto, 'A dead whale or a stove boat.' 

L.from Pleasant St. into School St.; R. from School St. into Front St. 

3. The Bourne Office Building, end of School St., is a large three-story 
stone survival with boarded windows, old-fashioned wooden shutters, 
and tightly locked doors. Jonathan Bourne, the most successful of all 
the whaling merchants, opened offices in this building in 1848. His 
counting-rooms, covered with the accumulated dust of half a century, 
remain today as he left them. 

The first floor contained chandlery shops and storage rooms for whaling 
outfits. Lofts and rigging lofts occupied the upper stories; the counting- 
rooms were on the second floor, with counters and iron railings fencing 
off the tall mahogany desks at which the bookkeepers stood up, or sat 
on high stools. There were few luxuries. About the walls were models 
of whaleships and whaling prints. 




New Bedford 289 

In the heyday of whaling, oil casks were loaded upon the dock in front 
of the building^ where they were carefully covered with seaweed to pre- 
vent the sun from drying them out and spreading the seams. A pen was 
then built around each collection until such time as a buyer could be 
Retrace Front St. 

4. Along the east side of Front St. is the Waterfront Area, centered 
about the State Pier, and utilized today by a large fishing fleet. 
L.from Front St. into Union St.; R.from Union St. into Johnny Cake Hill. 

5. On the crest of the hill stand the Museum of the Old Dartmouth Histori- 
cal Society, and the Bourne Whaling Museum (open daily; adm. 25j). 
The chief exhibit here is a half-size reproduction of Jonathan Bourne's 
favorite vessel, the whaling bark 'Lagoda.' The main floor contains 
smaller models and half models of hulls made by master shipbuilders to 
guide their workmen. Around the walls are harpoons, darting guns, 
lances, and other implements used in the chase. There are examples of 
scrimshaw work made by the whalemen in their leisure time out of 
whales' teeth and bone. Six hundred logbooks reward research with an 
almost inexhaustible yield of local color and detail. 

6. The Seamen's Bethel (open), facing the Museum, was dedicated on 
May 2, 1832, to give moral and religious inspiration to the thousands of 
sailors, native and foreign-born, who frequented the city. It was im- 
mortalized by Herman Melville in 'Moby Dick' and has been little 
changed since Melville's time. Still adorning the walls are the black- 
bordered, marble cenotaphs inscribed in terms of bitter and hopeless 
grief; still from the ship's-prow pulpit resound the chaplain's salty 

L. from Johnny Cake Hill into William St. 

7. The Customhouse, at the corner of North Second St., on which it 
fronts, is a granite structure more than a century old. It has two stories, 
a portico in classic style, and a winding stone stairway of unusual design. 

R. from Williams St. into Purchase St. 

8. The Liberty Bell Tablet, on the eastern wall of the Merchants' Na- 


1. Public Library 9. Bridge Park 

2. Whaleman Statue 10. Acushnet Park 

3. Bourne Office Building n. Fort Rodman 

4. Waterfront Area 12. Rodney French Memorial Tablet 

5. Museum of Old Dartmouth His- 13. Municipal Bathing Beach 
torical Society 14. Mark Duff Home 

6. Seamen's Bethel 15. Perry House 

7. Custom House 16. Buttonwood Park 

8. Liberty Bell Tablet 17. Wamsutta Mills 

290 . Main Street and Village Green 

tional Bank at Liberty St., reads in part: 'News of the passage of the 
Fugitive Slave Law was brought from Boston in 1851 by an express 
messenger who rode all night, and the bell on the old Hall was rung to 
give warning to fugitive slaves that U.S. Marshals were coming.' 


E. from Pleasant St. into Middle St. 

g. Bridge Park at the head of the State bridge, is a beautifully land- 
scaped area. 

R. from Middle St. into Front St.; R. from Front St. into Walnut St.; L. 
from Walnut St. into South Second St.; L. from South Second St. into Cove 
St.; R.from Cove St. into Rodney French Blvd. 

10. Acushnet Park (open-air dance hall, public bathing beach, clambake 
pavilion) (privately owned; open in summer; adm. free), adjacent to the 
Infirmary, is a public amusement park. 

11. Fort Rodman (open, visitors restricted), at the top of Clark's Point, 
is one of the key defenses of the North Atlantic coast. Two active bat- 
teries are maintained here. The fort antedates the Civil War. 

12. The Rodney French Memorial Tablet, at the entrance to Hazelwood 
Park (public; tennis; baseball; bowling), was erected by the Negroes of 
the city in honor of an abolitionist mayor in 1853-54. 

13. The Municipal Bathing Beach (bathing suits for hire, outside showers) 
was cleared and improved, walls constructed, and a children's beach 
created by Emergency Relief Administration and Works Progress Ad- 
ministration projects. 

L.from Rodney French Blvd. into Cove Rd.; R.from Cove Rd. into County St. 

14. The Mark Duff Home (private), between Madison and Cherry Sts., 
was designed by Russell Warren, early iQth-century Providence archi- 
tect. It is a two-and-a-half-story frame building topped by a cupola, 
surrounded by spacious grounds with sunken gardens. 

R. from County St. into Walnut St.; L. from Walnut St. into Seventh St. 

15. The Perry House (private), southeast corner of School St., a mansion 
of whaling days, is an excellent example of New England Georgian 
architecture. A winding, mahogany staircase rises through the center 
of the house from the street floor to the cupola or captain's walk. 

L. from Seventh St. into Union St.; R. from Union St. into County St.; L. 
from County St. into North St.; L. from North St. into Rockdale Ave. 

16. Button-wood Park (west end of the city) is the largest in the city. 
Here is the Barnard Monument, a twofold tribute to the whalemen and 
to the promoters of the textile industry. 

Newburyport 291 

Retrace Rockdale Ave.; R. from Rochdale Ave. into Mill St. (one-way, east) ; 
L. from Mill St. into Acushnet Ave. 

17. Wamsutta Mills (not open to the public), between Wamsutta and 
Logan Sts., the oldest of New Bedford's many textile mills, are con- 
structed of granite. 

NEWBURYPORT. City of Captains' Houses 

City: Alt. 26, pop. 14,815, sett. 1635, incorp. town 1764, city 1851. 
Railroad Station: Winter St. for B. & M. R.R. 

Accommodations: One hotel open all year; two open only during summer. 
Information: Chamber of Commerce, 12 Pleasant St. 

ONCE seagoing vessels huddled so close in the Merrimack that they 
almost bridged the river from the Newburyport to the Salisbury shore. 
Now the great river runs placidly by the city, and the harbor is clogged 
with sand. Along the shore still stand a few factories, their red-brick 
walls faded and picturesque against the background of moving water. 
A dignified and charming city rises from the river level, bisected by the 
gleaming Turnpike a modern note in a setting which is otherwise 
almost a monument to the glorious days of Newburyport's maritime 
supremacy. Shipowners and their captains built the stately houses which 
border High Street for several miles; square three-storied dwellings with 
hip roofs, often crowned by cupolas, their severity of line relieved by 
cornices, doorways, and window treatments, skillfully executed by men 
who had learned their craft as shipwrights in the famous Newburyport 
yards. Throughout the country the street is known as a distinguished 
survival of the best in Federal architecture. 

Newburyport's business district is that of any busy modern city, although 
even in Market Square space is given to a tablet which tells the tale of 
old Goody Morse, victim of the witchcraft delusion. The aroma of mo- 
lasses still floats from the rum factory, and fine silver is made today in a 
plant whose antecedents go back to early Colonial days. Newer manu- 
factures have been established, and the city strives to adjust itself to the 
modern tempo. Yet it is in the upper reaches of the city, where the old 
jail used for British prisoners frowns over Bartlett Mall, and St. Paul's 
Church rears its bishop's mitre high over the roofs of the old houses, that 
Newburyport reveals its inner character. 

Long before bands of sober-minded Puritans ventured northward to 
found the city of Newburyport at the mouth of the Merrimack, free- 

292 Main Street and Village Green 

lance traders had realized its strategic position. They had tapped the 
rich Indian country to such an extent that the apprehensions of Governor 
John Winthrop were aroused. He feared lest such outsiders might secure 
too firm a foothold within the borders of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. 
In 1635, therefore, a party of colonists was dispatched to set up an out- 
post of virtue and commerce against these interlopers. For seven years 
they attempted to farm the forest at Old Newbury. In 1642 many of 
them gave up the thankless task and moved to the present site of New- 
buryport. Industry sprang up at once. Trapping and fishing were fol- 
lowed by whaling and international trade. The deep-channeled river 
and the limitless supply of lumber made shipbuilding an inevitable de- 
velopment. Between 1681 and 1741, 107 ships were launched from 
Newburyport shipyards. Subsidiary industries came to life. Along the 
waterfront appeared ironworks, sail lofts, and ropewalks. For a time the 
pre-eminence of Boston was seriously threatened, but heavy duties im- 
posed before the Revolution by the British Crown, and the exclusion of 
American ships from the West Indian trade and the Newfoundland fish- 
ing banks after the Revolution, left the town economically prostrate. 
By 1790 Newburyport had recovered a measure of its prosperity, but it 
was short-lived. The ninth ship-owning community in the country, it 
never recovered from the disastrous effects of the Jefferson Embargo 
Act. The town's plight was thus mourned by a Newbury poet in 1808: 

'Our ships all in motion once whitened the ocean, 
They sailed and returned with a cargo; 
Now doomed to decay, they have fallen a prey 
To Jefferson worms and embargo.' 

Another blow was the fire of 1811. Fifteen acres in the heart of the city 
were burned to the ground. The Industrial Revolution proved Newbury- 
port's commercial undoing. After the War of 1812, textile mills sprang 
up on every natural water site in Essex County; and the more farseeing 
mercantile families of Newburyport, such as the Lowells and the Jack- 
sons, turned from trade to manufacture. As the country became in- 
dustrialized, tariffs were enacted to protect infant industries. Such im- 
ports as India cottons, English woolens, Russian duck and canvas, and 
Baltic iron backbone of Newburyport's seaborne commerce were 
practically wiped out. 

Shipbuilding, however, knew another day of glory in the clipper-ship 
era. The demand for packets to carry adventurers to the California gold- 
fields in '49 gave the industry new impetus. Donald McKay, noted 
designer of clipper ships, came to Newburyport after his New York 
apprenticeship. Between 1841 and 1843, in partnership with John 
Currier, Jr., he turned out three packet vessels of such perfection that his 
reputation was made. Later, in the same yards, the record-breaking clip- 
per ' Dreadnought ' was built by Currier and Townsend. 

A geographical position far from the mercantile centers, the ever-increas- 
ing sandbars and dangerous shoals at the harbor mouth, and the advent 
of steam brought to a close this last glorious era in Newburyport's history, 

Newburyport 293 

and with its passing something of glamor and vitality seemed to leave 
the city. Newburyport turned to manufacturing, but without enthusiasm. 
Today the principal industries are shoes, iron and steel products, textiles, 
and cigars, besides the traditional Newburyport manufactures, rum and 
fine silver, that have persisted for more than two centuries. 

TOUR 6.5 m. 

E. from Green St. into Pleasant St. 

1. The Church of the First Religious Society (Unitarian), built in 1801, is 
virtually a duplicate of Mclntire's Old South Church in Salem, and 
valuable although ascribed to another architect as an indication 
of the style of the Salem genius in church design. 

L.from Pleasant St. into State St.; R.from State St. on Middle St.; R.from 
Middle St. into Federal St. 

2. The Old South Church, corner of School St., now known as the First 
Presbyterian Meeting House, was built in 1756 and remodeled in 1856. 
Benedict Arnold and the men of the Quebec Expedition gathered here to 
worship on September 17, 1775. Here preached the great revivalist, 
George Whitefield. 

R.from Federal St. into Temple St.; L. from Temple St. into State St. 

3. The Tracy House (open), now the Public Library, is the red-brick 
building at the corner of Prince Place. This house was built in 1771 by 
Patrick Tracy for his son Nathaniel, who equipped and sent out the first 
privateer to sail from the United Colonies against England. 

4. The Wolfe Tavern (open as a tavern June to Oct.), corner of Harris St., 
was built in 1807. The present building, three-story brick with full- 
length porch, replaced the original tavern built in 1762 and destroyed by 
the fire of 1811. William Davenport, the original proprietor of the hos- 
telry, named it in honor of the British General Wolfe, with whom he 
served against the French at Quebec. 

5. The Dalton Club (open by special arrangement) is directly across the 
street. This spacious gambrel-roofed structure was built in 1746. Par- 
ticularly interesting are the fine doorway with its carved detail and the 
interior woodwork. 

L. from State St. into High St. 

6. The Cashing House (1808), on the corner of Fruit St., is a fine example 
of Federal architecture on a street noted throughout the country for its 
beauty. The square, three-story brick house is especially notable for its 
cornice. Caleb Gushing, distinguished statesman, entertained John 
Quincy Adams here in 1837. 

7. The Wheelwright House (1797), now the Home for Aged Women, is 

294 Main Street and Village Green 

characterized by a portico supported by Doric columns and surmounted 
by a balustrade; a central Palladian window adds charm to the facade. 

Retrace on High St.; R. from High St. into Green St. 

8. The interior of the Sumner House (open 2-4; adm. free), corner of 
Harris St., is considered an excellent example of Federal architecture. 

9. In Brown's Park, corner of Green and Pleasant Sts., stands the 
Statue of the ' Great Liberator,' William Lloyd Garrison, abolitionist, 
orator, and publisher of The Liberator, which championed the cause of 
the slaves. 

Retrace on Green St.; R. from Green St. into High St. 

10. Across the green . stretch of Bartlett Mall is the Old Hill Burying 
Ground. Here is buried the self-styled 'Lord' Timothy Dexte- (see 

below) . 

L. at end of Mall on Aubin St. 

11. The Old County Jail was built in 1744 and used until 1825 as the 
county prison. During the Revolution many British privateersmen were 
confined here. 

Retrace on Aubin St.; L. from Aubin St. into High St. 

12. St. Paul's Church, corner of Market St., is said to be the oldest 
Episcopal parish in Massachusetts, dating from the erection of Queen 
Anne's Chapel in 1711. In 1797 the rector was consecrated the first 
Bishop of Massachusetts. Atop the vine-covered stone church is a 
bishop's mitre. 

13. The Historical Society of Old Newbury (open June-Sept, daily 2-5; 
adm. 25f ) contains early relics of the Newbury settlements and a marine 
collection. This is the Pettingell-Fowler house, built in 1792. 

14. The Moseley House (private), 182 High St., is a graceful building of 
the Federal period. Built in 1811, it has a two-story portico with Corin- 
thian columns. 

15. The Jackson-Dexter House (private), at 201 High St., was built in 
1771. The ornate wood-encased chimneys, the watch-tower surmounted 
by a gilded eagle, the columns flanking the door, give an aspect of ec- 
centric charm to this old dwelling, which was once the lavish residence of 
'Lord' Timothy Dexter. Lord Timothy, Newburyport's self- titled 
eccentric, cluttered his estate with statues of the great, his own included. 
He beat his wife for not giving vent to sufficient grief at a mock funeral 
held for himself. But his 'lordship' was far from crazy. He gained a 
good portion of his wealth by buying up depreciated Continental cur- 
rency. He made a tidy profit out of a cargo of warming-pans sent, with 
every appearance of lunacy, to the West Indies, and there snapped up 
for molasses ladles. He published in 1802 a book called 'Pickles for the 
Knowing Ones,' in which all the punctuation appeared at the end of the 
book as pages of commas and periods, bearing the unique caption ' Salt 
and Pepper to Taste.' 

Newton 295 

1 6. Atkinson Common, at the juncture with Moseley Ave., is a spacious 
Green in which stands a newly erected field-stone Observation Tower. 
This vantage-point affords an exceptional view of the Merrimack River, 
the inland country, and the sea. 

R.from High St. into Moseley Ave.; straight ahead into Spojford St. (Ames- 
bury highway). 

17. The Moseley Woods (parking space, tennis courts, pavilion, bathing 
beach, playground equipment, open fireplaces) , on the Amesbury highway 
at the western end of the city, is one of the larger recreational centers 
of Newburyport. 

1 8. Chain Bridge, which crosses the Merrimack from Amesbury Rd. 
near the entrance to Moseley Woods, was the first bridge over the 
navigable waters. It was rebuilt as a suspension bridge in 1810. 

Retrace on Spo/ord St.; L. from Spo/ord St. into Merrimac St.; L. from 
Merrimac St. into Jefferson St. 

19. Carr's Ferry Approach is the site of the first ferry established between 
Newbury and Carr's Island. The original ferry was the only connecting 
link between Boston and the northern frontier. 

Retrace on Jefferson St.; L. from Jefferson St. into Merrimac St. 

20. The Shipyard Sites are at the foot of Ashland St. Here was launched 
the famous i4oo-ton clipper 'Dreadnought.' Its record crossing of the 
Atlantic (9 days, 13 hours, from Sandy Hook to Liverpool) was the mar- 
vel of the year 1859. 

21. The Towle Company Factory (open by arrangement) is a survivor of 
an industry for which early Newburyport was noted. This firm is today 
one of the largest manufacturers of sterling silverware, exclusively, in the 

22. The Caldwell Distilleries (open by arrangement) housed in a red-brick 
plant on the river bank, are the only distilleries in the city still manu- 
facturing rum, a commodity once inseparably associated with the name 
of Newburyport. 

N E W T O N . Commuter's Haven 

City: Alt. 142, pop. 66,144, sett. 1639, incorp. town 1691, city 1873. 

Railroad Stations: Newton, Newtonville, West Newton, Auburndale, and River- 
side for B. & A. R.R. (main line); Chestnut Hill, Newton Centre, Newton 
Highlands, Eliot, Waban, Woodland and Riverside for B. & A. R.R. (High- 
land branch) ; Newton Upper Falls for N.Y., N.H. & H. R.R. Newton Lower 
Falls (Wellesley) for B. & A. R.R. (Newton Lower Falls branch). 

296 Main Street and Village Green 

Bus Stations: Chestnut Hill, Newton Highlands, and Newton Upper Falls for 
Boston & Worcester Lines; Charles Pharmacy, Elm and Washington Sts., 
West Newton, for Victoria Coach Lines (Boston & N.Y.). 

Information: Bureau of University Travel, n Boyd St. 

NEWTON is a city built, like Rome, on seven hills; but it is suburban 
and residential rather than truly urban. It has its business sections and 
a few isolated industries, but the slopes and summits of its hills are almost 
entirely mantled with small or large estates or acreage not yet developed. 
Its roads are excellent, its parkways beautiful, and its proximity to 
Boston, combined with its lavish natural beauty, places it in the front 
rank of commuters' towns. 

In few Massachusetts cities has the identity of the original villages per- 
sisted as it has in Newton. These villages number fourteen. All except 
Nonantum are recognized by separate railway stations; all have distinct 
business and civic centers; and though the confines melt into each other, 
each has its own individuality and is worthy of a visit on its own account. 

The town had been settled for seven years when, in 1646, John Eliot first 
began to preach to the Indians at Nonantum, an event commemorated 
by the city seal. His first sermon, an hour and a quarter in length, was 
followed by a distribution of apples and biscuits to the children and of 
tobacco to the men an apparently effective method of holding the 
audience. Whether the women were so interested that no reward was 
necessary, or whether their attendance was a matter of indifference to 
the preacher, the record does not state. 

John Eliot was the first pastor of Newton's first church. After his death 
in 1690 the church was for some years without a spiritual guide, during 
which time various visiting ministers, objecting to the inadequate com- 
pensation offered them, sued the town for additional payment. The 
Court ordered the town to pay, and pay it did. 

In these early days in Newton, farming was a principal occupation, and 
friendly Indians were helpful in introducing the pioneers to such new 
crops as potatoes, maize, squash, pumpkins, and beans. Some of the 
settlers built looms or forges or engaged in fishing. Everybody prospered. 
Substantial frame houses soon supplanted the original log huts. 

Newton Upper Falls and Newton Lower Falls became the seat of busy 
industries in the early nineteenth century with two year-round hotels, 
many stores, and, on the Needham side of the river, a cotton mill with 
three thousand spindles. The rest of the Newtons developed more slowly. 

During one period Newton was distinguished by the residence of out- 
standing leaders of culture. For a time Horace Mann lived in West 
Newton at the corner of Highland and Chestnut Streets. After he moved 
away, his brother-in-law, Nathaniel Hawthorne, occupied the same house 
for a year, the year in which he wrote 'The Blithedale Romance.' 'It is 
calm as eternity and will give you lively ideas of the same,' wrote Ralph 
Waldo Emerson, who in 1833 came with his mother to occupy an old 

Newton 297 

farmhouse near the Upper Falls. At the Old Elms, the home of Governor 
Claflin in Newtonville, Mrs. Mary Claflin, author of 'Old time Folks' 
and 'Under the Elms,' entertained such distinguished guests as John 
Greenleaf Whittier, Henry Ward Beecher, Harriet Beecher Stowe, Presi- 
dent Hayes, Chief Justice Chase, and others. Another literary group 
used to meet with Celia Thaxter and her husband, Levi Lincoln Thaxter, 
a Browning enthusiast, in the Thaxters' barn in Newtonville. 

The 1934 census of manufactures of the Department of Labor and In- 
dustry gives the total number of manufacturing plants in operation as 
fifty-four. The census of 1935 indicates a shrinkage to fifteen. It is not 
the hum of machinery which the casual visitor hears in Newton today, but 
the passing of shining automobiles over well-built roads; it is not the 
brick walls and huddled squalor of a factory city which greets one's eye, 
but fine residences with spacious garages; not the soot of an industrial 
center which reaches one's nostrils, but the summer fragrance of carefully 
landscaped estates. It was not the destiny of Newton's hills to be mantled 
in smoke or of its glistening lakes to be filmed with a scum. When the 
rails of the Boston and Worcester Railroad reached out in 1834, Newton 
began to receive the residential overflow of the near-by metropolis, and 
from its earliest days it attracted a prosperous type of home-maker. Not 
to become an agricultural community, not to become an industrial center, 
but to be a city of quiet and handsome homes where the strain and un- 
certainty of a busy civilization seem like a distant murmur, this was 
Newton's destiny. 

TOUR 23 m. 

W. from Newton Corner into Washington St. (one-way traffic} ; L. from 
Washington St. into Hall St. (short unmarked street at end of first block); 
R. from Hall St. into Centre St. 

NEWTON CORNER is the first of the fourteen famous Newton villages. 
Its core, covering several blocks, is occupied by stores and office buildings, 
giving the effect of a busy small town. Immediately on turning into 
Centre St., however, the visitor enters typical residential Newton. This 
is one of the older sections characterized by large comfortable Victorian 
dwellings, some of them slightly shabby but more of them very well 
preserved, or by the smaller modern houses, popularly of Tudor brick 
and timber, which have replaced their more substantial predecessors. 
Here and there handsome churches and prosperous city buildings rise as 
appropriate civic accents in the residential scene. 

i. The Shannon House (private), 749 Centre St., suggests the early 
Victorian by its solid quiet lines and its serenely terraced lawn and 
shading trees. It was, however, built at a still earlier date (1798) and was 
one of the show houses of the town. The small conservatory was at- 

298 Main Street and Village Green 

tached to the house by its 19th-century owner, Miss Mary Shannon, a 
local philanthropist, whose hobby was gardening. 

Retrace on Centre St.; R. from Centre St. into Sargent St.; straight ahead 
from Sargent into Kenrick St.; R. from Kenrick St. into Magnolia St. 

2. The Eliot Memorial is a small stone terrace attractively landscaped. 
A tablet in the superstructure records the date of 1646, when the Apostle 
to the Indians preached his first sermon near the spot in the wigwam of 
Chief Waban. 

R.from Magnolia St. into Eliot Memorial Rd.; L.from Eliot Memorial Rd. 
into Waverley Ave.; R. from Waverley Ave. into Cotton St.; L. from Cotton 
St. into Centre St.; L. from Centre St. into Commonwealth Ave. 

On the way one passes residence after residence of handsome design, all 
with lawns and trees, and hardly a shop to indicate any commercial 

Commonwealth Avenue skirts the second and perhaps the most opulent 
village of all, that of Chestnut Hill, which Newton shares with Brookline. 
Here are the really large estates, to every one of which is attached some 
name well known in national trade, finance, or political history. 

3. Boston College spreads its fine open campus on a hill slope overlooking 
the beautiful Chestnut Hill Reservoir. Four imposing gray-stone build- 
ings in English Collegiate Gothic accommodate a large student body 
made up largely of day students. Its library contains illuminated manu- 
scripts, including breviaries, books of hours, and missals, of the medieval 
era, and a very famous collection of the Negro folklore of Africa and the 
West Indies. The College is operated by the Society of Jesus. 

Retrace on Commonwealth Ave.; L. from Commonwealth Ave. into Ham- 
mond St.; R. from Hammond St. into Beacon St. 

4. The Home of Mary Baker Eddy (open weekdays 2-5; adm. by card only, 
obtainable at Administration Office of Mother Church, Boston), at 400 
Beacon St., Chestnut Hill, is of modified Tudor architecture. Mrs. Eddy 
resided here for about three years, from 1908 to 1910. 

Along here is a procession of stately homes as the visitor approaches 
NEWTON CENTRE, the third village, wkh its small focus of business, 
its civic buildings and churches. 

R. from Beacon St. into Centre St. 

5. The Smith House (private), 1181 Centre St., a broad, low frame house 
painted cinnamon color, was the home for many years of the Rev. 
Samuel Francis Smith, author of 'America.' A tablet within the grounds 
which refers to this as the ' site ' of the house is slightly misleading, as this 
is not only the site but actually the house itself. 

Retrace on Centre St.; L. from Centre St. into Institution Ave. 

6. The Andover Newton Theological School, impressively crowning a 
salient hill, combines the former Newton Theological Institution, founded 
in 1825 for training young men for the Baptist ministry, and the former 

Newton 299 

Andover Theological Seminary, founded in 1808 as a training school for 
the Congregational ministry. The somewhat heterogeneous group of 
buildings is less notable than the superb view in every direction from the 

South is OAK HILL, the fourth village, an attractive cluster of roofs 
and trees half encircled by the Charles River Country Club. 

Retrace on Institution Ave.; L, from Institution Ave. into Season St.; R. 
from Beacon St. into Walnut St.; L. from Walnut St. into Homer St. 

7. The Newton City Hall and War Memorial (1932, Allen and Collens, 
architects) make a notable civic group. Apparently out in the country, 
actually it is very nearly in the geographical center of the city taken as a 
whole. A symbolic sculpture designed by Charles Collens representing 
History, Patriotism, and Sacrifice is executed upon the pediment of the 
Memorial. A popular feature in the Memorial is a group of four realistic 
action-groups in miniature waxwork composition containing over 200 
figures and representing four important events in American military and 
naval history. 

R. from Homer St. into Commonwealth Ave.; R. from Commonwealth Ave. 
into Walnut St. at front of City Hall; R. from Walnut St. into Lincoln St. 

Here is the village of NEWTON HIGHLANDS, which consists of more 
and yet more fine residences clustered about a small business center. 

R. from Lincoln St. into Woodward St.; L. from Woodward St. into Fairlee 

8. The Woodward Farmhouse (private) (R), up a gravel lane, was built 
in 1 68 1, and is occupied by a descendant of the builder. Its brown clap- 
boards, massive central chimney, and small-paned windows blend with 
the tree-shaded meadows of the background. 

Retrace on Fairlee Rd.; R. from Fairlee Rd. into Woodward St.; R. from 
Woodward St. into Boylston St.; R. on marked dip for underpass; L. into 
Ellis St. 

Here is the village of NEWTON UPPER FALLS, a small manufacturing 
center. It has not the crowded look, however, of a typical mill settlement. 
The factories have a rather casual air and the workers' houses, many of 
them 100 years old or more, have an appearance of space and rural 

9. Here Echo Bridge spans the Charles River. It was built in 1876 not 
for traffic but to carry the Sudbury River conduit, which brings in part 
of Newton's water supply. The foundations are sunk in solid rock, and 
the triple stone arch is one of the largest of this construction in the world. 
A footpath leads along the river brink to the central arch, where a shout 
or a laugh will be mimicked in eery echoes. 

The clear dark tide flows smoothly at this point through Hemlock Gorge, 
one of the very few natural hemlock groves remaining on the eastern 

300 Main Street and Village Green 

Retrace on Ellis St.; straight ahead from Ellis St. into Quinobequin Rd. 

Farther to the left lie the wooded meadows not yet developed, land such 
as once comprised all Newton. On the right lie WABAN and ELIOT, 
adjacent villages filled with attractive homes, most of them unpretentious, 
well-kept, and pleasing in appearance. 

L. from Quinobequin Rd. into Washington St. 

Here is NEWTON LOWER FALLS, another small manufacturing 

10. The Baury House (private), 2349 Washington St., is a fine three-story 
Colonial house of the massive square type. Its recessed doorway with 
carved panels and ceilings, an architectural detail common in the Con- 
necticut Valley, is rarely found in this section. The fleur-de-lis carving 
on the door lends a French touch incongruous but pleasing and a reminder 
of an early owner of French descent, who was rector of the beautiful 
white church (open) which stands in the rear. The house dates from 1750, 
the church from 1814. Within the latter at the ends of the old-fashioned 
box pews are the amusing old gate-doors. 

Retrace on Washington St.; L. from Washington St. into Grove St.; L. from 
Grove St. into Woodland Rd.; L. from Woodland Rd. into Auburn St.; R. 
from Auburn St. into Commonwealth Ave. 

1 1 . Norumbega Park (open, small fee) occupies an attractive woodland 
stretch along the banks of the Charles River (canoeing). 

At RIVERSIDE, the tenth village, there are also canoes for hire. 

The road traverses AUBURNDALE, a residential village of pleasant, 
not too pretentious homes. 

L. from Commonwealth Ave. into Auburn St.; L. from Auburn St. into 
Washington St. 

This leads to the village of WEST NEWTON, which has a much larger 
business center than has yet been visited, surrounded by handsome resi- 
dential areas. 

12. The First Unitarian Church (1905-06), designed by Cram and Fergu- 
son, forms a quadrangle around a central open courtyard. The style of 
the building is modified English Perpendicular Gothic; the material 
seam-face granite, with limestone and terra-cotta trim, and some wood 
and plaster in the subsidiary wings. The church proper consists of a nave 
seating about 800 and narrow aisles. The open timber roof is supported 
by heavy arched masses, resting on corbels in the form of angels. 

The adjacent village, NEWTONVILLE, increases the conviction that 
there actually is a place in Newton where its citizens can shop without 
journeying to Boston; but in the outlying districts, which have here and 
there escaped the Realty Development Company, a pond or two, a 
wooded slope, here and there an open field, still remind the visitor of the 
days not so long ago, when Newton was a scattering of villages in open 
country instead of a close-knit suburb. 

Northampton 301 

L. from Washington St. on Walnut St.; R. from Walnut St. on Watertown 

The fourteenth village bears the original Indian name of the settlement, 
NONANTUM. This is a fair-sized manufacturing and commercial 
center, and its drab and huddled tenements and crowded streets come 
as more than a slight shock after the long tour of wide boulevards and 
shaded avenues bordered by charming and elegant, or at least commodi- 
ous, homes and spacious opulent estates. 

R.from Watertown St. on Adams St.; L.from Adams St. on Washington St. 

13. The Jackson House (private), 527 Washington St., was said by the 
late Robert N. Cram to look 'like Mrs. John Hancock, making up her 
mind whether she would speak to the neighbors.' The ell of the present 
building is said to have belonged to the original structure (1640). The 
proportions of the house, a white, square two-story dwelling with clap- 
boarded front, brick ends, and four end chimneys, are quiet and refined. 


From Jonathan Edwards to Sophia Smith 

City: Alt. 133, pop. 24,525, sett. 1654, incorp. town 1656, city 1883. 

Railroad Station: Union Depot, Main St. and Strong Ave., for B. & M. R.R. 
Bus Stations: New England Transportation Co., 171 Main St., 86 Green St.; 
Railroad Station. 

Accommodations: Three hotels. 

Information: Wiggins Old Tavern (Hotel Northampton), King St.; Draper 
Hotel, Main St. 

NORTHAMPTON, a residential and industrial city on the Connecticut 
River, has the prosperous rural beauty of wide streets shaded by stately 
trees, and lined in almost every quarter by substantial homes of quiet 
distinction. The many parks, the Smith College Campus, 'Paradise,' 
Sunset Hill, and Round Hill offer agreeable strolls. A large part of its 
twenty-five thousand citizens are engaged in the manufacture of silk, 
hosiery, cutlery, brushes, indelible ink, and caskets. 

About twoscore years after the Pilgrims had landed at Plymouth, a 
party of Connecticut men petitioned the General Court at the Colony 
of Massachusetts Bay for permission to settle a second 'plantation' 
north of Hartford. 

302 Main Street and Village Green 

The first crude shelters were built along a rough dirt road, now Pleasant 
Street. Four acres of land were presented to each householder, together 
with a generous portion of fair meadow. Soon the fertile soil attracted 
many other pioneers, and Hawley, Market, and King Streets were 
quickly settled. 

In the beginning, Indian attacks were infrequent, for when the French and 
Indian Wars began, the Nonotucks had long since left the country. But 
other tribes began to go on the warpath and, at the beginning of King 
Philip's War severely harassed the settlers. 

Early in the eighteenth century, Jonathan Edwards, a Puritan divine, 
took over the Northampton pastorate and was soon recognized as the 
mightiest preacher in New England. He was one of the inspired leaders of 
the 'Great Awakening' of 1740, America's first great revival movement. 
Soon in a frenzy of religious hysteria the townsfolk were falling into 
trances and seeing visions; even little children swooned in the streets 
from their 'conviction of sin.' All New England was convulsed with 
terror of hell-fire. Finally Edwards's Northampton career came to an 
abrupt end with his forced removal to Stockbridge as a missionary. It 
was in Stockbridge that he wrote his great philosophical treatise, 'On the 
Freedom of the Will.' 

After the Revolution, deprived of the independence for which they had 
fought, the inhabitants of Northampton rose in rebellion along with 
many of their neighbors. Led by their preacher, Sam Ely, they stormed 
the courthouse, in 1782, to prevent the foreclosure of their farms. In 
1786, near the tragic end of Shays's Rebellion, a crowd of angry citizens 
again descended on the court to keep it from holding session. On the 
other side of the question, in this same year, William Butler, a youth of 
twenty-two, founded the Hampshire Gazette (still published today) to 
combat the discontent. 

Impetus was given to the development of the town by the establish- 
ment here of Smith College by Sophia Smith, a resident of Hatfield, at a 
period when the intellectual standards of women's colleges were very 
slightly superior to those of secondary schools. Her phrase, ' the intelli- 
gent gentlewoman,' expressed the ideal of the college body; the spirit 
of Christianity was to pervade the teachings and life of the college, but 
it was to be absolutely non-sectarian. Smith, which opened with 14 
students in 1875, is among the largest resident women's colleges in the 
world (enrollment approximately two thousand). During the first two 
years at the college, a broad general foundation is laid. An opportunity 
is given for specialization during the remaining two years, and students 
in French, German, Italian, and Spanish may spend their junior year 
abroad in the respective countries. Honors, under special tutors, permit 
a student to work at her own rate of speed. 

Northampton 303 

TOUR 9 m. 

E. from King St. (US 5) on Main St. which becomes Bridge St. 

1. Calvin Coolidge's Law Office, Masonic Temple, a yellow-brick building 
opposite Strong Ave., is still marked with his name on a second-story 
window. At one time Mayor of the city, in 1920 Governor of Massachu- 
setts, Coolidge became Vice-President in 1921, and at President Hard- 
ing's death in 1923 he became President of the United States. 

2. The Bliss House (private), 58 Bridge St., was erected between 1655 
and 1658, and is a small two-and-a-half -story white clapboarded dwelling 
with small ells east and west, a central chimney, and a small, modern 
but harmonious plain white portico, fronting a tree-shaded lawn. 

3. The Wright House (private), 96 Bridge St., is a lyth-century dwelling 
not readily recognizable as such, owing to its additions. It is a large 
two-and-a-half-story gray clapboard house with white trim, hip roof, 
and a long rear ell, the whole set in a pleasant lawn bordered by a lilac 

Retrace Bridge and Main St.; R. from Main St. on King St.; L. from King 
St. on Court St. 

4. The Wiggins Tavern (open as antique shop) is a three-story brick 
hostelry built in 1786, and famous for its Currier and Ives prints, Rogers 
groups, glass, pewter, brass, and kitchen and table utensils. In the 
courtyard is a clever reproduction of a Country Store, such as existed as 
late as the turn of the present century, crammed with every conceivable 

Retrace on Court St.; R. from Court St. on King St.; R. from King St. on 
Main St. 

5. The Northampton Historical Society (open Wed., Sat. 10.30-12 and 
2^.30) is in Memorial Hall, a two-story brick building. On the grounds 
is a granite bas-relief of Casimir Pulaski, Revolutionary general, given 
by the Polish-American citizens of Northampton. 

R. from Main St. on Gothic St. 

6. The People's Institute was founded half a century ago by George W. 
Cable, a popular author, as a reading group. Mr. E. H. R. Lyman of 
Northampton gave them the old Methodist Church on Center St. and a 
wider program was introduced which included instruction for young 
women in the domestic arts, and classes in Americanization. In 1905, 
Andrew Carnegie made it possible to erect the present building, for all 
practical purposes a community center. 

Retrace Gothic St.; R. from Gothic St. on Main St. 

7. The old Smith College campus is bounded by Elm St., West St., and 
Paradise Pond. The college property, however, has expanded gradually 

304 Main Street and Village Green 

to take in both sides of Elm St. and an extensive area farther up Elm St. 
It covers 119 acres and is prepared to house almost the entire student 
body, but in order to retain the old 'cottage idea' of the founders, 
dormitories have been made small and homelike. Four of these are co- 
operatives for the use of students who wish to reduce expenses. 

The Grecourt Gates (motor cars may enter), at the Main St. entrance to the campus, 
are of wrought iron, swung from brick and stone pillars surmounted by urns. 
They are a replica of the gates of the Chateau Robecourt, Grecourt, France, and 
commemorate the work of the Smith College Relief Unit during and after the World 
War, 1917-20. 

College Hall (L), just inside the Grecourt Gates, is of brick, in Collegiate Gothic, 
with a square clock-tower containing the melodious Dorothea Carlile Chime. 
From here, right and left, is a beautiful view of landscaped, tree-shaded lawns, set 
with large and handsome dormitories, lecture halls, library, gymnasium, and 
Botanic Garden. The present trend in the architecture of the college favors Colo- 
nial Georgian, with buildings of red brick and white stone trim. 

Paradise Pond, at the farther end of the campus, is said to have been named by 
Jenny Lind. It is a limpid pool bordered by oaks and pines, a part of the college 
property. On the near shore is a boathouse with canoes and rowboats, on the far 
shore playing fields. Here on a June night, as part of the Class Day exercises, is 
held a glee club concert, the girls singing from shadowy floats under the moon to 
an audience covering the high bank of the pond. 

Retrace through the campus; L. from Grecourt Gates on Elm St. 

Gateway House (private) is a gabled brick residence with white wood trim, known 
from 1875 to 1920 as ' the President's House.' The new President's House overlooks 
Paradise Pond. 

Tryon Art Gallery (open weekdays 10-6; Sun. 2.30-4.30;, opposite Bed- 
ford Terrace, is a small brick, ivy-clad building, housing one of the only two con- 
siderable collections anywhere of the magical crepuscular landscapes of Dwight 
William Tryon (1849-1925), for many years visiting professor of art at Smith 
College. Tryon alone of American artists was considered worthy to companion 
Whistler in any extensive showing at the Freer Gallery in Washington, D.C. The 
adjoining Hilly er Art Gallery at Smith contains less specialized examples of Ameri- 
can art. 

John Greene Hall, opposite Prospect St., is a brick assembly hall with lofty Ionic 
columns on the principal facade named for John Morton Greene, Sophia Smith's 
pastor and advisor, to whom is credited much of the foresight in the liberal wording 
of the bequest for the college foundation. 

Sessions House, 109 Elm St., was built in 1700, and is now college property. It is 
the most beautiful early American house in Northampton, a large white clap- 
boarded gambrel-roofed dwelling with a simple white portico, small-paned win- 
dows, dormer windows, and a central chimney. Although a large and irregular ell 
has been added, this extension harmonizes well with the original house. 

Mandell Quadrangle, between Paradise Rd. and Kensington Ave., is the seat of 
two of the newest, largest, and most luxurious Smith dormitories. Colonial 
Georgian in style and constructed of brick with white trim, they are beautifully 
grouped with six other similar dormitories around terraced and balustraded lawns. 
The loggia in Laura Scales House has photo-murals made from old prints of North- 
ampton, and is furnished in a modern manner with isolated units of divans and 
chairs, to assure some degree of privacy to individual conversational groups. Each 
house has its own reference library. 

Retrace Elm St.; L. from Elm St. on Round Hill Rd. 

8. The Clarke School for the Deaf (open by permission}, at the top of the 


THE educational opportunities that Massachusetts offers are 
surpassed by no other State. The laboratories of the Massa- 
chusetts Institute of Technology are ranked with the finest in 
the world. The administration and library building, shown on 
the same page with the photograph from the Institute's re- 
search laboratories, is situated on the Charles two miles below 
the Harvard buildings seen in the air view. 

Contrasting these buildings, as well as Smith College and 
Andover Academy, with the little rural schoolhouse where 
Mary's lamb is said to have followed her to school, we see the 
extremes in the story of education in the State. 

Massachusetts is rich in collections of fine art and in offerings 
of music, the two sometimes admirably combined. The 
Japanese Garden at the Museum of Fine Arts is only one of 
the Museum's rare exhibitions of foreign art. The court in 
the Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum is- kept in colorful 
bloom all through the year, and on certain afternoons during 
the week concerts are given in the Tapestry Room. Likewise, 
Fogg Museum in Cambridge has an attractive interior court, 
where chorales are sung at Christmas time. 

However, the popular concerts are those held outdoors the 
orchestral concerts on the Charles River Esplanade, and the 
week of symphonies in the Berkshires. 


Photograph, by Ultra-Rapid Camera, made at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology 



**'<* ****.. 










Northampton 305 

hill, is a comparatively small but well-equipped institution, 70 years old 
and housing 150 pupils of both sexes from kindergarten to high-school 
age. Massachusetts pupils are paid for by the State. President of the 
Trustees is Mrs. Calvin Coolidge, who once studied in the teachers' 
training course. 

Retrace Round Hill Rd.; R. from Round Hill Rd. on Elm St.; R. from Elm 
St. on Mass as oil St. 

9. Calvin Coolidge' s First Northampton Home (private), 21 Massasoit St., 
is a square two-family frame house with yellow clapboards, green blinds, 
two porches, and a small lawn, on a modest, tree-shaded residential 
street lined with similar houses. 

Retrace Massasoit St.; R. from Massasoit St. on Elm St. 

10. Childs Park (privately owned, open; adm. free) is a wooded beauty spot 
into which has been introduced practically every variety of New England 
wild flower. 

L. from Elm St. on N. Elm St.; straight ahead from N. Elm St. on N. Main 

1 1 . Look Park (open daily 7-10 ; first hour free, graduated charges after; 
pool 25^; luncheonette) was presented to Northampton by the widow of 
Frank Newhall Look, prophylactic toothbrush manufacturer, under a 
large endowment. The 125 acres, beautifully wooded and watered, con- 
tain an open-air Pompeiian swimming pool, an open-air theater, a deer 
park, picnic grounds, and a great variety of playing fields. 

Retrace on N. Main St. and N. Elm St.; R. from N. Elm St. on Elm St.; 
R. from Elm St. on West St. 

12. Forbes Library (open weekdays 9-9; Sun. 2-6), a low granite building 
with brownstone trim, set on a wide lawn, is the city library. It contains 
Portraits of President and Mrs. Coolidge, by Howard Chandler Christy, 
an autographed photograph of Marshal Foch, the Holland House Col- 
lection of some 40 miniatures of English celebrities from Queen Elizabeth 
to Cromwell, which once adorned Holland House, the home of Charles 
James Fox, and the priceless Judd Manuscript, the chief source for the 
genealogy, manners, and customs of the entire Connecticut Valley in 
Colonial times. 

Retrace^ on West St.; R. from West St. on Main St.; R. from Main St. on 
New South St.; L. from New South St. on High St.; R. from High St. on 
unmarked street ending in stone gates. 

13. The Beeches (private), facing the end of the street, is the home which 
Calvin Coolidge bought after retiring from the White House, and where 
he died. It is a large, many-gabled residence with gray-shingled walls and 
green trim, set in a fine grove of beeches with a view of the Holyoke 

NORTHFIELD.4 Prophet with Honor 

Town: Alt. 262, pop. 1950, sett. 1673, incorp. 1723. 

Railroad Stations: East Northfield for Central Vermont R.R. and B. & M. R.R. ; 

Northfield Farms for Central Vermont R.R. 
Bus Stations: East Northfield, Northfield, and Mt. Hermon for Boston and 

Maine Transportation Co. 

Accommodations: Four hotels. 

Information: Northfield Inn, off Highland Ave., E. Northfield. 

NORTHFIELD is one of the most charming of the older rural com- 
munities. Built on the Connecticut River, it is crossed by the Ashuelot 
Brook and watered by more than a score of woodland brooks. Tidy 
farms dot the broad river meadows and the rolling plains which rise to 
the wooded uplands. The main street of East Northfield, home of 
Northfield Seminary, has a double arch of elms, fringing the chaste 
white frame dwellings of the 'Center/ as New England farmers always 
call their village. 

Northfield is one of the dozen Massachusetts municipalities which are 
internationally known, because for the past fifty years it has sent thou- 
sands of Protestant missionaries to remote corners of the globe. 

In 1673 fourteen families moved into Northfield from Northampton 
and Hadley, but after two years of struggle with Indian raids they 
abandoned the settlement. In 1714, despite the dangers still appre- 
hended from the French and Indian Wars, a permanent settlement was 

Agriculture flourished, and to this was added apple-growing. In 1771, 
when the ' merino craze ' swept New England, Northfield developed into 
a sheep-raising community. The town's only venture into industry 
occurred between 1830 and 1855, in the manufacture of brooms from 
broom corn, locally grown. 

In 1879 D wight Lyman Moody established the Northfield Seminary for 
the daughters of farmers, and two years later, in the neighboring town 
of Gill, the Mount Hermon School for boys. 

An equally celebrated Moody enterprise, closely allied with Mount 
Hermon, is the Student Volunteer Movement, established in 1886 in 
collaboration with the International Y.M.C.A., which results in the en- 
listment of many young men and women annually in foreign mission work. 

The first American Youth Hostel was founded here in 1934. Separate 
sleeping quarters are provided for the boys and girls, with a common 
kitchen and recreation rooms. The young travelers carry their own 
sleeping sacks, but blankets are provided at the hostels. Each youth 

Northfield 307 

must present a Membership Pass, which costs a dollar for those under 
twenty-five years of age, two dollars for members over twenty-five, and 
three dollars for a family. Northfield was the first of several hundred 
towns in the United States which now recognize the cultural and edu- 
cational benefits of youth hosteling. 

TOUR 9 m. 

N. on Main St. (State 10) from the junction of State 63. 

1. The Old Janes House (private) (L) is still occupied by descendants 
of the builders. Tradition has it that an underground tunnel connected 
it with the Young House, a white Colonial dwelling across the street, 
and it is said to have served as a station in the Underground Railway. 

2. The Captain Samuel Field House (open by permission), opposite a 
marker indicating the First Settlement, was built in 1784. The house 
has five enormous fireplaces and a large brick oven in the ell. The 
wainscoting is of virgin pine boards and the fine old doors have iron 
strap-hinges (H and L). 

3. The Old Dollard House (open by permission] (R) is a restoration, 
but shows an arch under the massive chimney in the cellar. Sometimes 
such an arched tunnel was part of a secret chamber. The carving around 
the front door was taken from an old house in Factory Hollow near 

4. The Beehive (open as Ye Old Hunt Tavern), a big three-story house 
with verandas on the first and second floors, was for many years the 
village inn. 

5. The Old Pomeroy Place (private) (L), owned by Northfield Schools, 
w r as restored by Elliot Speer, late principal of Mount Hermon, and 
presents a fine example of Colonial architecture. 

R. from Main St. on the Schell Chateau Rd. 

6. The Schell Chateau (open) (L), an annex of the Northfield Inn, built 
in 1890 by Robert Schell who originally intended it for an English country 

Retrace on Schell Chateau Rd.; R. from Schell Chateau Rd. on Main St. 

7. The Home of the Rev. Dwight L. Moody (open) is at the corner of 
the first road N. of West Northfield Rd. The son of a widowed mother, 
Moody lacked educational opportunities, but his driving ambition made 
him achieve financial success. In 1855, however, he was converted, re- 
nounced the world, and preached his way to fame. Conscious of his 
own meager opportunities and keenly sympathetic with those who 
yearned for an education, he founded Northfield Seminary and the 
Mount Hermon School. 

308 Main Street and Village Green 

8. Northfield Seminary (open) (R), established in 1879, occupies 1200 
acres with 79 buildings accommodating over 500 women students. Its 
founder had been impressed with the hopelessness of the lot of the girls 
from the poorer homes after driving past a mountain cottage where a 
mother and two daughters were braiding palmetto straw hats in an 
effort to support a family whose father was a paralytic. All the Seminary 
students help with the housework and receive an education for about 
half the cost usual in other schools. Northfield Summer Conferences 
(religious; open to public) are held the first two weeks in August. 

East Hall, built in 1880 was the first building on the campus. The Birthplace of 
D. L. Moody and the house where he lived, as well as his Grave and that of his 
wife are on the campus grounds and may be visited by making arrangements at 
Kcrnarden Hall, the administration building. The beautiful Chapel, in Gothic 
style, a gift of Mrs. Russell Sage, and Gould Hall, given by Miss Helen Gould are 
two of the outstanding buildings on the campus. The Auditorium seats three 
thousand people. 

Retrace on Main St. to junction with State 63; straight ahead on State 63. 

9. The Lookout, a vantage-point high on the river terrace, offers an 
excellent view of the Connecticut River country with the towers of the 
Mount Hermon Boys' School (see Tour 15A, Gill) in the foreground. 

NORTON. Typical New England 

Town: Alt. 104, pop. 2295, sett. 1669, incorp. 1711. 
Railroad Station: East Norton for N.Y., N.H. & H. R.R. 
Accommodations: Inns and private boarding-houses. 

NORTON is a pleasant small country town, well wooded and watered, 
which gives the general impression, no longer strictly correct, of a typical 
New England farming community. As it occupies a level plain, without 
hills of note, the landscape is not much diversified and makes no im- 
mediate or striking appeal. Norton is the sort of place, however, which 
grows upon the affections. In every direction there are agreeable walks, 
running now across open pastures, walled by the loose stones cleared 
from the fields by the first settlers, now past some small sawmill still in 
operation, now through pungent pines, and coming suddenly upon a pretty 
brook or delightful pond. These things the girls at Wheaton College 
have known for the past hundred years. 

For Norton is distinctively a college town, the seat of Wheaton College, 
one of the pioneer schools for the education of women in this country. 
It is the only small independent college for women in Massachusetts 

Norton 309 

which is neither co-educational nor affiliated with other institutions, 
with a limited enrollment of five hundred students in 1937, representing 
twenty-one States, Puerto Rico, and three foreign countries. The faculty 
is composed of both men and women. ' That they may have life and have 
it more abundantly' is the college motto. 

Norton, originally a rural and agricultural village, took on its academic 
character with the founding of Wheaton Female Seminary, established 
by Judge Laban Wheaton in 1834 as a memorial to his daughter. Mary 
Lyon was its organizer, but left to found Mount Holyoke College afteV 
two years. 

Jewelry has been manufactured in Norton since 1871, the first concern 
being established by W. A. Sturdy. The Barrowsville Bleachery has 
been in operation for over thirty years. These, along with the Talbot 
Wool Combing Company, the T. J. Holmes Company, manufacturers of 
atomizers, and the paper and wooden box factories, represent the in- 
dustrial activity of the town today. 

Norton for its size had an unusual amount of trouble with the powers 
of darkness. Beside Dora Leonard and Naomi Burt, town witches, old- 
timers tell a story from Colonial days about one Major George Leonard, 
a highfalutin fellow who sold himself soul and body to the Devil for 
gold. In 1716 His Satanic Majesty cashed in on his bargain, they say, 
whistling the Major's soul out of his body and then carrying his body 
off through the roof. Anyone who doesn't believe this can see with his 
own eyes the Devil's footprints on a rock below the eaves where Satan 
landed when he jumped off with his heavy burden. No one saw the 
corpse at the funeral, there being nothing but a log of wood in the box, 
to avert the townsfolks' suspicions. 

TOUR 12 m. 

E. from State 140 on State 123 (Main St.) 

i. Wheaton College is attractively placed on a campus of over 100 acres. 
It occupies 40 buildings, 15 of which are modern brick in the Georgian 
Colonial style of architecture, examples of restraint and usefulness, 
whose loveliness lies in their lines rather than in any external ornament. 
The extensive grounds include a beautiful strip of woods to the south, 
known as College Pines, and a body of water about two acres in extent. 
They are diversified by gardens, lawns, hedges, trees, and meadows, and 
contain athletic fields, concrete and clay tennis courts, and other equip- 
ment for outdoor sports. 

Among Wheaton College buildings are three designed by Cram and Ferguson. 
The Chapel (1917), the Library (1923), and Everett Hall (1926) are modern inter- 
pretations of Georgian Colonial style, in red New Hampshire brick with trim of 
limestone and white-painted wood. The architects are known also for their con- 
temporary work based upon medieval precedent. 

3io Main Street and Village Green 

2. House in the Pines, a preparatory school for girls, was established in 
1911, when Wheaton College was emerging from the old Wheaton Sem- 
inary and discontinuing its preparatory department. The school grounds, 
covering an area of 80 acres, have a great deal of natural beauty due to 
a variety of trees with pines predominating. Here are a beautiful out- 
door theater with two old oaks and a hedge of pines; rose gardens; a 
lily pool surrounded by iris; Japanese cherry trees; the smoke bush, the 
lilacs, the lindens; and the arborvitae hedge that forms a screen for the 
athletic field. The school also has a string of saddle-horses. 

R. from Main St. on Leonard St.; L. from Leonard St. on Plain St. 

3. King Philip's Cave, near Becker's Farm on Great Rocky Hill, formed 
by the projection of .one very large rock over another, is said to have 
been a favorite retreat of King Philip, on his fishing excursion tc Win- 
nicunnet Pond. 

R. from Plain St. on Bay St.; L. from Bay St. on dirt road opposite Winni- 
cunnet Pond. 

4. Winnicunnet Turkey Farm (open), or the Rundge Turkey Farm, was 
formerly used for raising horses and was purchased from gypsies. It 
covers over 400 acres and is situated on Toad Island. Over 100,000 
turkeys are raised annually. The flocks consume five tons of grain per 
day as food and rejoice in open-air roosts, on a triangular skeleton frame 
six feet high. 

PITTSFIELD. Power-Source and Playground 

City: Alt. 1038, pop. 47,516, sett. 1752, incorp. town 1761, city 1889. 

Railroad Stations: Union Station, West St., for B. & A. R.R. 

Bus Stations: 48 South St. for Greyhound, New England Transportation Co., 
Arrow, Interstate Busses Corp., Vermont Transit Lines, Berkshire Motor 
Coach Lines, Blue Way, Nutmeg Lines, and Peter Pan Bus Lines. 

Accommodations: One first-class and three second-class hotels; numerous inns. 

Information: Chamber of Commerce, 50 South St.; Automobile Club of Berk- 
shire Co., 26 Bank Row. 

IN THE shadow of Mount Greylock, high in the rolling Berkshires, 
Pittsfield opens the commercial gateway to western Massachusetts. 
Situated between the upper branches of the Housatonic River more 
than one thousand feet above sea level, the city is traversed by streams 
which for a hundred years or more have furnished power to factories 

Pittsfield 311 

producing such varied products as silk thread, mohair braid, tacks, 
metal goods, textiles, paper, and electrical machinery. 

Today the city has a prosperous, tranquil look of general comfort and 
cultivation which makes it one of the most attractive industrial cities 
in the State. The homes of the well-to-do line its elm-shaded streets 
with substantial dignified residences and smooth lawns. From almost 
any point within the business and residential district there is a broad 
view of the rolling Berkshires, across the wide meadows and small lakes 
and elm-bordered streams of the plateau. The altitude of the city gives 
it a salubrious climate which makes it a favorite winter and summer 
playground for tourists and sportsmen. 

There has been a change, however, in the character of the city's holiday 
population. In the latter part of the nineteenth century Pittsfield at- 
tracted a wealthy leisure class who resided solidly on spacious estates. 
The rambling old Maplewood Hotel, in the heart of the modern city, 
was a relic such as could not be matched short of Saratoga, with its 
long verandas and wide and spacious elm-shaded lawns, the latter dotted 
with seats, fountains, and urns. 

But the great estates have been broken up into realty developments for 
smaller residences or business property, and the few that remain in the 
environs of Pittsfield have converted their stables into garages. The 
advent of the automobile has changed everything. The leisurely old- 
school ladies and gentlemen who once trotted sedately in victorias or 
runabouts along the city lanes are no more. Their modern successors 
now whirl in and out again in swift cars, and hotels, old and new, are 
conduits for a never-ending stream of summer and winter visitors. A great 
circle of the country round about is a motorists' paradise and Pittsfield 
is its hub. Nearly every owner of a car on the eastern seaboard and many 
from the Middle and the Far West at some time or other tour the Berk- 
shires; and nearly everyone who visits the Berkshires calls at some time 
on Pittsfield. 

The city's development from a small agricultural community to a thriving 
center of textile, paper, and electrical machinery manufacturing has 
paralleled the general development throughout the State. Its entire 
history is bound up with industrial progress. 

Although Indian troubles and disputes with New York over the boundary 
of the State delayed its settlement until 1752, the plantation of Pontoo- 
suck, as it was called, rapidly achieved agricultural prosperity and be- 
came a trading center for Berkshire communities. Two years later it 
had approximately two hundred inhabitants. 

Pittsfield joined the eastern settlements in early protesting the domina- 
tion of England. The town contained many wealthy Tories, but the 
majority of its citizens followed the Revolutionary leadership of Major 
John Brown and the Reverend Thomas Allen, the Fighting Parson, who 
mustered troops for the assault on Fort Ticonderoga led by his cousin, 
Ethan Allen. Heading the local Committee of Safety, this militant 

312 Main Street and Village Green 

pastor organized the Berkshire Militia and led it to the Battle of Ben- 
nington. More than three months before the signing of the Declaration 
of Independence, Pittsfield renounced royal authority. 

The little community, still predominantly agricultural, shared in the 
general depression which followed the Revolution; but while the farmers 
elsewhere were crushed by poverty, Pittsfield turned to industry. Al- 
though it seems certain that a majority of the townsfolk were in sym- 
pathy with the desperate rebellion of their neighbors under Daniel Shays 
in 1786, and although they treated the forty fellow citizens implicated 
in the rebellion with lenience, the hope of imminent prosperity deterred 
them from participating. Their hopes were justified: in 1801 Arthur 
Schofield, who had invented a wool-carding machine, opened a shop to 
manufacture his invention, and a few years later undertook the pro- 
duction of looms. The War of 1812 brought an abnormal demand for 
clothing and military supplies which definitely established the town as 
a manufacturing center. The consequent need for raw materials made 
sheep-raising an important affiliated industry. Later penetration by 
railroads connecting the town with New York and Boston made it the 
shipping distribution point for the whole district. Throughout the nine- 
teenth century paper and shoes were among the most important pro- 
ducts of its busy factories. 

With the turn of the century came a change. The early isolation and 
independence fostered by Pittsfield 's geographical situation were de- 
stroyed by an invasion of outside capital and a change of direction in its 
industrial activity. Pittsfield now began to change from a quiet self- 
insulated community to a unit integrated with the outer world and 
seething with business. Its population grew faster during the first decade 
of the new century than that of any Massachusetts city except New 
Bedford. This increase no less than forty-seven per cent created a 
serious housing problem which in turn attracted other outside capital. 
This was directed to housing construction and realty developments. 
The Tillotson Textile Plant; Eaton, Crane and Pike Company, famous 
manufacturers of stationery; foundries producing machinery for the 
textile and paper factories all these and others contributed to make 
the development of Pittsfield a microcosm of what was going on in the 
entire country. 

FOOT TOUR 2.7 m. 

E. from South St. on Bank Row. 

i. In City Hall Park, the original village Green, was held in 1810 what 
is said to be the first cattle show in America. A marker memorializes 
that event, which was sponsored by Elkanan Watson, a famous patriot, 
friend of Washington, traveler, canal surveyor, biographer, and breeder 
of livestock. Watson stimulated the importation of merino sheep for 

Pittsfield 313 

the textile mills of Pittsfield and encouraged agricultural improvement 
throughout New England. 

A sundial marks the Site of the Old Elm beneath whose lofty branches 
stood such famous men as Holmes, Longfellow, Hawthorne, Melville, 
and Lafayette. On this spot soldiers of all wars were mustered and 
honored; old taverns and stores faced it on all sides, and historic houses, 
too. Here were held the Fourth of July celebrations, the cattle shows, 
and all the country gala days. Here lovers lingered for precious moments. 
Travelers celebrated the tree in their books, and poets immortalized it 
in their verse. 

In 1790, when the destruction of the elm was planned to make way for 
a new meeting-house, Lucre tia Williams, wife of a prominent lawyer in 
Pittsfield, stood guard over the tree, placing herself in front of it when 
the woodchopper came to cut it down. John Chandler Williams, whose 
former homestead, the Peace Party House, stands near-by, gave land 
to the town so that the park might remain an open space forever and 
the old elm be saved. 

Such was the veneration in which the old elm was held by some of the 
citizens of Pittsfield that when at the age of 265 years, after being struck 
by lightning several times, it was so damaged that the axe had to be 
applied, there was actual weeping among those who witnessed its fall. 

2. The Berkshire Athenaeum (open weekdays 9-9), 44 Bank Row, a 
Victorian Gothic structure of gray granite, has been noted as a public 
library and art repository for many years. 

R. from Bank Row on East St. 

3. The Peace Party House (private), southeast corner of Wendell Ave., 
erected in 1776, was the scene of a grand ball and feast, with roast 
oxen, game birds, and vast pastries all washed down with plenty of 
good liquor in celebration of the signing of the Treaty of Paris in 
1783. The Marquis de Lafayette was a guest here while on his tour in 
1825. Though considerably altered, this white, three-story house, clap- 
boarded, and gambrel-roofed, still retains much of its original dignity. 

Retrace on East St. 

4. St. Stephen's Episcopal Church, next to the Parsonage Lot, is con- 
structed of red granite in the Gothic manner. 

R. from East St. on North St. 

5. The Old Cantonment Grounds, opposite Linden St., were used during 
the War of 1812. The war brought Pittsfield to the fore not only through 
its possession of a cantonment, but also as a place for making cloth, 
guns, and drums. 

Retrace North St.; R. from North St. on West St. 

6. In Crane Memorial Park, in front of the Union Station, is a Marker 
in memory of the late Zenas Crane, a noted philanthropist. 

Retrace West St.; R. from West St. on South St. 

Pittsfield 315 

7. Museum of Natural History and Art (open weekdays 10-5; Sun. and 
holidays 2-5), 39 South St., is an adaptation of the Italian Renaissance 
style. The 'mineral room' is one of the most beautiful in the country. 
Ultra-violet rays are used to bring out the beauties of the collection. 

Among the outstanding exhibits are: one of the two sledges used by 
Admiral Robert E. Peary when he discovered the North Pole, Nathaniel 
Hawthorne's desk, and (miraculously reconstructed?) the original 'one- 
hoss shay' which inspired Oliver Wendell Holmes's 'The Deacon's 
Masterpiece.' The art collection includes fine examples of the works of 
old masters and some excellent original Greek and Roman sculptures. 

L. from South St. on Broad St. 

8. The Calvin Martin House (private), 14 Broad St., removed here from 
its original site to make way for the Berkshire Museum, is a two-story 
frame building painted yellow with two inner chimneys. It is enriched 
by fluted Ionic pilasters and an elaborate cornice. 

MOTOR TOUR 32.5 m. 

(Note: The Pittsfield Tour Map provides the tourist 
the means of covering this tour in smaller units ) 

W. from City Hall Park on West St. 

9. Fort Hill, near Lake Onota, is the site of Fort Ashley, one of four 
early Colonial forts in Pittsfield. During the French and Indian wars 
there was a considerable settlement around the block-house, including 
many wigwams of friendly Indians. 

The view of Lake Onota and the mountains beyond it, from this high point, is 
one of the most beautiful to be found in the Berkshire Hills country. The long 
sweep of the lake to the north draws the eye to the distant majestic height of Mt. 
Greylock almost 20 miles away. 


1. City Hall Park 12. South Mountain 

2. Berkshire Athenaeum 13. Brattle House 

3. Peace Party House 14. Wells's Tavern 

4. St. Stephen's Episcopal Church 15. Grave of Sarah Deming 

5. Old Cantonment Grounds 16. Holmesdale 

6. Crane Memorial Park 17. Arrowhead 

7. Museum of Natural History and 18. General Electric Plant 
Art 19. Canoe Meadows 

8. Calvin Martin House 20. Government Mill 

9. Fort Hill 21. Pontoosuc Lake Park 
10. Walton Wild Acres Sanctuary 22. Pittsfield State Forest 
n. Pittsfield Country Club 

316 Main Street and Village Green 

Onota in the Indian language means 'Lake of the White Deer.' Legend relates 
that a pure albino doe used to come here to drink. No Indian's bow was ever drawn 
on her, for it was believed that she brought good luck to the valley. Should she 
be harmed, the pow-wows warned, disaster would befall the tribe. During the 
French and Indian wars a young French officer, hearing of the superstition, boasted 
that he would kill the white deer. He bribed an unsuspecting member of the tribe 
to show him the doe's watering-place, where he hid in ambush and made good his 
boast. The prophecy also was made good, however: the Frenchman met his death 
while trying to escape to Canada; the crops of the tribe failed and their prosperity 
waned, a plague came upon them, and they slowly dwindled away. 

Retrace West St.; R. from West St. on Merriam St.; L. from Merriam St. 
on Woodleigh Ave.; R. from Woodleigh Ave. on West Housatonic St.; L. 
from West Housatonic St. on Barker Rd.; L. from Barker Rd. on South 
Mountain Rd. 

10. Walton Wild Acres Sanctuary (open to picnic parties; small fee) is a 
tract of 83 acres of well- wooded land, established in 1929 as a bird and 
game sanctuary. The Izaak Walton League made it a semi-public re- 
creation area, stocked the ponds with trout, built fireplaces and an out- 
door pavilion, cleared away the underbrush, established trap-shooting 
ranges, and constructed a dam to enlarge Lake Holman. 

R. from South Mountain Rd. on South St. 

11. The Pittsfield Country Club (open by invitation), an i8-hole course, 
occupies a mansion known as Broad Hall, erected by Henry Van Schaack 
in 1785 and at one time owned by an uncle of Herman Melville. The 
cellar is said to have been one of the depots for the Underground Rail- 
road. At the northeast corner of the club is Morewood Lake, sometimes 
known as Melville Lake, and called by Longfellow 'The Tear of Heaven.' 

12. South Mountain (alt. 1870), is the highest point of land in Pittsfield, 
lying near the Lenox Line at the south end of the city and rising west 
of US 7 and US 20, just beyond the Pittsfield Country Club. A favorite 
resort for hikers, the mountain offers a view of the entire city. It is 
now largely owned by the Coolidge family, a member of which, Mrs. 
Elizabeth Sprague Coolidge, founder of the South Mountain Music 
Colony and Temple, sponsors a series of chamber music concerts given 
every Sunday during the summer months. 

Retrace South St.; R. from South St. on East Housatonic St.; R. from 
East Housatonic St. on Appleton Ave.; L. from Appleton Ave. on Dawes 
Ave.; R. from Dawes Ave. on High St.; L. from High St. on William St. 

13. The Brattle House (open during summer; small fee for benefit of the 
National Memorial Foundation for army and navy memorial aid), near 
Elm St., built in 1762, and now owned by a descendant of its builder, 
is the oldest house in Pittsfield, and is furnished with antiques of its 
period. It is set on a knoll surrounded by an apple orchard and ancient 
beech trees. It is a three-story red clapboarded, gambrel-roofed dwelling 
with an overhanging second story. 

Straight ahead from William St. on Elm St. 

14. Wells' s Tavern (private), 847 Elm St., was one of several such places 

Pittsfield 317 

of resort on the old stagecoach route to Springfield. It is a white clap- 
boarded, two-story, hip-roofed house with a series of additions in the 
rear. The old woodshed is a copy of the first frame house in Pittsfield. 
The tavern contains portions of the original house, built by Solomon 
Deming, the first white settler who came in on horseback through the 
wilderness from Wethersfield, Connecticut, in the spring of 1752, bring- 
ing his wife, Sarah, on a pillion behind him. 

15. The Grave of Sarah Deming (R), just inside the gate of the Old 
East Park Cemetery, is indicated by a neat marble obelisk erected by 
the city to its pioneer housewife. 

Retrace Elm St.; L. from Elm St. on Holmes Rd. 

1 6. Holmesdale (private), just beyond junction with Pomeroy Ave., is 
the former residence of Oliver Wendell Holmes. Here the physician 
and poet spent seven seasons and wrote 'The Deacon's Masterpiece/ 
'The New Eden,' and 'The Ploughman' on local themes. His favorite 
refuge was the arbor formed by the low-hanging branches of a white 
pine tree on a small knoll on the lawn. Only a glimpse of the house and 
the famous Holmes Pine can be had from the road. Holmes did some of 
his work in a little house on the hill across the road, now occupied by 
Miss Hall's School for Girls. 

17. Arrowhead (private), a mile farther on Holmes Rd. at the top of the 
hill, was the home of Herman Melville, where he wrote 'Moby Dick/ 
'My Chimney and I/ 'Piazza Tales/ and 'October Mountain.' 

Retrace Holmes Rd.; L. from Holmes Rd. on Dawes Ave.; R. from Dawes 
Ave. on Appleton Ave.; R. from Appleton Ave. on East St. 

1 8. The General Electric Plant (open to visitors scientifically interested; 
guide] is fascinating to visit. The alternating current transformer in- 
vented by the late William Stanley was developed at the Pittsfield 
Works of the General Electric Company. Recently, huge transformers for 
Boulder Dam were constructed here. 

Important electrical research is done here, requiring the services of inter- 
nationally distinguished technicians and scientists. The most picturesque 
feature of this research for the general public is the occasional display 
of 'artificial lightning/ a series of huge blinding flashes occasioned by 
testing the ability of electrical current to jump a long distance through 
the air from two or more high steel towers unconnected by wire. 

There were in 1890 about 1500 power stations throughout the country 
operating on the alternating current system, with only two companies 
producing the machines. The Stanley Electrical Manufacturing Com- 
pany of Pittsfield was organized in 1907 into a corporation to supply 
these stations first with transformers and later with generators, switch- 
boards, and motors. The rapid growth of this corporation, which erected 
a new plant in 1912 employing one sixth of Pittsfield's population, be- 
came a strain on the city's limited supply of capital, and threats of its 
withdrawal from Pittsfield were a constant source of apprehension. 

31 8 Main Street and Village Green 

This disaster seemed imminent when, in 1930, the corporation was 
absorbed by the General Electric Company. The latter, however, to 
the great relief of the city, immediately announced that it had no in- 
tention of moving the plant away. On the contrary the bringing in of 
a new and practically unlimited supply of capital foreshadowed con- 
tinued expansion. 

L. from East St. on Merrill Rd. 

19. The Canoe Meadows at Umkamet's Crossing, near the railroad 
bridge over the Housatonic River, were the site of an Indian fort and 
landing place for the Red Men in the ancient days when they came to 
visit the burial mounds of their ancestors now obliterated by the 
march of progress and the overflow of the rivers. 

R. from Merrill Rd. on Dalton Ave. 

20. The Government Mill (private) is a branch of Crane & Co. of Dalton, 
manufacturers of paper for currency and United States bonds. 

Retrace Dalton Ave.; R. from Dalton Ave. on Crane Ave.; R. from Crane 
Ave. on North St. 

To the south from the crest of the hill on North St., a bird's-eye view 
of the entire city may be had. On the far side may be seen the Bosquet 
Ski Run (small fee), distinguishable in summer by the broad, bare 
swath curving down from the opposite mountain-top through the woods 
that clothe its slope. 

L. from North St. on Hancock Rd. 

21. Pontoosuc Lake Park (picnicking grounds, public bathing; boats and 
fishing equipment for hire) , with its splendid white pines, is on the banks 
of Pontoosuc Lake, an Indian name meaning 'Place of Winter Deer.' 
Legend says that an Indian brave, while paddling across the lake to 
meet his sweetheart, was slain by a jealous suitor. The distracted 
maiden flung herself into the lake, following her lover to his watery 
grave. Even today, it is said, a spectral canoe with a shadowy paddler 
is sometimes seen to glide over the lake at midnight, darting from point 
to point. It is the frenzied lover searching for, but never finding, the 
drowned form of his betrothed. 

L. from Hancock Rd. on Churchill St.; R. from Churchill St. on Sham- 
rock Blvd. 

22. The Pittsfield State Forest (camping and picnicking), covering 2127 
acres, lies partly in Hancock and partly in Lanesborough. Several foot 
trails lead about the Forest, while the Skyline Trail, in process of being 
built, follows an ancient Indian hunting path along the crest of the 
Taconics, north to south. Ghost Trail and Honwee Trail, two ski trails, 
were recently constructed by the Civilian Conservation Corps, and plans 
are under way to provide facilities for all winter sports. 

At the entrance to the camp area of the Civilian Conservation Corps is 
Goodrich Cave, forgotten for 40 years, its entrance blocked by boulders 

Plymouth 319 

and a wash of sand and gravel. It was rediscovered by a worker on the 
'Massachusetts Guide' and reopened, disclosing a large chamber be- 
neath a shelf of limestone. Here, according to old inhabitants, a band 
of lawless youths used to hide for weeks, subsisting by raids on near-by 
farms, and making counterfeit half-dollars from stolen spoons, lead 
pipes, and quicksilver in a handmade mould. 

Near-by is Lulu Cascade, a pretty fall of water on Lulu Brook. 

High above the Cascades, on Honwee Mountain, is Berry Pond, the 
highest natural body of water in Massachusetts. Not far distant is a 
majestic view of the New York Taconics rising in the west with the 
Catskill Mountains on the horizon. The pond is the source of a brook 
which flows down the west side of the mountain through Goodrich 
Hollow, a secluded and lovely vale. Here, in May, are woods pink and 
white with mountain laurel; in June come the red and white azaleas; 
the deep wine-colored velvet of the September sumach is a color-theme 
for the gorgeous orchestration of later autumn. 

PLYMOUTH. The Colony's First ' Main Street ' 

Town: Alt. 29, pop. 13,183, sett, and incorp. 1620. 

Railroad Station: Park Ave. for N.Y., N.H. & H. R.R. 

Bus Station: Park Ave. for New England Transportation Co. 

Accommodations: One hotel all year round; three during summer months; 
tourist houses. 

Annual Events: Pilgrim's Progress; every Friday in August, march of Pilgrim 

Information: Chamber of Commerce, Leyden St., opposite Post Office. 

PLYMOUTH, its white beaches stretching for eighteen miles along the 
inner shore of Massachusetts Bay, is known as one of New England's 
famous vacation spots. Here the 'South Shore' becomes Cape Cod. 
Inland hummocky hills of tumbled pines are dotted with ponds and 
brooks running into Plymouth Harbor or Buzzard's Bay. Here, too, are 
bird sanctuaries and game preserves, the Myles Standish Forest, and 
the Town Forest. Erosion of the outer slopes of its coastal hills has left 
the boulders and bluffs of Manomet and lagoons and beaches of glistening 
white sand set against the sparkling blue sea. 

Plymouth's main street is now a thoroughfare, bustling with shops and 
commerce as befits the county seat, but in many other ways, as a de- 

32O Main Street and Village Green 

lightful bit of old New England, the town remains the same. (Even as 
late as 1840, Christmas, banned by the Pilgrim Fathers, was not ob- 
served. Newcomers who put wreaths in their windows were commented 
upon and called * 'piscopals.') Ancient houses, few of them remodeled or 
modernized, line the ancient streets of the center, setting a tone which 
triumphs still over the outlying modern residential areas; and the old 
Pilgrim stock, though now in the minority, still dominates the com- 

After the Civil War, the rise of manufacturing brought an influx of 
immigrants German, French, Italian, and Portuguese who now 
make up a quarter of the town. Today, with thirteen thousand people, 
the town has a score of mills, small factories, and ropeworks. As there 
is little good top soil, "farming has not flourished, except poultry-raising, 
dairy farming, fancy stock breeding, and cranberry culture. 

In the year 1620, the 'Mayflower,' bound for Virginia, was blown far 
north of her course and cast among the roaring breakers and dangerous 
shoals of Cape Cod. It anchored in what today is Provincetown Harbor, 
and finding that terrain unfriendly, about a month later the Pilgrims set 
sail for the mainland. They were tossed about by a storm and nearly 
wrecked, but at nightfall they landed on an island in Plymouth Harbor. 

On December 21 (new style calendar), 1620, with seventeen men, oc- 
curred the 'Landing of the Pilgrims' at their first settlement. The 
legends surrounding the landing are picturesque, but seem to have little 
basis in substantiated fact. 

The majority of the Pilgrims, indeed, remained aboard ship for the better 
part of a month until shelters could be erected ashore. Snow covered the 
decks of the vessel; exposure and insanitation increased, and sickness 
grew apace. Scurvy and ship fever raged, and juniper was burned 
aboard to dispel the noisome smells of death. Sometimes two or three 
died in a single day. By March nearly half the company was dead. 

There was never actual starvation, for berries, wild fowl, and shellfish 
abounded; but great disaster befell the little community in their second 
year when the ship 'Fortune,' carrying over their entire yield of furs and 
produce, was captured by the French as a prize. 

Early difficulties were not all material; the more important ones were 
spiritual. To the horror of the community, it was discovered that Lyford, 
their pastor, had been exiled from England as unfit for the ministry. 

* The circumstances,' writes the good Governor Bradford, ' I forbear, for 
they would offend chaste ears to hear them related.' 

Moreover, Lyford was soon convicted at court of writing 'slanderous 
letters,' disparaging Plymouth Colony and the country. This gave 
great pain to the London adventurers, who, to increase their revenues, 
depended on finding persons in England willing to go as colonists. It 
also damaged the pride of the Pilgrim Fathers beyond repair. Later 
Thomas Morton recounted the manner of Lyford's deportation : 

Plymouth 321 

His exile was arranged after a solomne invention in this manner. A lane of mus- 
keteers was made and hee compelled in scorne to passe along betweene, and to 
receave a bob upon the bumme by every musketier. And then aboard a shallop 
and so conveyed to Wessaguscus shore. 

Lyford was succeeded by 'one Mr. Rogers a young man for minister,' 
who within twelve months 'proving crazied in his brain, they were 
forced to be at further charge in sending him back after losing all the 
cost expended in bringing him over which was not small.' 

Finally, the congregation secured the services of one Reverend Smith, a 
pastor who had been discarded by the Salem Colony; though it is related 
that he too was of odd temperament, even supposed by some to be insane. 

Now Thomas Morton, a companion of Captain Wollaston, set up a rival 
trading colony near-by at what is now Wollaston, in Quincy. The staid 
Pilgrims were duly horrified by the 'Merrymount' revels, but Morton 
flourished in his wickedness like the green bay tree. He sold rum and 
guns; and with these to be got in exchange for their furs, the Indians 
practically refused to take any amount of the Plymouth wampum and 
trinkets. At last, however, Miles Standish proceeded to Merrymount, 
seized Morton prisoner, and deported him to England. 

In spite of all such zeal, by 1642 the piety among the 'Pure and Un- 
spottyd Lambs of the Lord' of Plymouth seemed at a low ebb, and 
severe measures were taken to combat the powers of evil. For nearly 
fifty years there were but forty-eight freemen, all of whom had to be 
church members. They controlled all the affairs of the town, and it 
would have been hardly human if occasionally piety had not been 
made the handmaid of profit. 

At the end of a century after the landing, Plymouth had a population 
of two thousand, comfortably supported by agriculture,, navigation, and 
commerce. Already, too, settlers from the mother town had founded or 
were founding other prosperous communities in the environs, extending 
as far as Eastham on Cape Cod and the present city of Fall River near 
the Rhode Island Line. Whale-fishing, begun about 1690 and abandoned 
about 1840, occupied many of these daughter towns, notably Wareham 
and the Cape Cod towns. 

By the turn of the nineteenth century, stagecoaches ran from Boston 
to Plymouth, and thence in various directions. Alongside the wharves 
were seventy-six ships, brigs, and schooners. By 1830 the population was 
nearly five thousand. A hundred ships engaged in coastwise trade and 
fishing, especially for cod and mackerel. Four vessels went whaling. 
The town had forty ships, five iron mills, two cotton mills, and three 
ropeworks. Among these was the Plymouth Cordage Company, which 
today is one of the largest in the world. 

Honor was brought to the town by one of its most distinguished citizens, 
Dr. Charles Jackson, who was awarded twenty-five hundred francs by the 
French Academy of Science as the co-discoverer of etherization. 

Plymouth 323 

FOOT TOUR 2.5 m. 

NW. from Town Square on Main St.; straight ahead on Court St. (State 3). 

1 . The Tabitha Flasket House (home of one of the earliest schools) is located 
adjacent to Pilgrim Hall. It is said to have been built by Consider How- 
land, grandson of John Howland in 1722, but it has the appearance of 
having been built at a much later date possibly 50 years. It is a large 
two-story w r hite frame house, early Colonial, with four chimneys. Much 
of it is still intact, including the wide floor boards and H and L type hinges. 

2. Pilgrim Hall (open weekdays 9-5, Sun. 12-5, April Nov.), on the 
corner of Chilton St., is a granite building in the Greek revival style, 
dedicated to the memory of the Pilgrims. Erected in 1824, it has since 
been enlarged, and its Doric portico re-erected from plans by McKim, 
Mead and White. At the east end of the Hall is the famous painting ' The 
Landing of the Pilgrims' by Henry Sargent. On the north wall is the 
original of Robert F. Weir's l Embarkation of the Pilgrims from Delft 
Haven.' From this study W T eir produced the larger painting for the Cap- 
itol rotunda in Washington. Among historical articles in the Hall are: 
the patent of Plymouth Colony; the chairs of Elder Brewster and Gover- 
nor Carver; the Peregrine White cradle, in which slept the first white 
child born in Massachusetts; the Bible of Governor Bradford, printed in 
Geneva in 1592. 

Retrace Court St.; L. from Court St. on North St. 

3. The Lindens, in front of the Public Library, were imported and 
planted in 1760 by Colonel George W T atson. 

4. The Edward Winslow House (private), on the corner of Winslow St., 
was built in 1754 by Edward Winslow, great-grandson of Governor 
Edward Winslow of the 'Mayflower' company, and brother of General 
John Winslow. Little is left of the original house, which in the iSgo's 
was enlarged to manorial proportions with a formal garden added. 


1. Tabitha Flasket House n. Burial Hill 

2. Pilgrim Hall 12. Sites of some of the first houses 

3. Lindens 13. Brewster Gardens 

4. Edward Winslow House 14. Antiquarian House 

5. Pilgrim Mother Fountain 15. John Howland House 

6. Plymouth Rock 16. William Harlow House 

7. Cole's Hill 17. Kendall Holmes House 

8. Leyden St. 18. National Monument to the Fore- 

9. Site of the first ' Common House ' fathers 

10. House of the Rev. Nathaniel 19. William Crowe House 

Leonard 20. Myles Standish State Forest 

324 Main Street and Village Green 

5. The Pilgrim Mother Fountain, at the corner of Water St., was erected 
as a tribute to the Pilgrim mothers, historically so much less vocal than 
the fathers, but certainly quite as deserving of admiration. 

R. from North St. on Water St. 

6. Plymouth Rock, with the date 1620 carved upon it, reposes under a 
magnificent granite portico of classical design. Two thirds of the rock 
is underground, and an iron fence protects the remainder from souvenir 
chippers. Historians have for the most part exploded the landing myth, 
but popular sentiment clings to the long-hallowed stepping-stone. 

Retrace Water St.; L. from Water St. on North St.; L. from North St. on 
Carver St. 

7. Cole's Hill was the scene of the secret night burials of those who died 
during the first year of the settlement. Corn was planted over their 
graves so that the Indians should not know how many of their number 
had perished. A sculptured sarcophagus now contains many of the 
exhumed bones. An imposing Statue of Mass as oil, the Pilgrims' friend, 
crowns the hill. 

R. from Carver St. on Ley den St. 

8. The first houses erected by the Pilgrims stood on 'First St.' now 
Leyden St. 'The Meersteads and Garden Plots' allotted to the early' 
settlers, and on which the houses were built, sloped thence to the Town 
Brook the 'very Sweet brook mentioned by the first explorers.' 

9. Opposite the end of Carver St. is the Site 'of the First 'Common 
House,' marked by tablet. It was used as a shelter by the Pilgrims on 
their frequent trips to and from the 'Mayflower' before it sailed on the 
return voyage to England, April 15, 1621. Later it was used as a store- 
house. In that house on February 27, 1621, the right of popular suffrage 
was exercised and Miles Standish was chosen Captain by popular vote. 

10. The House of the Rev. Nathaniel Leonard (1734) (private), across from 
the Common House site, is an early white house with a rainbow roof. 
Straight ahead into Town Square and Church St. 

1 1 . Burial Hill (at head of Town Sq.) was long used both as a place of de- 
fense and as a place of worship. On its summit are the sites of the Watch- 
Tower and Old Fort. The site of the Old Powder House on Burial Hill is 
marked by a small round brick house claimed to be a replica of the original. 

12. The Sites of Some of the First Houses built in 1621 are along the 
south side of this square. These houses were started as common property 
but were finished by the people who were to occupy them: the Allertons, 
Winslows, Cookes, and others. 

i2a. The Richard Sparrow House (1640) (open; adm. 25), Summer St., 
corner of Spring St., is a restored house with red clapboards and shingles 
and early English diamond-shaped windows. 

S. from Town Sq. on Market St.; R. from Market St. on Sandwich St.; L. 
from Sandwich St. on Water St. 

Plymouth 325 

13. Brewster Gardens provide a pleasant setting for the Statue of the 
Pilgrim Maid, dedicated to ' those intrepid English women whose courage 
and fortitude brought a new nation into being.' In Brewster Gardens 
are also the Ship Anne Memorial and the Pilgrim Spring, the latter a 
delightful spot to visit. 

14. The Antiquarian House (open weekdays 10-5, Sun. 2-5; closed in 
winter}, 126 Water St., was built in 1809, and is completely furnished 
in its period. The kitchen has century-old cookbooks, a children's play- 
room has old-fashioned dolls and toys, and there is an old-fashioned 

Retrace Water St.; L. from Water St. on Sandwich St. 

15. The John Howland House (1666) (open daily; adm. 25 fi is opposite 
the southwesterly end of Water St. This two-and-a-half -story structure, 
painted red, with hip roof and central chimney, was restored in 1913. 

1 6. The William Harlow House (open summer, weekdays 9-6, Sun. 2-5; 
adm. 25), 119 Sandwich St., was built in 1677 of timber taken from the 
Old Fort on Burial Hill. It is solidly constructed and clings close to the 
crest of a knoll; the smooth lines of the low gambrel roof melt into the 
slope of the ground from which it seems to have sprung. Overshadowing 
it is an ancient tree that was only a seedling when the house was already 
old. Recently this house has been acquired and authentically furnished 
in its own period by the Plymouth Antiquarian Society, which during 
the summer months keeps open house at the Harlow House and re- 
enacts the early domestic life of the Pilgrims. Flax grown in the garden 
at the rear of the house is harvested and prepared for spinning. Corn 
is planted by the school-children, who, following the old custom, place a 
herring in each hill. 

L. from Sandwich St. into Winter St. 

17. The Kendall Holmes House (open, free} , Winter St., was built by Wil- 
liam Harlow in 1666. It has been little changed. The old stairway and 
rooms on the lower floor as well as the chambers above preserve the 
original plan. There are open fireplaces and an old oven, and a great 
central chimney. 


1 8. The National Monument to the Forefathers is an immense and im- 
pressive memorial. The principal figure represents Faith, hand pointing 
to Heaven. At the base are four wings representing Morality, Law, 
Education, and Freedom. On the face of each wing are slabs of marble 
carved in bold relief to depict: the Departure from Delft Haven, the 
Signing of the Compact, the Landing of the Pilgrims, and the Treaty 
with Massasoit. 

3 2 6 Main Street and Village Green 

19. The William Crowe House (not open), about 3 miles north from the 
center, is claimed to be the oldest house in Plymouth, the rear portion 
dating to 1664. It is a two-story white house of early American design, 
enclosed by a weather-beaten picket fence. 

20. The Myles Standish State Forest (8000 acres), one of the oldest in 
the State, was established in 1916 under the State Forest Commission. 
Picnic and camping areas (small fee), with individual fireplaces and tables, 
are open to the public on College, Charge, and Fearing Ponds. 


Town: Alt. n, pop. 4071, sett, shortly before 1700, incorp. 1727. 

Railroad Station: N.Y., N.H. & H. R.R., Bradford St., east of Pilgrim Monu- 

Bus Station: Same. 

Piers: Town Wharf, Bay State S.S. Co., Monument Wharf, Commercial St., 
west of Town Wharf, Cape Cod S.S. Co. Steel Pier. 

Local Bus: Busses run, Commercial St., length of town, supposedly every 20 
minutes in summer time, fare 5^f, 25^f sightseeing; no winter service. 

Accommodations: Hotels and tourist homes. All rates higher in summer. 
Swimming: All beaches private on Bay Side within limits of village center; 
public outside these limits. 

HERE, where Cape Cod goes down to the sea with a last flourish of 
sandy beachland, nestles the best known and perhaps the most colorful 
of its old villages, Provincetown. 

On the Cape, travelers have observed, 'They call a house a house, but 
a house with a shed is a village.' Provincetown, compact neighborhood 
of Portuguese fishermen, of artists and writers, and of old Yankee 
families, is by comparison a city. And its career from Old Colony days 
has had a touch of urbanity that sets it apart from its neighbor towns. 
Of interest historically as the first landing-place of the Pilgrims, the 
town has also been a center of whaling, an important fishing port, and 
in modern times the location of a famous art colony. 
Much of the ancient flavor of Provincetown has been saved, especially 
in the old houses, the prim white cottages and staid Colonials that line 
its narrow streets, and in the bright gardens, the wharves, fish-sheds 
and vessels that still carry on with net and trawl. 
The village is ' only two streets wide/ but for nearly four miles it skirts 

Province town 327 

the inner shore of the Cape; and from there out, Long Point extends like 
a sandy finger crooked around the harbor. Here, at Long Point, is the 
tip of Cape Cod, punctuated with a lighthouse. The remainder of the 
township broad dunelands reaching ' up-back ' to the outer or Atlantic 
shore is called the Province Lands, and is owned by the Common- 

The visitor who drives down the 122 miles from Boston, including the 
65 miles on US 6 from the Cape Cod Canal, is well out to sea when he 
reaches Provincetown 55 miles from 'the mainland,' on a sandspit 
where bedrock has never been found. Geologists say Provincetown 
owes its very underpinnings to the sea, having been left here as Father 
Neptune's own personal sandpile 30,000 years ago. 

If so, the town has been acknowledging its debt ever since. Province- 
towners say their village covers the waterfront when the waterfront 
is not covering it. 'The good God,' wrote Cotton Mather, after a visit 
here, 'gives this people to suck of the abundance of the seas.' But the 
seas, one might add, have been playing the town for a sucker from the 
start invading it, battering its stone breakwaters, sneaking up on it 
to deliver a smashing southeaster against the bulkheads along its water- 
front, in a hundred ways plotting to collect that 3o,ooo-year debt. Sand, 
wind, and tide are accessories before the fact, ever conspiring to fold 
the dunes over upon the little village, to drive it into its own harbor. 

Historically, Provincetown has had an ancient crow to pick with Ply- 

'Plymouth Rock? That's the name of a chicken,' the proud old Cape 
Cod Yankee will snort. 'The spot where the "Mayflower" people first 
stepped on American soil is right here in Provincetown, and you ought 
to freeze on to that fact in your guide book, for it's been rising three 
hundred years now, and most off-Cape folks don't seem to know it yet"!' 
After falling ' amongst deangerous shoulds and roring breakers ' off what 
is now Chatham, the ' Mayflower ' did indeed drop anchor in ' ye Cape- 
harbor [Provincetown] wher they ridd in saftie,' November n, 1620. 
That same day the first party of Pilgrims came ashore in America, and 
the ship lay at anchor five weeks here before her people decided to try 
settlement at Plymouth. 

Provincetown has placed a stone marker where those men climbed out 
of their shallop, waded across the icy flats and 'fell upon their knees 
& blessed ye God of heaven, who had brought them over ye vast & 
furious ocean.' It has scattered other markers around too, to remind 
the nation that the Pilgrims came here first. There is even a great 
stone tower for that purpose. And yet, Provincetown still has to tell 
Americans from points west of the Cape Cod Canal that the ' stern and 
rockbound coast,' across the Bay in Plymouth, was merely an after- 
thought of the 'Mayflower' company! Provincetown has a great stone 
tower. Plymouth has a poem. 

328 Main Street and Village Green 

Historians believe that before the Pilgrims came, Basques and other 
daring fishermen visited these shores; and there has long been the theory, 
without tangible support, that it was to Cape Cod the Norsemen sailed 
in their voyages of the early eleventh century. Gosnold, who sailed 
around the Cape in 1602, named the tip-end Cape Cod. Other explorers 
gave it other names, but ' Cape Cod' had clicked, and as Mather wrote, 
it is a name the Cape will never lose 'till the shoals of codfish be seen 
swimming on the highest hills.' 

For nearly a century after the Pilgrims left, Provincetown drew a strange 
assortment of transients. The Indians Pamets, of the tribe of Wam- 
panoags came here often, but had no permanent settlement. Prov- 
incetown was thus a sort of aboriginal Coney Island, where they gambled 
and drank with visiting fishermen. One imaginative historian writes of 
their 'bacchanalian carousals, which were continued sometimes for 
weeks with unrestrained license.' 

In 1714 'the Province Town' was put under the jurisdiction of Truro, 
as a precinct. But pious, respectable Truro wanted no part of it, and 
after a long campaign, the horrified goodmen of that town succeeded in 
getting rid of the 'Poker Flats of Cape Cod,' as historian Shebnah Rich 
terms it. Provincetown was thus incorporated in 1727. 

Deepwater whaling began at about that time, and the fleet grew rapidly. 
Provincetown and Truro took the lead. The whalemen and the Banks 
fishermen gave the Lower Cape a fair start toward prosperity in the 
latter half of the eighteenth century. At the same time the business of 
' wrecking' was pursued with uncommon diligence. 

Mooncussing and beachcombing now synonyms meaning recovery of 
goods from the beach, chiefly cargoes drifting ashore from wrecked 
ships were wreckers' work. This was a recognized means of liveli- 
hood certainly recognized by the good citizens of 'Helltown,' as part 
of Provincetown came to be called, if not by the law. The legend of 
false lights hung out on moonless nights to lure unwary mariners of 
those days persists in the Cape's oral traditions. Rum-running and other 
smuggling were facilitated by long, deserted beaches, hidden from the 
village by the dunes. 

About 1800 the Cape began making salt by evaporating sea water, and 
this discovery gave the fishery a new impetus. Provincetown became 
more prosperous and somewhat more respectable. A settlement grew up 
on Long Point itself, to be nearer the fishing. In lieu of lawns these peo- 
ple had patches of seaweed at their front doors, and children were cau- 
tioned against crossing the road at high tide. 

Shortly before the Civil War the people at Long Point moved across- 
harbor to the main part of town. They loaded their houses, stores, 
church, and schoolhouse on scows and casks, and poled them across. 
The only structure one sees on the Point today is the lighthouse. 

Fishing went on, however, and expanded, reaching a peak in the last 
quarter of the nineteenth century. A reporter for the Chicago Tribune 

Provincetown 329 

visited the town in 1900, and wrote back, 'Fish is bartered at the grocery 

stores, shoe shops and bread stores for all the commodities of life 

The main business street is paved with rock cod. The women use the 
hind fin of the great halibut for brooms. Awnings shading the store 
fronts are made from the skin of the sportive porpoise. The bellrope in 
the church is made of eels, cunningly knotted by some old sailor. Over 
the altar was the picture of a whale. The collection plate was the top 
shell of a turtle. After the choir had sung "Pull for the Shore," the crew 
passed down the port aisle. Provincetown ladies trim their hats with 
red gills of the mackerel. Dog-fish often lie around the shore at low tide 
and bark and howl in a frightful manner.' 

However, in the yellowed scrapbook in which this clipping was found, 
in Provincetown, is a notation by its one-time owner, 'A damned liar's 
description of Provincetown.' 

Provincetown is still essentially a fishing village, and the majority of its 
people are fishermen and their families. They fish aboard the trawlers, 
the draggers, seiners and trapboats, and they work in the ' freezers' - 
fish-packing plants, of which there are five. 

The industry, however, is long past its heyday, and many an old skipper 
who once hung out his sidelights and stood out for the Banks now hangs 
out a sign on his porch * Tourists Accommodated ' and sits down 
to wait for the summer people. 

Beyond the first of June, they do not keep him waiting long. Artists 
at their easels begin to dot the wayside and block the traffic ; clicking 
typewriters join the nightly chorus of the crickets; and poets chirp 
from studio attics at all hours. These are Provincetown's trusty peren- 
nials the yearly flowering of its 'art colony,' which, for all the con- 
fusion, has nevertheless produced many of the nation's foremost painters, 
playwrights, novelists and poets. 

The founding of the Cape Cod School of Art here in 1901 by Charles W. 
Hawthorne was the real beginning of the art colony, though a few painters 
had visited the town before that. Hawthorne's own pictures of the 
Portuguese fisherpeople did much to build up the colony's prestige. 
Since his death in 1930, other schools have carried on, and the Province- 
town Art Association's annual exhibit is an event of widespread interest. 

Prominent painters who have been associated with the colony include, 
besides Hawthorne, Arthur Diehl, Heinrich Pfeiffer, Edwin W. Dickinson, 
Ross Moffett, Frederick Waugh, George Elmer Browne, Richard Miller, 
John Noble, Mrs. Max Bohm, John Frazier, Gerrit A. Beneker, Hans 
Hoffman, Jack Beauchamp, Karl Knaths, W. H. W. Bicknell, William 
Paxton, Tod Lindenmuth, John Whorf, Henry Hensche, Jerry Farns- 
worth, and Charles J. Martin. Among sculptors here have been William 
Zorach and William F. Boogar, Jr. 

In 1915 the Provincetown Players gathered under the leadership of 
George Cram Cook. They later took a theater in New York City, where 
they carried on until 1922. Drama on Broadway, at the time they set 

330 Main Street and Village Green 

themselves up, was stilted and heavily encrusted with outgrown tradi- 
tions. The Players broke away from the timeworn formulae, offering 
plays with a fresh outlook, a new simplicity of method. The pioneering 
work done at that time has had a lasting influence, and has made the 
organization long remembered. 

Among writers and dramatists who have lived in Provincetown are John 
Dos Passos, Susan Glaspell, Mary Heaton Vorse, Edmond Wilson, 
Harry Kemp, Frank Shay, George Cram Cook, Wilbur Daniel Steele, 
Max Eastman, and two winners of the Nobel Prize for literature, Eugene 
O'Neill and Sinclair Lewis. 

Many of the artists and writers of reputation return each summer, and 
with them come large numbers of young unknowns. But to the old 
skipper of Provincetown who has retired from the sea and hung out his 
tourist sign, these are merely the forerunners of an even greater throng 
the summer vacationers. By July i all is in full swing the painters 
painting, the writers writing, tourists buying, and the traffic policemen 

On Labor Day the season ends. The Boston steamers whistle a last 
farewell, the ' accommodation ' (street bus) is converted back into a fish 
truck, the dealer in 'Antiques' turns his sign around, the landlady cleans 
the cigarette butts out of the potted plant, and Provincetown settles 
down again to a 'nice quiet winter.' 

1 Summer people ' are estimated at about 8000. Of the 4000 ' year-round 
people,' at least three fourths are Portuguese 'Azoreans' (from the 
Azores), 'Lisbons' (from the mother country), and a scattering of 
'Bravas' (descendants of Cape Verde islanders who came over in the 
whaling days). The other 1000 are principally the 'old Yankee stock,' 
who have lost the town, politically, to the Portuguese; who deplore the 
influx of the 'off-Cape furriners'; and to whom a volume of genealogy 
is a piece of escape literature. 

The Provincetown sea-food cuisine is justly famous. In these kitchens 
few fish are allowed to enter their third day ashore. The world knows 
many ways to cook a fish, and Provincetown claims to know an improve- 
ment on every one. To conventional recipes are added many methods 
of the Portuguese; and sea cooks have contributed their best inspirations. 

Provincetown favorites are baked haddock, cooked Portuguese style 
with a sauce of tomatoes and spices; fresh mackerel, fried or baked in 
milk; tuna (horse mackerel) or sea catfish served mnha d'alhos, which 
involves a pickling process before frying; 'tinker' mackerel, which are 
baby fish pickled with a variety of spices, to be served cold or fried; 
and stuffed fish, baked. Favorites cooked English style include all 
manner of chowders, and such delicacies as sea-clam pie, broiled live 
lobster and salt-water scallops, sliced and fried or made into a creamy 

The Portuguese are fond of linguica, a form of pork sausage, and of 
trutas, small pastries served at Christmas and other feast-days. These 

Provincetown 331 

are stuffed with a sweet potato preparation, and fried in deep olive oil 
and coated with honey. 

Beach plums grow in profusion at this end of the Cape, and housewives 
make the famous beach plum jelly. Skully-jo, once popular, is no longer 
made by any but a few Portuguese families. This is codfish or haddock 
cured in the sun, ' till it's hard enough to bend lead pipe around.' When 
fish was plentiful the Portuguese made barrels of it and the children 
carried it about in their pockets and chewed it instead of candy. It was 
said that 'the longer you chewed on a junk of skully-jo, the more you 

People at the Cape-end have always been willing warmers of the yarner's 
bench. Among them live many a legend and tall tale from seafaring 
days. There are still in Provincetown a few old-timers who can remember 
stories their own parents told them about the * witch with red heels,' 
for example, who cruised in a cozy cabin inside a great whale. She 
played cards there with the Devil himself, and the stakes were the souls 
of luckless mariners whose vessels had run aground on Nauset shoals 
or the Peaked Hill Bars. To provide ' chips,' a light was hung from the 
flukes of the whale, and he would swim through the shoalest of the Cape 

There is the story, too, of the Whistling Whale, with a snore like a 
siren whistle, caused by an old iron embedded in his spout. Several 
times his whistling brought out the volunteer fire department. And 
when he was apprehended and finally harpooned after weeks of 
serenading the town some of the citizens declared they had become 
accustomed to the whistling, and were afraid they would never sleep 
again ! 

'Professor' George Washington Ready, town crier in 1886, one day 
solemnly deposed that he had seen a sea-serpent not a common, 
run-of-the-mill sea-serpent, but a monstrous one, a reptile three hundred 
feet long and twelve feet in the beam, with three red eyes to port and 
three green eyes to starboard. The serpent came ashore, the Professor 
said, breathing sulphurous fumes and searing the beach-plum bushes at 
Herring Cove, undulated overland to Pasture Pond, and slowly went in, 
head first, never to be seen again! And the Professor made 'afftdavy,' 
too, that he was 'not unduly excited by liquor or otherwise.' 
Provincetown has too many such tales for space here, and the stuff of 
which these old yarns were spun would make a nautical glossary necessary 
equipment for the average listener of today. Even that would not clear 
up some of the local idiom. A ship bunk's mattress was a 'donkey's 
breakfast.' The 'apple-tree fleet' was the class of coasting schooners, 
with skippers who never sailed out of sight of the orchards alongshore. 
Molasses was 'Porty Reek long-lick,' or 'long-tailed sugar.' 

332 Main Street and Village Green 


NE. from the Town Hall on Commercial St. 

1. Town Wharf, a long, wide-timbered pier, is the heart of Provincetown's 
summer life. For many years it has been the landing stage of the daily 
Boston steamer in summer, and it is used by fishermen at all seasons. 

The harbor view from this pier is a gay scene. Trawlers, seiners and 
draggers mingle with slim white yachts, low-lying cruisers and gray 
battleships. The short wharf on the left is littered with nets stretched 
to dry, lobster pots, kegs and coils of tarry rope. On the beach, artists 
are often at work, some singly, some in classes. Gulls wheel overhead, 
ever on watch for tidbits from the fishing boats. 

Retrace Commercial St.; R. from Commercial St. on Ryder St. 

2. A Mayflower Memorial Tablet near the Town Hall gives the wording 
of the Mayflower Compact, which was drawn up and signed in the 
cabin of that vessel while she lay at anchor in Province town Harbor. 
The names of the signers are appended. 

3. The Compact Memorial, a large bas-relief by Cyrus F. Dallin, depicts 
the signing of the covenant. Fifteen by nine feet, it is set in a broad 
granite wall flanked by stone benches. 

R. from Ryder St. on Bradford St. 

4. Another Mayflower Memorial Tablet, at the junction of Bradford St. 
with the steep unmarked road leading to Pilgrim Monument, is in memory 
of 'the five "Mayflower" passengers who died at sea while the ship lay 
in Cape Cod Harbor.' The names include that of Dorothy Bradford, 
wife of the Governor. 

L. from Bradford St. up the unmarked road to the Pilgrim Monument. 

5. Pilgrim Monument (open daily 8-5, Mar. 1-Nov. 30; closed in winter; 
adm. 25^) is constructed of gray granite, 252 feet high and 352 feet above 
sea level. It is visible many miles at sea. Storm signals are flown atop 
this hill from one of the steel towers of the U.S. Signal Service. The monu- 
ment commemorates the landing of the Pilgrims at Provincetown, Novem- 
ber n, 1620, and the signing of the Compact. The view from the top is 
spectacular; to the north and east lies the open Altantic; to the west, 
across Cape Cod Bay, are Duxbury and Plymouth; to the south, the 
Cape, in bold relief, curves away in a tawny half-circle. The town below 
appears like a toy hamlet. 

Retrace unmarked road; R. from unmarked road on Bradford St.; L. from 
Bradford St. on Ryder St.; R. from Ryder St. on Commercial St. 

6. The Town Hall is a Victorian frame building housing art treasures, 
seafaring trophies and items of local interest. In the entrance hall are 
murals of Provincetown industries, by Ross Moffett. The offices on the 

Provincetown 333 

ground floor contain a painting, * Provincetown Fishermen,' by Charles W. 
Hawthorne. In the same suite is Sir Thomas Lipton's $5000 gold and sil- 
ver 'Fisherman's Cup,' won in 1907 by the schooner 'Rose Dorothea,' of 
Provincetown, Captain Costa. In the basement is an ancient horse- 
drawn fire pumper, with wide wheels, especially constructed a hundred 
years ago for use on the hard sand of the town beaches. 

7. The Church of the Redeemer (Universalist) is a white frame edifice, 
with a steeple. 

8. The Historical Museum (open June-Oct.; adm. 25), 230 Commercial 
St., a square brown Victorian building, houses an Arctic Exhibit con- 
tributed by Donald B. MacMillan, the Provincetown Arctic explorer, 
and also Indian relics, old glassware, ship models and whaling imple- 

Straight ahead from Commercial St. into unmarked Tremont St., up Chip 

9. The 'Norse Wall House' (private), 15 Tremont St., is a small cottage 
built above an embedded wall (not visible) which is sometimes men- 
tioned in support of the theory that the Norsemen came here. In 1853, 
Francis A. Paine began excavating for a cellar. At a depth of five feet 
(30 feet below the original level of the hill) a stone wall was encountered, 
three feet high and two feet wide, laid in shell-lime mortar. Later 'a 
hard earthen floor composed of peat, clay and fine white sand, hammered 
and pounded together,' was discovered, with the remains of a fireplace. 
These discoveries have been linked conjecturally to the visits of the 
Vikings to this country, where they saw the 'Wonder Strands' referred 
to in the three ancient Copenhagen manuscripts which tell of the early 
voyages from Scandinavia. In the vicinity of Provincetown there are 
no stones to be found of the size used in this wall. The Norse, it is said, 
carried such stones as ballast. 

Retrace on Tremont St.; R. from Tremont St. on Commercial St. 

10. The Wharf Theater is a remodeled gray-shingled fish shed on a 
harbor pier. A summer stock company plays here. 

11. One of the oldest houses in Provincetown, the Seth Nicker son House 
(open as hooked rug shop), is at 72 Commercial St. The structure is 
estimated to be about 200 years old, and looks it, with its white clap- 
boarded front, its shingled siding, its hip roof, broad central chimney and 
small-paned windows, around which climb rambler roses. When this 
house was built, the street did not exist and the residents of this district 
traveled to and from the village along the beach. 

From this point on, prevailing features of the dwellings are gray-shingled 
walls, white picket fences, and gardens bright in summer with scarlet 
poppies, blue delphiniums and masses of white Easter lilies. 

R. from Commercial St. on any of the lanes, all of which lead back to Brad- 
ford St.; two blocks back of Commercial St. and parallel to it; R. on Brad- 
ford St. 

334 Main Street and Village Green 

12. Bradford Street is the only other throughfare in Provincetown. The 
two streets run parallel, the length of the town, and all others are little 
more than interesting lanes. 


W. from Town Hall on Commercial St. 

13. The Site of the Pilgrims' First Landing, at the juncture of Commercial 
St. and Beach Highway, is marked by a bronze tablet on a low granite 
slab. To the left at a bend in the sandy isthmus, are Wood End Light and 
Wood End Coast Guard Station and at the tip-end, Long Point Light. Just 
outside, off Wood End, occurred one of the most horrible disasters of 
modern times, the sinking of the submarine '8-4,' Dec. 17, 1927, when she 
breached under the bow of the coast guard destroyer 'Paulding' and 
went to the bottom with 40 men. Naval authorities were bitterly crit- 
icized on this occasion, both locally and throughout the country. A 
marked course off Wood End is still used as a proving ground for sub- 
marines, and occasionally battleships come to anchor in the harbor. 
Provincetown is a lively scene when 'the fleet is in.' 

R. from Commercial St. into Beach Highway. 

14. New Beach was the location, a generation ago, of a colony of fisher- 
men's shacks known as Hell Town. Its white shelving sand and its safe 
exposure on Cape Cod Bay make it now the finest bathing beach of the 
town. From here on the drive is one of unusual beauty, wild and desolate. 
The billowing sand dunes shift eternally, driven by gales that sweep in 
from the Atlantic. From time to time these sandhills have been planted 
by the Federal Government with scrub pine, beachgrass and other shrubs 
to stem their march. The co-operative bayberry grows wild. The cross- 
raftered poles which appear at intervals are spindle ranges used by the 
navy. In late afternoon the light over the dunelands is of many hues, 
sometimes a clear, soft golden-mauve, compounded of the slanting rays of 
the westerly sun, the tremendous open horizon, the sea air, the sage green 
of the grass, and the gold of the sand. 

L. from Beach Highway on road marked, ( To Race Point Coast Guard 

15. Race Point Coast Guard Station (open to visitors at any daylight hour; 
drills Mon., Tues., and Fri., 9) becomes visible a long distance ahead, a 
two-story square white frame building with a red roof and a skeleton 
observation tower, standing upon a sandy bluff above the open waters of 
the Atlantic at one of the most dangerous spots to shipping on the eastern 
seaboard. It is a typical station, spotlessly clean, with a crew of ten men 
who do all the cooking and housework in addition to their seafaring duties. 
Chiefly interesting are the surfboats, 24 feet long. The shooting of the 
line for the breeches buoy may be seen at scheduled drills. 

Quincy 335 

On the beach below the station is the wreck of the 'Spindler,' a rum- 
runner 125 feet long, which was cast ashore in 1922. A few years ago she 
stood high above the sand. Masts, riggings, even the bowsprit, are gone 
and the hull is deeply embedded now. 

Retrace side road; L. from side road on Beach Highway; L. from Beach 
Highway on Bradford St.; R. from Bradford St. on Commercial St., un- 
marked, but evident as the last junction on Bradford St. 

16. Eugene O'NeiWs Former Lodging (private), 577 Commercial St., is 
the right-hand half (as one faces the dwelling) of the upper floor of a re- 
modeled sail loft with business offices on the first floor. Here the dramatist 
began his career. On the beams of the living-room of the apartment is 
written, 'Before the eyes can see, they must be incapable of tears.' 

17. The Church of St. Mary of the Harbor (Episcopal) is a one-story, 
rambling frame structure, with a clapboarded front and gray-shingled 
sides. It has a small Mission bell. The simple and pleasing interior, with 
its alternating dark timbers and white plaster, and its white painted un- 
cushioned pews, is adorned with a small statue of Christ in cream-colored 
glazed terra-cotta. The figure stands upon a wooden cross beam, with 
arms outstretched, and is flanked by kneeling angels. 

1 8. The Figurehead House (private) is a square yellow house with a ship's 
figurehead of a woman, surmounting the porch. The figurehead was 
found afloat in the Indian Ocean in Civil War days by Captain Ben 
Handy of Provincetown, who placed it where it is today. 

19. The Home of Commander Donald B. MacMillan (private), 473 Com- 
mercial St., is a modern white frame house with a small lawn at the side 
and a large studio window in the north gable. 

QUINCY. Iron Ships and Great Men 

City: Alt. 42, pop. 76,909, sett. 1625, incorp. town 1792, city 1888. 

Railroad Stations: Atlantic off Hancock St.; Montclair off Montclair Ave.; 
Norfolk Downs on Newport Ave.; Quincy in Quincy Square; West Quincy on 
Willard St. ; Wollaston on Beale St. ; and Quincy Adams on Presidents Ave. 
for N.Y., N.H. & H. R.R. 

Accommodations: Six hotels at reasonable rates. 

Recreation: Swimming and bathing at Wollaston Beach on Quincy Shore Drive. 
Yachting at the Squantum and Wollaston Yacht Clubs (adm. by invitation). 

Information: Chamber of Commerce, 1535 Hancock St. 

336 Main Street and Village Green 

QUINCY is one of the commercial centers of Massachusetts, known for 
its granite quarries, shipbuilding, machinery, and radio-transmitting 
stations WNAC and WAAB, part of the Yankee Network. Quincy owes 
much to the Italians, Jews, Finns, Scots, Greeks, and Syrians who came 
to work in the quarries and shipyards and who contributed generously 
toward the city's artistic, intellectual, and civic development. Thirty- 
two churches may be credited in part to a fund left to the Quincy churches 
by the King family to 'aid the breaking down of religious prejudice [in 
the belief] that a better understanding of the religious faith of one an- 
other is one of the most important movements in the world.' 

In 1625 Thomas Morton, the 'pettifogger of Furnival's Inn,' as Governor 
Bradford contemptuously called him, arrived at Mount Wollaston and 
took part in establishing the settlement later to be known as Ma-re 
Mount or Merrymount. Morton traded with the Indians, taught them 
the use of firearms, and supplied them with liquor in exchange for furs, 
thus cutting in on the Plymouth trade. Bradford, further irked at Mor- 
ton's celebration of May Day as a pagan feast and fearing that Mor- 
ton's Merrymount would become a refuge for lawbreakers, dispatched 
Miles Standish and eight men from Plymouth, where a council was held, 
some members of which pressed for his execution. Instead, however, he 
was sent to England. Eighteen months later he returned to Merry- 
mount, was again arrested, his house burned, and he himself again sent 
a prisoner to England. His 'Newe English Canaan,' published about 
1637, gave excellent descriptions of New England scenery and bird and 
animal life, and scathingly exposed what he claimed to be the hypocritical 
pretenses to morality of the Pilgrims and Puritans. 

Quincy was not separately incorporated till nearly one hundred and 
seventy years after the earliest settlements in this section. In 1789, while 
it was still the north precinct of Braintree, local consciousness was 
brought to a high pitch by the election of a native son, John Adams, to 
the Vice-Presidency of the United States. Eight years later, in 1797, he 
took the chair of President. His son, John Quincy Adams, was regarded 
as the finest diplomat in the foreign service. Later he, too, became Presi- 
dent. When men with whom they had played as children were making 
history, Quincy's inhabitants felt it was high time to assert their right to 
an individual existence. The town was called Quincy in honor of Colonel 
John Quincy, an eminent and able citizen who had occupied Mount 

Until 1830 the town was mainly a farming community, but from that date 
onward agriculture gave precedence to industry, a transition brought 
about by the expansion of the shoe trade, a natural outgrowth of the 
tanneries on the town brook; and by improved facilities for quarrying 
granite. Men had learned how to use iron instead of wooden wedges in 
splitting the rock. 

In 1752 King's Chapel in Boston was built with Quincy granite. This 
sudden demand frightened the town fathers. Fearful of the supply of 

Quincy 337 

rock giving out, they passed an ordinance prohibiting the use of granite 
boulders for outside purposes. In spite of this, Quincy's trade in granite 
continued to expand until it was known the world over. In 1825 the 
Quincy quarries received a contract to supply the stone for the Bunker 
Hill Monument, and a railroad was built to convey the granite on horse- 
drawn wagons from the quarry to the wharf on the Neponset River. 

In 1883 a little shop in Braintree Fore River experimented in marine 
engines. The business grew so fast that in 1884 it was forced to remove to 
Quincy Fore River. In 1913 it came into the possession of the Bethlehem 
Steel Corporation. During the world war thirty-six destroyers were built 
here. Today, as Quincy's main industrial unit it stands on a par with the 
greatest shipyards of the world, having built every conceivable type of 
vessel from the seven-masted schooner * Thomas W. Lawson ' to the giant 
airplane carrier l Lexington.' 

TOUR 14 m. 

NW. from the junction of the Southern Artery (State 3) on Hancock St. 

1. Adams and Son (R), at the edge of Merrymount Park, near the corner 
of Fenno St., sculptor Bruce Wilder Saville (1893- ), is a granite 
monument bearing a bronze bas-relief of John Adams and John Quincy 

R.from Hancock St. on East Squantum St.; straight ahead on Dorchester St. 
which terminates in a rustic park, Chapel Rocks. 

2. Squaw Rock, at the eastern end of the park, is the extremity of Squan- 
tum Peninsula. According to one tale, an Indian woman fell into the sea 
from the rock, which then became known as Squaw Rock and the whole 
district was called Squaw Tumble or Squan-Tum. Another account ex- 
plains the name of the rock by the fact that it resembles an Indian pro- 
file, and states that Governor Winthrop named the region after Squanto, 
the Englishman's friend. 

The ledges of the hill behind the rock are composed of ' Roxbury pudding- 
stone,' an interesting conglomerate found in the environs of Boston. 

Retrace Dorchester St. into East Squantum St.; L.from East Squantum St. on 
Quincy Shore Drive; R. from Quincy Shore Drive on Davis St.; R. from 
Davis St. on Muirhead St. 

3. The Colonel Josiah Quincy House (private), 20 Muirhead St., was 
erected in 1770. This square yellow house with white block quoins and 
pillared portico was, until the middle of the i9th century, a gentleman's 
farmhouse, surrounded by rolling pasture. At the age of forty, Colonel 
Josiah Quincy (1709-1784) exchanged the career of successful shipbuilder 
for that of country gentleman. He was the father of Josiah Quincy, Jr., 
who horrified his parent by his defense of the British soldiers involved in 


Quincy 339 

the Boston Massacre. The house was presently inherited by a third 
Josiah Quincy, who was successively Mayor of Boston, Congressman, 
and President of Harvard College. 

Straight ahead from Muirhead St. into Beach St.; L.from Beach St. on Han- 
cock St.; R. from Hancock St. on Bridge St.; straight ahead on Adams St. 

4. The Vassal- Adams Mansion (R), (open summer weekdays 9-5; adm. 
25jf), is a white clapboard Georgian Colonial house with five chim- 
neys, and one brick end painted white. It was built in 1731, was the resi- 
dence of Presidents John Adams and John Quincy Adams, and remained 
a private home of the Adams family until 1927. 

L. from Adams St. on Furnace Brook Parkway; R. from Furnace Brook 
Parkway on Co pel and Si. 

5. The Granite Quarry, across the tracks from the West Quincy R.R. 
Station, unmistakable by its high walls of stone detritus and its derricks, 
is the erstwhile center of New England's granite quarrying. The stone for 
Bunker Hill Monument came from here, as well as for countless buildings 
in Boston. This quarry is now only moderately active, as composition 
building materials have superseded natural granite. 

Retrace on Copeland St. 

6. The Co-operative Market, 32 Copeland St., founded over a quarter of a 
century ago by the Finnish residents of Quincy, transacts annually a busi- 
ness in excess of $100,000. 

Copeland St. terminates in Water St.; R. from Water St. on Franklin St. 

7. The John Adams Birthplace (open weekdays 9-6, April 19-^0^. 1 ; adm. 
25^), Adams Sq., is also a small red clapboard salt-box farmhouse built 
in 1 68 1, enclosed by an ancient pole fence with turnstile, with small steep 
winding stairway, huge central chimney, and mammoth fireplace. One 
of the chambers has a false front at its fireplace, the entire panel from 
floor to ceiling swinging to reveal a space by the chimney large enough to 
hold a man in concealment. The central ceiling beams are hand-hewn. 
The inverted gunstock post used in the frame of the house distributes its 
weight equally. In the kitchen is the bole of the giant cedar tree which 
witnessed the notorious Merrymount revels. 


1. Adams and Son 9. Abigail Adams Stone Cairn 

2. Squaw Rock 10. Robert Burns Statue 

3. Colonel Josiah Quincy House n. Granite Trust Building 

4. Vassal- Adams Mansion 12. Stone Temple 

5. Granite Quarry 13. Old Cemetery 

6. Co-operative Market 14. Crane Memorial Public Library 

7. John Adams Birthplace 15. Dorothy Quincy Mansion 

8. John Quincy Adams Birthplace 

34-O Main Street and Village Green 

8. The John Quincy Adams Birthplace (open weekdays 96, April 19 
Nov. 1; adm. 25ff), adjacent, built in 1716, is a red clapboard salt-box 
farmhouse with huge central chimney. 

9. The Abigail Adams Stone Cairn (L), opposite 353 Franklin St., a 
duplicate of the Miles Standish Cairn, marks the spot on the summit 
of the hill where, during the Battle of Bunker Hill, Mrs. John Adams with 
her little son, John Quincy Adams, prayed for the safety of the Colonial 

Retrace on Franklin St. 

10. The Robert Burns Statue, School and Franklin Sts., was erected by the 
Burns Memorial Association of Quincy to honor the poet who 'as a lover 
of Freedom and Democracy penned an ode to Washington.' 

R. from Franklin St. into School St.; L. from School St. into Hancock St. 

11. The Granite Trust Building (tower open) is Quincy 's skyscraper. 

12. The Stone Temple, 'Church of the Presidents, 1 1266 Hancock St., now 
a Unitarian church, was built in 1828 of Quincy granite, and was designed 
by Alexander Parris in the style of the Greek revival. Its white colon- 
naded portico with pediment and the open cupola soften the severe mass 
of the structure. The name is derived from the fact that John Adams and 
John Quincy Adams worshiped and are buried here (crypt open upon 
application to sexton}. 

13. The Old Cemetery, opposite, dates from 1666, and is the burial place 
of many members of the Quincy and Adams families. 

14. The Crane Memorial Public Library, at the rear of the Stone Temple, 
commissioned in 1880, is considered the best of H. H. Richardson's work 
in this field. The single low mass of the front is not broken by the gable 
over the entrance, and the stair turret is unemphasized. Romanesque to 
some degree, the design is also bold Richardsonian, with a notably 
original handling of fenestration, and the dominant Richardson theme 
stress upon function and material powerfully expressed. 

15. The Dorothy Quincy Mansion (open daily, April 19-Nov. 1; adm. 
25 jf), 34 Butler Rd. (corner of Hancock St.), a spacious hip-roofed 
mansion built in 1706-09, was the birthplace and home of the spirited 
girl who became the wife of John Hancock. A feature of the house is a 
secret chamber which repeatedly afforded asylum to pursued Colonial 

R E V E R E . A Beach Beside a City 

City: Alt. 15, pop. 35,319, sett, about 1630, incorp. town 1871, city 1914 

Railroad Station: Revere Center for B. & M. R.R. 

Bus Stations: Revere Center and Point of Pines for Greyhound Bus Lines. 

Accommodations: Several inns and overnight cabins on the Boulevard. 

Swimming: The largest beach in New England; Ocean Pier Swimming Pool 
(adm. 50j), Ocean Pier. 

Dog Racing: Wonderland Park. 

Information: Chamber of Commerce, Beach St. 

REVERE is a city bordering a beach. Block after block stretch out the 
crowded habitations of those who from the Fourth of July till Labor Day 
will house or feed or amuse the vast throngs who cannot frequent expen- 
sive resorts and who take their sea air and their bright lights where they 
can afford it. The three-mile stretch of broad, sandy beach is one of the 
best in Massachusetts. Hundreds of amusement palaces line the prom- 
enade. On the sands, thousands of sun-bathers lounge and caper; thou- 
sands more frolic in the surf. Histrionic barkers cater to the carnival 
spirit of holiday throngs. High overhead, sinuous roller coasters stuffed 
with shrieking humanity dive into abysmal depths. And everywhere there 
is music the swaying rhythm of the dance hall, the hoarse strains of 
the steam organ, the blaring syncopation of the loudspeaker, the unceas- 
ing beat of * canned music.' 

In view of its democratic present, the beginnings of Revere were distinctly 
aristocratic. Back in 1636, the town of Boston parceled off a surplus of 
undistributed land, part of which lay within the confines of what is now 
Revere. The first landowner of Revere was Sir Henry Vane, son of a 
Privy Councillor of England. Chosen Governor of the Massachusetts 
Bay Colony, he received an allotment of two hundred acres of Rumney 
Marsh, as Revere was then called. But his term of office was brief; 
handsome Harry Vane was a romantic idealist ; his openly stated convic- 
tion that all creeds should have equal rights in New England appalled the 
clergy. Sir Harry sailed back to England and Rumney Marsh became 
the property of a dozen or so wealthy gentlemen who, for the most part, 
left it in the hands of tenants or servants. 

The titles to these lands extended only to the beach. In 1812, in a law- 
suit regarding the town's jurisdiction in the matter of digging clams at 
low tide when, the defense maintained, the floor of the ocean was exposed, 
the town won the case on the premise that ' if the sea rolled back to the 
Azores, it would do nothing more than expose undeveloped territory in the 
town of Chelsea.' 

34 2 Main Street and Village Green 

The necessity for reclaiming large areas of marsh and sea grass dis- 
couraged settlers, and until 1710, when the first church was erected at 
Rumney Marsh, community life in this locality progressed slowly. 

For about a hundred years after 1739, when Chelsea separated from Bos- 
ton, Rumney Marsh was the northern part of Chelsea. In 1852, Pullen 
Point broke away as the town of Winthrop. For the next twenty-five 
years North Chelsea was at a complete standstill; then, changing its 
name to Revere in honor of the famous patriot, it experienced a rebirth. 
The Narrow Gauge Railroad running out to its white sandy shore lifted 
Revere out of oblivion and gave it its place in the sun. 


1. Revere Beach (State bathhouse, moderate fee), Revere Beach Parkway, 
is one of Boston's two Coney Islands. 

2. The Masonic Temple, southeast corner of Eustis and Beach Sts.,was 
originally The Church of Christ in Rumney Marsh, built in 1710. Its first 
pastor, the Rev. Thomas Cheever, was suspended from his ministry in a 
neighboring parish for breaking two of the Ten Commandments. At Rum- 
ney Marsh, however, he was greatly beloved for his championship of other 
sinners, and lived to the mellow age of 91, still eloquent in the pulpit and 
active in good works. 

3. The Hastings House (private), southwest corner of Eustis and Beach 
Sts., was built in 1782, and preserves the flavor of a typical old New Eng- 
land farmstead. This effect is created in part by its rambling, weather- 
worn comfortable ells and gables ; in part by its grass-grown yard shaded 
by old trees ; and in part by the two huge clumps of very old lilac bushes 
at its front entrance. 

4. The Slade Spice Mill (open weekdays 10-4), Revere Beach Parkway 
near Broadway, a small, red wooden building, was until 1934 a tidewater 
mill, and one of the old millstones is preserved within, and can still be 
turned. Spice has been ground here for over a century, and the visitor is 
greeted at once, on opening the door, by the pungent smell of mingled 
nutmeg, cinnamon, clove, pepper (red, white, and black), thyme, mar- 
joram, and anise, much of which comes from the far-off Spice Isles of 
Java. A fine buff-colored dust permeates the air. The workers look 
healthy, however, and say that only white pepper makes them sneeze. 

5. A Granite Tablet, corner of Revere Beach Parkway and Railroad St., 
commemorates the so-called Battle of Chelsea Creek, May 27, 1775. In 
the spring of 1775, the British, in need of fresh meat, food, and forage, 
overawed the farmers in and about Chelsea Creek into selling them such 
supplies. The Committee of Safety ordered the patriots of Chelsea and 
thereabouts to move back their cattle, sheep, and horses from the coast 
line. Hog and Noddle Islands (now East Boston) were at that time sep- 

Salem 343 

arated from each other and from the mainland by narrow sea inlets, 
easily forded at low tide. The patriots had just cleared off Hog Island, 
and were preparing to do likewise at Noddle Island when up Chelsea 
Creek to the east came the British schooner 'Diana' and opened fire 
upon the very damply 'embattled farmers.' Fortunately up came rein- 
forcements, and at their head Israel Putnam, America's 'Cincinnatus of 
the Plow' who led his men out waist-deep into the water and returned 
the attack so vigorously that the British, after losing several men, aban- 
doned their ship and rowed home in small boats. The ' Diana ' was stripped 
and then burned by the Continentals, who could not use it themselves as 
the British were holding Boston Harbor. Chelsea Creek, though little 
more than a spirited skirmish, was of chief import because it seemed to 
be the first real American victory of the Revolution, and engendered in 
the ranks of the Continentals an invincible confidence. 

SALEM. New England's Treasure- House 

City: Alt. 13, pop. 43,472, sett. 1626-28, incorp. town 1630, city 1836. 

Railroad Stations: B. & M. R.R., Washington & Norman Sts. 

Airport: Winter Island, U.S. Coast Guard base, private. 

Bus Stations: Greyhound, at Harmon & Kimball's on Central St. 

Piers: Salem Willows Pier, Salem Willows, launches to Marblehead and North 

Shore in summer. Congress St. Bridge, launch for Baker's Island (summer 

only) . 

Accommodations: Several hotels open year round, with no change in rates during 
tourist season. 

Information: Hotel Hawthorne. 

SALEM is one of the historic treasure-houses of New England. Here are 
the haunting shades, not only of Nathaniel Hawthorne, but also of every 
character Hawthorne created, of his old houses impregnated with super- 
natural influences, and of the eerie atmosphere that still lingers in the 
narrow streets which the master of delicate implications frequented. 
Here are the more robust memories of docks and wharves from which 
poured crude wealth in fish and ships' supplies, and into which, after 
many turnovers of cargo, flowed all the exotic treasure of the Indies and 
China. Here stored in old landmarks is the romance of swift clipper 
ships, of bellying sails, of masts stripped for the gale, of sailors' oaths and 
sailors' roaring chanteys, of ambition and avarice, of mansions built by 
merchant princes and delicate women nurtured in them. 

344 Main Street and Village Green 

Salem also possesses architectural treasures so numerous and so varied as 
to re-create in an almost complete synopsis the development of the 
Colonial architecture of New England. From the seventeenth-century 
house, accidentally beautiful in its expression of function, to the sophisti- 
cated maturity of Samuel Mclntire's superb Federal mansions, eloquent 
expressions of each period are scattered throughout the city. Though 
chiefly concentrated about Washington Square, and on Essex, Federal, 
and Chestnut Streets, they occur sporadically throughout the old dis- 
tricts of Salem. Mclntire, a native genius, labored here throughout his 
life; many of his superb houses retain their original beauty, and the dwell- 
ings of the great maritime period after his death partake of the dignity 
and delicacy of detail of the examples which he created. Salem cannot be 
neglected either by the student of the American tradition in architecture 
or by the lover of beautiful houses. 

Salem 's name is the Hebrew Sholom, meaning Peace, but never did a city 
have less of the spirit of peace. It was founded by intellectual revolt, 
and nurtured in dissension. 

In 1626 Roger Conant and a group of emigrants from Cape Ann, after 
the failure of the Dorchester Company's fishing settlement there, chose 
this sheltered site to found a community where they might fish and farm, 
think their own thoughts, and hold their own religious opinions. But 
two years later Governor Endicott and a group of followers arrived and 
trouble began. The Governor was an autocrat; the newcomers thought 
well of themselves; Conant and his friends smarted under their assump- 
tion of superiority; there were wranglings about property rights and com- 
munity regulations. Ultimately the differences were ' adjusted,' and in 
1630 the name Salem was adopted to celebrate peace. Peace, however, 
turned out to be only the briefest truce. Quarrels broke out hotter than 
before. Conant, with his followers, packed up, and, abandoning the 
homes and gardens it had taken them nine years to build and cultivate, 
moved across the North River. 

As the town grew and man became more confident in his dealings with 
nature and less conscious of physical dependence on God, a decline of 
religion threatened. Calvinism made a desperate effort to retake the lost 
trenches and hold what it still had by preaching hell-fire with redoubled 
energy. This proving inadequate, it turned to persecutions of the 
Quakers, causing Roger Williams, the pastor, to flee to escape banish- 
ment in the winter of 1635-36. The Quakers, however, known to be harm- 
less and peaceable folk, found too many sympathizers. Witchcraft per- 
secutions, already popular in Europe, were far more fruitful. 

In 1692, among the servants of the Reverend Samuel Parris was a West 
Indian slave named Tituba, with a talent for voodoo tales which she ex- 
ercised not wisely but too well. Her auditors were young girls, and quite 
naturally Tituba' s grisly tales scared them into fits. When bedtime came 
after a secret seance with Tituba they shuddered and screamed and saw 
things in dark corners. Examined by the village physician, they were de- 

Salem 345 

clared bewitched. The little wretches accused Tituba and two unpopular 
old women. They were questioned with deep gravity; the tale was em- 
broidered; Tituba and the others were charged with consorting with the 
Devil and sentenced to death. 

For a year thereafter in Salem and neighboring towns, the witchcraft 
pestilence raged. Nineteen persons were hanged on Gallows Hill, and at 
least two died in prison. No one was safe. The saintly Mrs. Hale, wife 
of the Beverly minister, was accused. Even the wife of Governor Phips 
was suspected for sympathizing with a prisoner; but that finished the 

Agricultural pursuits predominated in early Salem. Slowly, however, 
during the seventeenth century, commerce and industry got a foothold. 
The protected harbor encouraged trade. By the beginning of the eight- 
eenth century, shipbuilding and allied industries were thriving and ex- 
tensive trade relations with the West Indies and European ports had been 
established. As its city seal, Salem adopted the motto, ' The wealth of the 
Indies to the uttermost gulf.' 

The Revolutionary War turned seafaring Salem to privateering. The 
latter was profitable at first, but during the strict British blockade it 
proved ruinous. Moreover, at the close of the war England prohibited 
all relations with British controlled markets and Salem vessels were 
forced to rely on a meager coastwise trade. 

Then the pendulum swung. The great Chinese market was discovered 
and Salem entered upon its career of maritime glory. In 1785 the stout 
ship 'Grand Turk' sailed out of Salem harbor, China-bound. Following 
her in rapid succession a fleet of thirty-four vessels were put into service 
between Salem and distant Cathay. 

Rarely did they sail direct for the Orient. Around the Horn they went, 
with ports of call along the Northern Pacific Coast for valuable furs, and 
in the Hawaiian Islands for fresh supplies and sandalwood, before they 
set out to do their real trading in China. Then around the Cape of Good 
Hope and home, often touching at European ports. And all the way 
shrewd Yankee captains drove profitable bargains, often turning over 
their cargoes a dozen times. Profits of several hundred per cent were not 
uncommon. Huge wealth was piled up. Promotion was rapid. Wages 
were high. Often a captain had made his fortune and retired by the time 
he was thirty years of age. Many merchants in the Far East believed 
Salem to be a separate country of fabulous wealth. 

The result of this rapid commercial development was a cultural expan- 
sion in the life of the city, and the growth of a romantic background pe- 
culiarly its own. Something of Oriental luxury and richness flowed into 
Yankee Salem. From Canton, the Dutch East Indies, from the Philip- 
pines and Mauritius, came rich and assorted cargoes of tea, chinaware, 
nankeens, silks, fans, feathers, embroidered shawls, coffee, spices, and 
with them glamorous tales of a different way of life in an ancient and 

346 Main Street and Village Green 

fabulous country. Joseph Hergesheimer's novel 'Java Head' portrays 
this period of Salem's glory. 

In 1812 the city was again seriously affected by a war and its ensuing 
depression. Before it could recover again, the Erie Canal was opened and 
New York entered the lists as a serious competitor in foreign and inland 
trade. Moreover, Salem Harbor was not deep enough for the new vessels 
of large draught. 

From this period onward, Salem's position in the world of commerce 
slowly faded out, to be replaced by the growth of industry. In 1848 the 
Naumkeag Steam Cotton Mills were established, and after the Civil 
War numerous tanneries, paint, and shoe factories were founded. The 
great fire of 1914 destroyed a large part of the industrial district and many 
concerns moved to other towns; but Salem is still industrially active in the 
production of cotton goods, shoes, radio tubes, and games. 

TOUR 1 2.3m. 

West from Washington Square on Essex St. 

1. The Gardner-White-Pingree House (property of the Essex Institute; 
open Wed. and Sat. afternoons or by appointment; fee 50^), 128 Essex St., 
built in 1810, was among the last works of the architectural genius Sam- 
uel Mclntire, and is conceded to be his finest work in brick. The house is 
square, with a low third story capped by a cornice and balustraded 
parapet. It has a symmetrical arrangement of marble-headed windows, 
a graceful elliptical porch, and the severity of the high facade is softened 
by broad bands of white marble at each floor level. The interior work is 
exceptionally fine. 

Mclntire, born in Salem in 1757, learned the trade of carpenter and 
joiner from his father, a successful housewright. His initiative and ambi- 
tion made him the most highly skilled American woodcarver of his time. 
Permanent monuments to his memory are the finely wrought Federal 
houses of Salem, their uncompromising lines lightened and enriched by 
Palladian windows, porches with delicate fluted columns, and magnificent 
carved woodwork. 

2. The Essex Institute (open weekdays except holidays 9-5; adm. free), 132 
Essex St., includes a library and a museum. The former contains the 
Ward China Library probably the finest on China and the Chinese in 
the United States logbooks and sea journals, and county and town his- 
tories. Exhibits in the museum consist of Colonial portraits and paintings, 
miniatures and silhouettes, and three period rooms, a kitchen typical of 
1750 and a bedroom and a parlor of 1800. 

The John Ward House (property of the Essex Institute; open daily in sum- 
mer except Sun. and holidays 9-5; adm. 25^) stands in the shady grounds 
to the rear of the main buildings of the Institute. It was built in 1684 

Salem 347 

with wide clapboards, a lean-to roof, and an overhanging second story. 
In the garden are reconstructions of an Old Cobbler's Shop, a 'Cent Shop' 
and a Weaving Room. 

3. The Peabody Museum (open weekdays 9-5; Sundays 2-5; adm. free), 
Essex St., was endowed by George Peabody as the permanent repository 
of a marine collection, including a circle of reflection presented by Na- 
poleon to his navigation instructor; a sextant which served Livingstone 
in the mazes of the Congo; and ship models, nautical instruments, and 
whaling implements. 

L. from Essex St. on Derby Square. 

4. The Old Town Hall (open 9-5) , opposite the Salem Five Cent Savings 
Bank, was built in 1816, and its ground floor was used as a market for 
more than one hundred years. Architecturally the hall is simple and dig- 
nified. Characterized by a gable roof with pedimental treatment accented 
by a fan window, the structure is interesting chiefly for its pleasant sym- 
metrical arrangement of round-headed windows and door, with a Palla- 
dian window as the central feature. 

Retrace Derby Sq.; L. from Derby Sq. on Essex St. 

5. The Witch House (open daily in summer 9.30-5 ; fee 10j), 310^2 Essex 
St., once the residence of Judge Corwin of the notorious witchcraft trials, 
has, unfortunately, been altered by the addition of a modern drugstore in 
front; but the interior remains very much as it was in 1692. 

6. The Ropes Memorial (open Tues., Thurs., and Sat. 2-5; adm. to garden 
any day except Mon.; adm. free), 318 Essex St., is a stately gambrel- 
roof building (1719) enclosed by a graceful wooden fence with carved 
posts. The upper slope of the roof is outlined by a railing. The house 
was owned and occupied by Judge Nathaniel Ropes (1726-74) and his 
descendants for four generations. It contains a rare and valuable col- 
lection of Canton, Nanking, and Fitzhue china and Irish glass. 

7. The Salem Athenaeum (adm. by invitation of a member), 339 Essex St., 
contains, among other rare editions, the Kirwan Library, taken by a 
privateer from an English vessel and used as the basis for his studies by 
Nathaniel Bowditch, the famous mathematician and navigator, a native 
of Salem. 

8. Behind a graceful wooden fence decorated with carved urns, at 393 
Essex St., is the Rev. Thomas Barnard House, a large and delightful 
gambrel-roof dwelling with a pedimented doorway, and two great chim- 

Retrace Essex St.; R. from Essex St. into Flint St.; L. from Flint St. into 
Chestnut St. 

9. Chestnut Street, laid out in 1796, has been called one of the finest 
streets, architecturally, in America. Most of these Federal houses, among 
which are some designed by Mclntire, are three-story, of mellow brick, 
with beautiful exterior detail of porches, columns, and Palladian windows. 
In the rear are charming gardens and picturesque buildings which form an 



appropriate background. Almost every house deserves study. Among 
them, and selected almost at random, are the Pickman-Shr eve- Little 
House, No. 27 (1816), with a classic porch below a Palladian window; the 
similar Dodge-Shreve House, No. 29 (1817), with balustraded hip roof, 
cornice set with modillions, and classic porch; the Mack and Stone 
Houses, No. 21 and No. 23 (1814-15), simple in detail but with elliptical 
colonnaded porches and keyed marble lintels. 

10. Hamilton Hall, on the corner of Cambridge St., was designed by 
Mclntire in 1805. Although somewhat altered, it retains some character- 
istic detail such as the five Palladian windows on the side, each with a 
paneled insert above containing a carved ornament. The famous Mc- 
lntire eagle is preserved in the center panel. 

R.from Chestnut St. into Cambridge St.; R. from Cambridge St. into Broad 

11. The Pickering House (private) stands at the corner of Pickering and 
Broad Sts. Built in 1660 (altered), it is said to be the oldest house in 
Salem proper. The house has been extensively altered, and its medieval 
core is now veiled by excessive ' carpenter Gothic ' work. 

R. from Broad St. into Flint St.; R. from Flint St. into Federal. 

12. The Cook-Oliver House (private), 142 Federal St., benefited greatly by 
that architectural tragedy, the destruction of the Elias Hasket Derby 
Mansion. After Derby's death, Mclntire, who began this dwelling for 
Captain Samuel Cook in 1804, persuaded the Captain to buy the gate- 
posts and much beautiful wood finish of the unoccupied Derby man- 
sion. The fence, with its elaborate gateposts decorated with urns sur- 
mounted by the flame motif, is probably the best of Mclntire's many de- 
lightful fences. The house is typical Mclntire square, three-story 
frame, hip roof, a heavy cornice with large dentils along the eaves, a 
horizontal band, vertically fluted, along the second floor line, finely 
wrought entablatures above the windows, and a porch and doorway 



1. Gardner-White-Pingree House 

2. Essex Institute 

3. Peabody Museum 

4. Old Town Hall 

5. Witch House 

6. Ropes Memorial 

7. Salem Athenaeum 

8. Rev. Thomas Barnard House 
Chestnut Street 
Hamilton Hall 

Pickering House 
Cook-Oliver House 


13. Assembly Hall 

14. Pierce-Nichols House 

15. Washington Square 

16. Statue of Roger Conant 

17. Hawthorne Monument 

18. Narbonne House 

19. House of the Seven Gables 

20. J. C. B. Smith Swimming Pool 

21. U.S. Coast Guard Air Station 

22. Richard Derby House 

23. Custom House 

24. Hawthorne's Birthplace 

25. Forest River Park 

35 Main Street and Village Green 

notable even among the many beautiful doorways of Salem for Mcln- 
tire's free interpretation of the classic orders. 

13. The Assembly Hall (not open), 138 Federal St., an historic Mclntire 
building of 1782, has been remodeled for private use but the elaborate 
match-boarded facade, Ionic pilasters on the second story, and fanlight 
are unchanged. The porch, added later, is elaborately decorated with 
scrolls, festoons, and a heavy grapevine frieze. 

14. The Fierce-Nichols House (owned by Essex Institute), So Federal St., 
is one of the most interesting houses, architecturally, in Salem. This 
magnificent dwelling, built in 1782, the first flower of Mclntire's genius, 
has with its outbuildings been called one of the finest architectural groups 
executed in wood in the United States. The square, three-story exterior 
is of classic simplicity with a Doric pedimented porch and fluted Doric 
pilasters at the corners. Notable is the roof treatment with its balus- 
traded parapet and belvedere. The urns on the gate-posts were carved 
out of solid blocks of wood by the hand of the master. 

L.from Federal St. on North St.; R.from North St. into Bridge St.; R.from 
Bridge St. into Winter St.; R. from Winter St. into Washington Square. 

15. The stately houses of Washington Square, surrounding Salem 
Common, perpetuate the charm and dignity of Salem's past. Included 
among many of architectural interest are the Hosmer-Townsend-Waters 
House, No. 80 (1795), by Mclntire, known for its lovely, enclosed side 
porch and its hip roof rising to a massive central chimney; the Boardman 
House, No. 82 (1785), of beautiful proportion and detail, with an enclosed 
porch; the Baldwin-Lyman House, No. 92 (1818), with its symmetrical 
arrangement of great chimneys joined in pairs; and the distinguished hip- 
roofed Andrew-Sa/ord House, 1818, which uses roof balustrades, heavy 
cornice, and fluted columns on a side portico for decoration, but centers 
its emphasis upon an elaborate Corinthian entrance porch below a 
Palladian window. 

1 6. The Statue of Roger Conant, founder of the city, Washington Square 
and Brown St., was executed by Henry Hudson Kitson. 

TOUR 2 4m. 

South from Washington Square into Hawthorne Boulevard. 

17. The Hawthorne Monument by Bela Pratt, at the head of Hawthorne 
Boulevard, is appropriately placed near the scenes chiefly associated with 
Salem's great literary figure. 

Retrace Hawthorne Blvd.; R. from Hawthorne Blvd. into Essex St. 

1 8. The Narbonne House (private), 71 Essex St., stands almost opposite 
Washington Sq. E. Built before 1671, its steep pitched roof and great 
central chimney proclaim its period. The Dutch door of the lean-to was 
formerly the entrance to a 'Cent Shop,' as described by Hawthorne. 

Salem 351 

R. from Essex St. into Turner St. 

19. The House of the Seven Gables (open daily 10-5; fee 25 f), 54 Turner St., 
is, as the supposed setting of Hawthorne's novel by that name, perhaps 
the most celebrated spot in all historic Salem. Unfortunately for sen- 
timent, there is some grave doubt whether this house is actually the one 
described by Hawthorne. There is even more doubt as to how much of 
the building is authentic. It was certainly greatly restored in 1910, and it 
has been said that a good deal of imagination went into the restoration. 
Its present appearance is weather-beaten and rambling, with seven 
gables, huge chimneys, a lean-to, and a second-story overhang adorned 
with pendrils; it shows strong medieval influence. It was probably built 
in about 1668. 

The House of the Seven Gables is one of three 17th-century dwellings 
clustered about a garden, the others being the Hathaway House (parlor 
and kitchen open; included in the original fee) , built in 1682 and, with its 
overhanging second story and small diamond-paned windows, beauti- 
fully preserved; and the Retire Becket House (open during summer as tea- 
house], built in 1655. 

Retrace Turner St.; R. from Turner St. into Derby St. Straight ahead into 
Fort Ave.; R.from Fort Ave. into Winter Island Road. 

20. The /. C. B. Smith Swimming Pool is a large and inviting salt-water 
cove made by damming the head of Cat Cove. 

R. around swimming pool to Winter Island. 

21. The U.S. Coast Guard Air Station (open 3 to sundown on weekdays; 1 
until sundown on Sat. and Sun.; guide) is a modern, completely equipped 
depot, which includes airplane hangars. 

Retrace Winter Island Rd.; L. from Winter Island Rd. into Fort Ave.; 
straight ahead into Derby St. 

22. The Richard Derby House (open daily 9-5; fee 20j), 168 Derby St., 
built in 1762 and now owned by the Society for the Preservation of New 
England Antiquities, is the oldest brick house in Salem. Except for its 
gambrel roof, it is American Georgian in style, with dentiled cornice, 
pedimented doorway, and four-end chimneys joined in pairs. From its 
small-paned windows, the first of the line of merchant princes could 
watch his vessels unloading almost in his dooryard, or follow with his 
glass their topsails receding beyond the horizon. 

23. The old Custom House, 178 Derby St., built in 1819, where Nathaniel 
Hawthorne once dreamed over his ledgers, looks down along the granite 
finger of Derby Wharf that once beckoned home the vessels of the Derby 
family but which now points only to a harbor empty of ships. In architec- 
ture it is akin to the Federal dwellings of Salem. The Palladian window 
above the Ionic, balustraded portico, the round-headed first-floor win- 
dows, the balustraded parapet, and the cupola are the outstanding archi- 
tectural features. Surmounting the parapet rail is a carved eagle. 

352 Main Street and Village Green 

R. from Derby St. into Union St. 

24. Hawthorne 1 s Birthplace (private), 27 Union St., is a gambrel-roofed 
house built before the witchcraft year, 1692. It is said that the author 
was born (1804) in the left-hand chamber of the second story. In the 
shadows of the old house he spent a shy, solitary boyhood. Though he 
was city port surveyor in 1846, he was a mystic and a recluse by nature 
and entirely unfitted by an abnormal sensitiveness for his duties at the 
Custom House. He realized that actualities must be insisted on in 
America, but his genius reached its full fruition only when he turned to 
romantic fiction. Three volumes of short stories, besides 'The Scarlet 
Letter,' 'The House of Seven Gables,' 'The Blithedale Romance,' and 
'The Marble Faun,' are works of major significance. He created one of 
the best sustained prose styles in American literature. 

Retrace Union St.; R. from Union St. on Derby St.; L. from Derby on 
Lafayette St. (State 1A); L.from State 1A into Clifton Ave. 

25. Forest River Park overlooks the harbor and sea, almost at the city 
limits. Three acres of this park are devoted to Pioneers' Village (open 
until dusk, adults 25^, children 15 <), an accurate reproduction of typical 
units of a Puritan community of about 1630, ranging from dugouts and 
primitive cabins to the 'Governor's Fayre House' with its huge central 
chimney and vast fireplace. Here can be seen the village life in epitome: 
a blacksmith's forge, a saw-pit, a brick kiln, as well as the grim whipping- 
post and stocks; in the garden are the same flowers and herbs that grew 
in the dooryards of the pioneers. 

Below are briefly listed other buildings in Salem worth a visit for their 
architectural significance. 

'The Studio' 1826 2 & 4 Chestnut St. 

Mansfield-Bolles House 1810 8 Chestnut St. 

Hodges-Peele-West 1804 12 Chestnut St. 

Goss-Osgood House 1810 15 Chestnut St. 

Hawthorne's Residence 1846-1847 18 Chestnut St. 

Peabody-Rantoul House 1810 19 Chestnut St. 

Mack and Stone Houses about 1814 21 & 23 Chestnut St. 

Hoffman-Simpson House about 1827 26 Chestnut St. 

Hodges-Webb-Meek House before 1802 81 Essex St. 

Col. Benjamin Pickman House 1743 165 Essex St. Rear 

Lindall-Gibbs-Osgood House 1773 314 Essex St. 

Cabot-Endicott-Low House 1748 365 Essex St. 

Salem Public Library 370 Essex St. 

Wheatland House before 1773 374 Essex St. 

Peabody-Silsbee House 1797 380 Essex St. 

Stearns House (East India Inn) 1776 384 Essex St. 

Captain Edward Allen House 1780 125 Derby St. 
Home for Aged Women (Benjamin W. 

Crowninshield House) (Samuel Mclntire) 1810 1 80 Derby St. 

County Commissioners Building Federal St. 

City Hall (eagle by Mclntire) 93 Washington St. 

Railroad Station 1847 Washington & Derby Sts. 
Bertram Home for Aged Men (Colonel 

George Peabody House) 1818 29 Washington Sq. 

Silsbee-Mott House 1818 35 Washington Sq. 

SOMERVILLE. Traditions of Trade 

City: Alt. 41, pop. 100,773, set t. 1630, incorp. town 1842, city 1871. 

Railroad Stations: North Somerville, off Broadway near Boston Ave.; Somer- 
ville, Park St.; Somerville Junction, 114 Central St.; Winter Hill, Gilman 
Square, for B. & M. R.R. 

Accommodatiom: One hotel. 

Information: Chamber of Commerce, 59 Union Square. 

ONE of the independent municipal spokes radiating from the Boston 
hub, Somerville is a type of the many industrial-residential communities 
that press upon the borders of the capital of the Commonwealth and 
which, proud of their own identity, have stood their ground against 
annexation to Boston. The city is the center of a network of highways 
reaching all New England, and its railroad facilities are unusually good. 

Although part of Charlestown until 1842, Somerville has had a past that 
is distinctly its own. Traditions of trade dominated the early settlers. 
For the early Somervillite, there was little of the frivolous diversion of 
concern about one's neighbor's conduct and beliefs so characteristic of 
his Boston neighbor. 

About the beginning of the nineteenth century, Somerville took on dis- 
tinct individuality. The building of the Cambridge and Charlestown 
bridges to Boston had established the city as an important outpost on 
the direct route from Boston to the north ; but it was the opening of the 
Middlesex Canal through Somerville in 1803 that gave impetus to its 
industrial development. By 1822 the canal had been outmoded by the 
turnpikes, and by 1835 Somerville was a regular stopping-place on the 
new Boston and Lowell Railroad. 

With such transportation advantages, it was not long before the town 
entered upon an era of expansion. Three-fourths of the meat-packing 
of the Commonwealth is carried on in the six packing-houses of the 
city. In the order of their importance, other leading industries are: 
slaughtering, bakery products, confectionery, foundry and machine-shop 
products, beverages, structural iron and steel, printing, automobile 
assembling, coffee-roasting, furniture making, and household and photo- 
graphic equipment. 

Because of its definitely residential character, self-rule is prized in Somer- 
ville. It is this love for self-government that gives the city its vigor and 
its virility. 

354 Main Street and Village Green 

MOTOR TOUR 12.2 m. 

N. from Union Square into Bow St., straight ahead into Summer St. 

1. St. Catherine's Church, 183 Summer St., designed by Maginnis and 
Walsh and executed in 1892 in gray brick with white marble trim, shows 
the influence of the Byzantine style of northern Italy, and of the Gothic. 
It has been termed by authorities one of the most beautiful churches in 
America. The basement is treated as a crypt, its arched vaulted ceiling 
supported by heavy piers. 

Retrace Summer St.; L. from Summer St. into Washington St. 

2. The James Miller Tablet stands at the spot where James Miller, 
aged 65, was slain by the British retreating from Concord and Lexington, 
April 19, 1775. 'I am too old to run,' he said. 

L. from Washington St. into Medford St.; L. from Medford St. into Pros- 
pect Hill Ave. to junction of Munroe St. 

3. The Prospect Hill Tablet commemorates the raising, Jan. i, 1776, of 
the first American flag of 13 stripes. It was unfurled here over the main 
American fortress covering the siege of Boston, where the British were 
entrapped, except for egress by sea, for n months. 

R. from Prospect Hill Ave. into Munroe St. 

4. The Memorial Tower crowns the site of the fortress (Point 3). At 
the base of the tower are five small tablets, one of which reads: 'The 
flower of the British army, prisoners of war who surrendered at Saratoga, 
were quartered on this hill from November 7, 1777, to October 15, 1778.' 
They numbered about 4000 men, of whom half were Hessians. The 
winter was very cold, firewood was scarce, and hardship was extreme. 

L. from Monroe St. into Walnut St.; R. from Walnut St. into Aldersey St.; 
R. from Aldersey St. into Vinal Ave.; R. from Vinal Ave. into Highland 


5. At Central Hill Park is a Civil War Monument, the work of Augustus 
Lukeman, depicting an angel as bodyguard for a marching soldier. 
Adjoining it, directly in front of the Public Library, is a simpler Spanish 
War Monument, by Raymond Porter, in which the treatment of both 
soldier and sailor are markedly realistic. This monument includes com- 
memoration of Americans in the Boxer Revolt in China in 1900, being 
one of the few to do so. 

6. The Public Library (open weekdays 9-9), 35 Highland Ave., contains 
in its central hall a full-size copy of the frieze of the Parthenon at Athens. 
As was the case in the original, the frieze has been tinted in blues and 
greens. Of note, also in the entrance hall, is a bas-relief portrait of Sam 
Walter Foss, author of the poem, 'The House by the Side of the Road,' 
and former librarian (1898-1911). 

Somerville 355 

Retrace on Highland Ave.; R. from Highland Ave. into Sycamore St. 

7. The Oliver Tufts House (private), 78 Sycamore St., was originally 
built on Barberry Lane (Highland Ave.) by Peter Tufts, grandson of 
the Peter Tufts who emigrated to America in 1646, and who operated 
a ferry from Charlestown to Maiden. The house was the headquarters 
of General Lee of the American Army during the siege of Boston. Some 
50 years later Charlotte Cushman, the noted Boston actress, spent her 
childhood holidays at 'Uncle Oliver's Farm.' 

R. from Sycamore St. into Broadway. 

8. Ploughed Hill is the site of a celebrated and distressing incident of 
social history, the burning by an anti-Catholic mob in 1834 of the Ursuline 
Convent. Broadway below the hill, traversed at this point, was in 1775 
a narrow neck of land enclosed on two sides by water. It was the last 
hostile territory crossed by the British on their retreat from Concord 
and Lexington, before they plunged into present-day Charlestown, then 
held by them. Here was also the start of the Middlesex Canal. 

L. from Broadway into Union St.; L. from Union St. into Mystic Ave.; 
R. from Mystic Ave. into Middlesex Ave. 

9. The Ford Motor Plant (visitors by permission), Middlesex Ave., corner 
of Fellsway, is a model assembly unit of the Ford system, capacity 
300 cars daily. 

10. A Marker at junction of Middlesex Ave. and Fellsway indicates where 
Governor John Winthrop built a bark of 36 tons, named 'The Blessing 
of the Bay/ which was launched July 4, 1631. This was probably the 
first vessel built in Massachusetts. 

Sharp (L.) from Middlesex Ave. into Fellsway ;R. from Fellsway into Puritan 

11. The Site of Ten Hills Farm, now covered with modern residences, 
extended from Shore Drive to the Fellsway. Here Governor Winthrop 
spent his first winter in America, afterward maintaining a town house in 
Boston, but frequently visiting his country estate, of which he was very 

L. from Puritan Rd. into Shore Drive; L. from Shore Drive into Mystic 
Ave.; R.from Mystic Ave. into Temple St.; R. from Temple St. into Broad- 

12. The Magoun House (private), 438 Broadway, is a two-and-a-half - 
story gray wooden dwelling, remarkable for its delicate arched fanlight, 
one of the best Colonial specimens remaining in Greater Boston. In 
this house the first printing press in Somerville was operated. 

13. The Old Powder House (L) (not open), facing Powder House Square, 
a circular field-stone structure 40 feet high, with cone-shaped shingled 
roof, was a storm-center of Revolutionary history. Here, on September 
i, 1774, General Gage seized the 250 half -barrels of gunpowder stored in 
it, thereby provoking the Great Assembly of the following day on Cam- 

356 Main Street and Village Green 

bridge Common, when thousands of patriots met ready to fight at once 
if called upon. Judicious counsel postponed the event till the following 
April at Lexington. In 1775 this Powder House became the magazine of 
the American army besieging Boston. The structure was built in 1 703 as 
a gristmill. 

SOUTH HADLEY. Milk, Butter, and Ideas 

Town: Alt. 260, pop. 6838, sett, about 1659, incorp. 1753. 
Transportation: Busses to Holyoke, Granby, Belchertown. 
Accommodations: Two inns open all year round; one in summer only. 
Information: College Inn and Book Shop Inn, South Hadley Center. 

SOUTH HADLEY is a farming and college community on the Con- 
necticut River below the low foothills of the Holyoke range of mountains, 
which give variety to the town's northern horizon. It is characterized by 
shaded streets, broad lawns, and quiet homes, and in the outskirts by 
elm-bordered sunny pastures, on which farms produce milk and butter 
for near-by manufacturing districts. 

Early development was slow. The first meeting house, begun in 1732 and 
still standing, took five years to complete, owing to a violent controversy 
as to its site, during which the opposing parties several times removed 
structural timbers from the frame and hid them. The first minister was 
presently dismissed, but took no notice of his removal, and eventually 
had to be forcibly ejected from the pulpit with a handkerchief stuffed in 
his mouth, to prevent him from praying en route. 

The local Indians, the Norwottucks, were peaceable, but the cruelties of 
invading tribes in the Connecticut Valley, especially at Deerfield, were 
never far out of mind, and the South Hadleyites did not feel safe until 
the Norwottucks were reduced to begging at scattered farmhouses for 
food or cider. 

The Revolution found South Hadley active in the patriot cause. In 1774 
the citizens voted to ' chuse four men to inspect the District about drink- 
ing East India tee.' Two shillings a day were voted ' for training men to 
go at a minute's warning.' 

After the Revolution the town became interested both in manufactures 
and in the development of river navigation by means of locks and canals. 
By 1831 a map of the town shows at South Hadley Falls, a sawmill, a 
gristmill, a button factory, two paper mills, a tannery, and a large 

South Hadley 357 

popular tavern. The leading industry continues to be paper-making, on 
a moderate scale, but farming is a close second. A large Irish immigration 
in the i84o's revived the town's agricultural interests. French-Canadians 
followed, taking to the mills, and there are smaller colonies of German and 
Polish descent. 

For the past century, however, South Hadley has been best known as the 
seat of Mount Holyoke College for women, the oldest of the seven leading 
colleges for women in New England, and the mother of five colleges at 
home and five abroad, notably Mills College in California and the Inter- 
national Institute at Madrid. It has now (1937) one thousand students. 
Courses in the liberal arts are chiefly emphasized, but the curriculum in- 
cludes also excellent courses in science. 

Mary Lyon, founder of the college, was born in 1797 on a farm in near-by 
Buckland, and began teaching at the age of seventeen. She early dis- 
played a scholarship remarkable for those times, as well as earnest con- 
victions relating to the betterment of her sex through intellectual develop- 
ment. While she was teaching at Ipswich in the early i83o's she envisaged 
a permanent seminary for the thorough education of young women of 
moderate means. Her organization of Wheaton Seminary in 1834 (see 
NORTON) was the first step toward her goal. In 1837 Mount Holyoke 
opened its doors as a seminary with Mary Lyon as principal and with 
eighty students, who filled its four-story brick building to capacity. 
Co-operative management of the dormitories was an immediate feature 
which still exists, the students giving one hour's service each day to their 
household tasks, with the primary purpose of furthering training and self- 
reliance in household arts. In 1893 a new charter was issued to Mount 
Holyoke College. From 1900 to 1936, its President was Mary Emma 
Woolley, best known to the general public as an American delegate to the 
International Disarmament Conference at Geneva, the first time in 
history that any woman other than a reigning ruler has been admitted to 
participation in such an international conference. 


N. from the village green on Woodbridge St. (State 116). 

i. The Skinner Museum (open daily 2-5, free) occupies a small former 
church across the road from the beautiful Skinner estate (private), with 
its white house hidden behind formal evergreen trees. An Historical 
Museum is housed in the church, which, without its present spire, was 
the Congregational meeting house of Prescott, purchased and moved to 
its present site during preparations for the flooding of the town of Prescott 
by the waters of the Quabbin Reservoir. 

Retrace State 116 through South Hadley Center. 

358 Main Street and Village Green 

2. The Mount Holyoke College Campus of 270 acres, spreading over a 
naturally beautiful terrain, includes Prospect Hill, an athletic field, tennis 
courts, ample lawns and farm lands, and two small lakes for canoeing, 
swimming, and skating. At the Pageant Field, an open-air auditorium, is 
held the annual May Day Festival. 

The lecture halls and dormitories, mainly of red brick in Tudor style, are widely 
spaced on vivid greensward under fine trees. Outstanding are Mary Lyon Hall, 
which contains the administrative offices, and Dwigkt Memorial Art Building (open 
"weekdays 9-5, Sundays 12-1 ; adm. free), housing